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GENEALOGY COU-ECTION 



J 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 




m 3 1833 01738 9203 



GENEALOGY 

974.6 

C7698A 

1905, 

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JOHN F. DOUTfiif 









VOLUME 



NINE 



ILLUSTRATED HISTORICAL ARTICLES 



CONNECTICUT PIONEERS FOUNDED ANGLO- AMERI 

CAN TEXAS . . ■ . .. • 

CONNECTICUT EDUCATOR'S INFLUENCE ON UNION 

COLLEGE, A 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY OF CON 

NECTICUT, THE . 
DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN, THE 
DEVELOPMENT OF STEAM NAVIGATION, THE 
DAY OF THE VILLAGE PARSON, IN THE . 
FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND, TH E 
GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT, THE 
HIVE OF THE AVERY'S, THE . 
LITERATURE OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE . 
LEGEND AND LITERATURE . . 

LAST OF THE BEECH ERS, THE— MEMORIES ON MY 

EIGHTY-THIRD BIRTHDAY 
MY OLD NEW ENGLAND HOME 
MARK TWAIN— HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY . 
NEW ENGLAND CHILDHOOD, A 
PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT— BLACKSTONE 

MEMORIAL LIBRARY AT BRANFORD 
PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT-NEW BRIT 

AIN INSTITUTE 

SPIRITUALITY AS EXPRESSED IN SONG. THE 

SHAKERS 

VOLCANIC AND SEISMIC DISTURBANCES IN SOUTH 

ERN CONNECTICUT 

WORLD'S GREAT DEBT TO GENIUS, THE— ELI 

WHITNEY 



Prof. George P. Garrison 

George S. Roberts 

Caroline M. Hewins 
Edw. Anthony Spitzka, M.D. 
Seymour Bullock 
Mabel Cassine Holman . 
Rev. Joel S. Ives . 
E. H. Jenkins, Ph.D. 
Mabel Cassine Holman . 
Rev. George M. Stone, D.D. 
Margaret Scoville Dorman 

Isabella Beecher Hooker 
Dr. Ida R. Gridley 



Florbnce E. D. Muzzy . 
Hon. Lynde Harrison . 
Hon. David Nelson Camp, M.A. 
Emily Williams . 
Francis G. Markham . 
William H. Avis . 



Page 

. m 

. 549 

. 161 
. 379 
440,785 
. 795 
. 244 
. 336 
. 395 
75 



. 287 

54 

. 309 

518, 717 



. 493 

. 791 

. 746 

. 68 

. 733 



ILLUSTRATED TOWN ARTICLES 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS . 
HARTFORD -BUILDING OF A MODEL MUNICIPALITY 
BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF HARTFORD 
GROWTH OF TORRINGTON . 
lARTFORD'S EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS . 
HARTFORD THE STRONGHOLD OF INSURANCE 
HARTFORD AS A SHOPPING CENTER 
INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 
INVENTIONS AND MANUFACTURES-HARTFORD 
MODERN FACTORS IN MUNICIPAL PROGRESS- 
HARTFORD 



Julian H. Sterling .... 349 

William F. Henney, Mayor op Hartford . 557 

Edward Bailey Eaton . 

Judge Gideon H. Welch 

Edward Bailey Eaton . 

Edward Bailey Eaton . 

Edward Bailey Eaton . 

Edward Bailey Eaton . 

Edward Bailey Eaton . 

William F. Henney. Mayor of Hartfor: 





97 




. 610 




617. Rl 




. 903 








645. 914 



FRONTISPIECES 

MAN, THINK FOR THYSELF— SONNET . . • Rev. Daniel Hugh Verder 
MEMORIES DEAR TO THE HEART OF THE NEW ENG- 
LAND BORN 

FAIR COOLING SPRAY-POEM .... 



Dr. Frederick II. Willi LMfl 



m 



i 

4*) 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX 



HISTORICAL AND EDUCATIONAL ESSAYS 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY-THE STRUG 

GLE FOR SUPREMACY .... 
AUTUMN REVERIE ..... 

AGE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE, THE . 
APPRECIATION OF ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER 
AFFAIRE D'AMOUR OF MAIDS OF LONG AGO . 
ANCESTRY OF THE PRESIDENTS, THE . 
AN ECCENTRIC CHARACTER OF THE OLD DAYS 

DAVID AUSTIN . 

CUSTOMS OF BURYING THE DEAD 
CONNECTICUT IN LITERATURE . 
CONTEMPORARY THOUGHT— " WHOLE WORLD IS 

THROBBING AND PULSING " . 
CONFESSIONS OF A CLASSICIST, THE . 
DIRECTING THE NEW AND VIGOROUS FORCES 
GROTESQUE INSCRIPTIONS IN GOD'S ACRE . 
HEWING HOMES FROM THE FORESTS . 
HOME LIFE OF ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER . 

HEREDITY , . 

IN THE HOMES OF OUR ANCESTORS-Akticle on 

Pewter . . 

IS THE WORLD GROWING BETTER? 
The Outlook ts Full of Promise . 

(Episcopal) ..... 

We Stand on the Threshold op a New Social World 
(Catholic) ...... 

Education Binds all Mankind into a Union . 

(Hebrew) . . . 

Never was Individual Life Sweeter and Nobler 
(Unitarian) ..... 

Acquainted with the Laws op Nature and op Lipe 
(Universalist) ..... 

Religion Will Be More Rational and Cheerful 
(Congregational) .... 

The Wat to the Triumph op Righteousness . 
(Methodist) . - . . , 

The Dominion of Intelligence and Conscience 
(Universalist) ....'. 

Good Will Finally Win Over All Forms op Evil 
(Methodist) ..... 

We are Passing Through a Period of Transition 
(Baptist) ...... 

Young Men Holders op Future Sentiment . 
(African) ... . . 

Advancing Civilization Observes a Growth . 

(Baptist) 
Obedience to the Great Commandments 

(Episcopal) ..... 

IN THE SILENCE OF THE PINE WOODS . 

INTRODUCTORY-TIIE DEMOCRACY OF THE 

MAYFLOWER 

LIFE OF A PROMINENT PURITAN PASTOR, THE- 

SAMUEL STONE 

LONG JOURNEY ON HORSEBACK IN 1788, A— Tban 
scribed prom Diary op John McClellan by Jessy 

TlUMBULL McC'LELLAN .... 

LETTERS OF A UNITED STATES SENATOR, THE 
MESSAGE FROM THE GOVERNOR, A-UNOFFICIAL 
NEW YEAR'S GREETING, A . 
NOMENCLATURE OF CONNECTICUT FAMILIES 
ORDINATION 8ERVICE OF A CENTURY AGO 
ON THE BANKS OF THE THAMES . 
OLD SLAVE DAYS IN CONNECTICUT 



L. E. Whiton 
Judge Martin H . Smith 
Theodore Sedgwick Gold 
Francis Trevelyan Miller 
Mabel Cassine Holman 
Joel N. Eno, A.M. 

Emily S. Gilman . 
Mary L. D. Feisris 
Alice C. Jennings 

Hon. William F. Henney 
Henry Pynchon Robinson 
Henry Ferguson, M.A,, LL.D, 
Fredebica Craft Diamond 
Theodore Sedgwick Gold 
Ella Burr McManus 
Lovell Hall 

Mrs. Henry Champion . 



Rt. Rev. Chauncey B. Brewster, D.D. 

Rev. Walter J. Shanley . , 

Rabbi Meyer Elkin 

Rev. William S. Morgan, Ph.D. 

Rev. Richmond Fisk, D.D. 

Rev. Azel Washburn Hazen, D.D. 

Rev. W. A. Richard 

Rev. John Coleman Adams, D.D. 

Rev. Arthur H. Goodenough, D.D. 

Rev. George M. Stone, D.D. . 

Rev. Aetius E. Crooke . 

Rev. R. A. Ashworth 

Rev. W. G. Andrews, D.D. 
W. B. Harlow, Ph.D. 

Excerpt prom James H. Beck 

Elizabeth Todd Nash . 



Mary L. D. Ferris 

Hon. Henry Roberts, Gov. of Conn. 

Abiram Chamberlain, Ex-Gov. of Conn. 

Joel N. Eno, A.M. 

Judge Martin H. Smith 

Lillian Ione Young 

Judge Martin H. Smith 



I] 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX 



PUBLIC CONSCIENCE, THE . 
PURITAN IN LITERATURE, THE . 
POWER OF SONG IN AMERICAN LIFE, THE 
RELIGIOUS LIFE IN NEW ENGLAND A CENTURY AGO 
REMINISCENCES OF OLD SLAVERY DAYS IN CON 

NECTICUT .... 
TRUE STORY OF THE REGICIDES, THE 
WHO WERE THE PURITANS ? 
WHAT IS A TORY? 
WORK OF EDUCATION, THE . 



Pres. Arthur T. Hadley . . * 697 

Charles Frederick Johnson, M.A.. L.H.D. 83 
Francis E. Howard . . . ttB 

Mrs. E. L. Morkis «7 



Judge Martin H. Smith 

P. Henry Woodward 

Joel N. Eno, M.A. ... 49 

Mary L. D. Ferris . 95 

Flavel S. Luther. Ph.D.. LL.D. 



POETRY 



ALONG THE WAY .... 

AT THE CLOSE OF DAY I KNELT-SONNET 

AT THIRTY-FIVE-SONNET 

AWAKENING, THE 

AVE ET VALE 

AT TWILIGHT 

ADVERSITY 

BESIDE THE SEA . 

DEDICATION— TO SAMUEL L. CLEMENS (MARK 

TWAIN) ON HIS SEVENTIETH BIRTHDAY 
DEATH OF AUTUMN, THE . 
FROM RISE TO SET OF SUN . 
FRAGMENTS-FROM THE ROSE MAIDEN 
GOD AND MAN— A PARABLE . 
GOLDEN SUNSET DIPPING TO THE SEA, THE 
GREEN HILLS OF MY FATHERLAND, THE 



LIFE'S SYMPHONIES . 

MY CONVOY .... 

NIGHT WIND'S LULLABY, THE 

ON FINDING AN INDIAN ARROW HEAD 

O THOU ENTHRONED— SONNET . 

ON A VOLUME OF GENEALOGY 

ON THE HILLTOPS 

PASTORAL REVERIE . 

PLAINT OF THE PARK, THE . 

ROSE AND THE NIGHTINGALE, THE 

SUCCESS 

STAND, THE GROUND'S YOUR OWN ! 
SONNET TO KNOWLTON 

WtNTER 

WHEN DAYLIGHT DIES 

WHEN THE BROOKS ARE LAUGHING 



Howard Arnold Walter 



Howard Arnold Walter 


sou 

. 307 


Alice Stead Binney 


. 460 


Katherine Gilman Grou 


. 538 


Kate Woodward Noble 


. 54« 


Melicent E. Humason . 


. 555 


Alice D. Plongcon 


. 751 


Ellen Brainerd Peck . 


. 811 




. 685 


Augusta H. Hunter 


. 812 


Judge Daniel J. Donahoe 


17 




. 60 


Dr. Louis Smirnow 


. 689 


Howard Arnold Walter 


. 476 


Reprinted Poem prom Laura Hawley 


Thurston .... 


. 489 


Henry Sherman Smart . 


. 807 


Anna J. Granniss 


. 257 


Ruth E. Putney .... 


. 802 


Angelina Tuttle 


53 


Rev. Daniel Hugh Verder 


. 220 


Angelina Tuttle .... 


. 517 


Josephine Canning 


. 764 


John H. Guernsey- 


. 348 


Anna J. Granniss 


. 69» 


Dr. Frederick H. Williams . 


. 236 


Katherine Gilman Grou 


. 318 


Reprint prom John Pierpont . 


. 48$ 


Frank P. Foster, Jr. . 


. 752 


From Book op Anna J. Grannie 


. 61 


John H. Guernsey 


. 434 


Joel N. Eno, M. A. 


. 470 



ILLUSTRATED ART ESSAYS 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF A CONNECTICUT SCULPTOR- 
PAUL BARTLETT 

CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 

Ben Foster ..... 

A Forest Walk .... 

Autumn Morning .... 

The Old Love Lane .... 

The Old Lighthouse at New Haven Harbor 

Ships That Pass in the Night 

The Closing Hour op Day . 
CARICATURES OF THE PURITANS 
HOMESTEADS OF OUR CHILDHOOD 



Herbert Randall 

Alice Sawtelle Rand am. 
Daniel F. Wentwortu . 
Daniel ¥. Wentwortu . 
Daniel F. Wentwortu . 
Gardner A. Reckard 
Gardner A. Reckard 
Gardner A. Reckabd 

Plates Loaned by John 11. Da 



3*9 
139 
280 

na 

fcM 

M 



III 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX 



ILLUSTRATED PICTURESQUE 

CONNECTICUT PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDINGS 

COUNTRY LIFE IN CONNECTICUT 

The Old Lane Thro' the Woodland Near John Brown's Birthplace in Torrington 

Harvest-Time at the Old Home— Scene in the East Canaan Valley . 

The Dam Above the Mill Where we Played as Boys 
. Joyous Days Before Youth Pled— Scene at Twin Lakes at Salisbury 

The Old Swimming Hole Down at the Bend of the River 

The Gorge Where the Wild Things Ran— Scene on the Housatonic Near Canaan 

The Old Homestead Where Sturdy Manhood Expands with Nature 

The Little Home in the Valley— Scene in West Norfolk 

Turning the Wheels— Scene in Winsted ..... 

The Lake at the Mountain Side— Scene in Winsted 

The Village Across the Lake— Scene in Lakeville 

A Glimpse Down the Valley— Scene in Canaan .... 

A Vision of the Never-Ending Beauties of Country Life in Connecticut 

Springtime . . . . 

The Old Mill in the Woods ....... 

The Gorge Thro' which Flows the Housatonic River . 

The Old Homestead in the Naugatuck Valley . 

The Passing of the Mill at West Granby ..... 

A Summer Scene on the Farmington River ..... 

The Brook in the Woodland at Robertsville .... 

Recalling the Summer Days when Youth Led to the Mountain Brooks 

Where Tired Feet were Bathed in Childhood Days 

Along the Village Street • • • • . ■ 

The Cove where the Roach and Shiners Bite .... 

The Falls of the Housatonic ....... 



BEAUTIFUL VIEWS OF HARTFORD'S PARKS 

The Grove at Rivekside Park .... 

The Old Rose Garden at Elizabeth Park . 

The Field Stone Arch Bridge at Elizabeth Park 

The Wading Pool at Riverside Park 

The Walk Under the Trees at Barnard Park 

The Rustic Bridge and Fountain at Elizabeth Park 

The Old Layout with Walk Inside at Park Terrace 

Entrance and Walled River at Bushnell Park . 

Sheep Grazing at Elziabeth Park 

The Aquatic Pond in Bushnell Park 

Corning Fountain and Memorial Arch in Bushnell Park 

An Inviting Entrance into Bushnell Park 

Simple Nature in Riverside Park 

A Driveway in Elizabeth Park 

The Lakelet at Elizabeth Park 

The Laurel Pond at Elizabeth Park 

A Glimpse of the City from Elizabeth Park 

The Rose Garden at Elizabeth Park 

The Grove and Park River in Pope Park 

The Tennis Courts at Pope Park 

A Drive thro' the Wood in Goodwin Park 

The Pine Land in Goodwin Park 

The Lakelet in Goodwin Park . 

An Autumn Day in Goodwin Park 



BEAUTIFUL HOMES OF HARTFORD 

"Abmbmbah," Estatk ok Mrs. Samuel (Elizabeth H.) Colt, Wethersfield Avenue 

The Lake at •' Akmsmeak," the Colt Estate 

Residence and Grounds of James J. Goodwin, Woodland Street 

The Rev. Francis Goodwin Estate, Woodland Street 

Woodland Street Home of Theodore Lyman 

Asylum Avenue Residence of Charles R. Forrest . 



IV 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX 



Home of Dr. Charles C. Beach, Woodland Street 
William C. Skinner, Woodland Street 
Charles E. Chase, Prospect Avenue 
William A. Sanborn, Farmington Avenue 
Henry C. Judd, Highland Street 
John R. Buck, Forest Street 
Lucius A. Barbour, Washington Street 
Morgan G. Bulkeley, Washington Street 
Mrs. William H. Lee, Washington Street 
Mrs. Leverett Brainard, Washington Street 
Mrs. Francis R. Coolet, Farmington Avenue 
William L. Collins Estate, Asylum Avenue 
Dr. Gurdon W. Russell, Farmington Avenue 
William D. Hubbard, Highland Street 

BURDETT LOOMIS, PROSPECT AVENUE 

Dr. Oliver C. Smith, Farmington Avenue 

Philo W. Newton, Prospect Avenue 

Henry D. Bradburn, Prospect Avenue 

Arthur L. Foster, Prospect Avenue 

Senator Dixon Place, Farmington Avenue 

Lafayette E. Pike Residence 

Music Room in Pike Residence 

Mrs. Mary Storrs, Farmington Avenue 

Charles King, Windsor Avenue . 

Joel L. English, Fern Street 

Charlotte M. Ely, Main Street . 

Henry P. Hitchcock, Garden Street . 

L. B. Norton, Farmington Avenue 

Governor Henry Roberts, Lafayette Street 
PORTRAITS OF DISTINGUISHED SONS OF CONNECTICUT 
LANDMARK OF EARLY REPUBLIC-OLD JEROME HOUSE AT FOREST VILLE 
FIREPLACE AT ELM TREE INN-FARMINGTON, CONNECTICUT . 



609 
861 
862 
863 
864 
865 



868 
869 
870 
871 
872 
873 
874 
875 
87« 
877 
878 
879 



CONNECTICUT 



3S4 

778 



ILLUSTRATORS 



E. A. SHERMAN 
MRS. J. C. KENDALL 
DELAMATER 
K. T. SHELDON 
DR. IDA R. GRIDLEY 
R. E. O'BRIEN 
B. H. SCHENCK 
B. B. WELCH 
JOHN N. BROOKS 
ROBERT WELLER 



Mrs. N. W. HOLLEY 

A. B. FORD 

S. C. WORKMAN 

WILLIAM H. OVEREND 

DANIEL F. WENTWORTH 

GARDNER A. RECKARD 

DR. EDW. ANTHONY SPITZKA 

FLORENCE E. D. MUZZY 

HAROLD DOUGLAS 

WARNER PHOTOGRAPH CO. 



J OH ANN OLSEN 
WILLIAM G. DUD1 FA 
SCHRE1BER 
RANDALL STUDIO 
FRED. R. BREWER 
W. H. LELANO 
LOUB9 RANSOM 
WILLIAM L. POSTER 
H. PHELPS ARMS 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX— GENEALOGICAL 



Andrews, 

Rebecca, 191 

Herbert, 419 

Elizabeth, 927 

Thomas, 927 

Jonathan, 927 

Hannah, 927 

Thomas, 927 
Atwater, 

Elizabeth Ann, 192 
Abell, 

Robert, 192 

Caleb, 192 

Joanna, 192 
Abbe, 

Hepzibah, 194 

Samuel, 194 

John, 194 

Hepsibah, 194 
Alling, 

Joanna, 415 

Samuel, 415 

Riger, 415 

John, 415 

Jonathan, 415 
Alexander, 

Jane. 418 
Allen, 

Sarah, 419 

Mary, 925 

Samuel, 925 
Bushnell, 

Ephraim, iyi 

William, 191 

Rebecca, 191 

Ephraim. 191 

James, 191 

Thomas, 191 

Alexander, 191 

Ephriam, 413 

Mary, 413 

Martha, 413 

Ephraim, 413 

Jedidiah, 414 

Sarah, 414 

William, 414 

William, 414 

Francis, 414 

Rebecca, 414 

James, 414 

Mary, 414 

Annie, 417 

Rebecca. 417 
Bailey, 

Joshua, 191 

Amos, 192 

Joshua, 192 

Rhoda, 192 

Nathaniel, 192 

Asa, 192 

John, 415 
Badcock, 

Zubulon, 192 

Mary, 192 

Zeruiah, 192 



Babcock, 

Zebulon, 192 
Bliss, 

Thomas, Jr., 193 

Elizabeth, 193 
Buell, 

William, 193 

Mary, 193 
Belding, 

John, 193 

Lydia, 193 
Ballamy, 

Matthew, 194 
Brigham, 

Cephas, 194 

Uriah, 194 

Daniel Robertson, 194 

Edwin, 194 

Lucia, 194 

Sally, 194 

Maria, 194 

Julia, 194 

Emily, 194 

Anne, 194 

Sebra, 194 

Lucy, 194 
Brown, 

Araba, 194 

Francis, 415 
Burr, 

Deborah, 413 

John, (Col.) 413 
Bull, 

Sarah, 414 
Bennett, 

Abigail, 414, 419 

Isaac, 419 

Caleb, 925 
Bishop, 

James, 414, 419 

James, .414 

Amos, 414 . 
Bunce, 

Thomas, 416 
Bronson, 

Samuel, 416 

Isaac, 416 
Baker or Backus, 

Alice, 417 
Bulkley, 

Dorothy, 417 
Bur well, 

Sarah, 417 

Ephraim, 417 
Beecher, 

Thomas, 417 
Browne, 

Abijah, 418, 
Deliverance (Deacon), 
418, 

Shubael (Cap.), 418 
Brockleband, 

Jane, 419 
Blatchley, 
Miriam, 419 



Bostwick, 

Eunice, 419 
Beers, 

Esther, 925 
Bump, 

Jacob, 925 
Bates, 

Guernsey, 925 

James, Jr., 925 
Camp, 

Anne, 191 

Riverius, 418-419 

Israel, 418-419 

Jonathan, 419 
Cornwall, 

William (Sergeant), 193 

Mary, 193 
Chapman, 

Sarah, 193 
Crandall, 

Catherine, 193 
Clark, 

George, 194, 419, 925, 927 

Huldah, 418-419 
Caulkins, 

Deborah, 195 
Cole or Coles, 

Abigail, 195 

Joseph, 195 

James, 415 
Cone, 

Elijah, 195 

William Whitney, 195 
Clinton. 

Elizabeth, 414 
Clarke, 

George, 414, 

George, 414, 
Chidsey, 

Sarah, 415 

John, 415, 
Coe, 

Susanna, 415 

Robert, 415 
Church, 

Ruth, 416 

Timothy (Col.), 416 

Abigail, 416 

Sarah, 417 
Curtis, 

Dorcas, 416 

Jonathan, 416 
Cross, 

Anne, 417 

Robert, 417 
Cogswell, 

Kezia, 417 

Huldah, 417 

Nathaniel, 417 
Canfield, 

Cornelia, 418 

Samuel (Col.), 418 



VI 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX— GENEALOGICAL 






CoVELL, 

Abigail, 418 
Stephen, 418 
Stephen, 418 
Coffley, 

Agnes, 419 
Coley, 
Mary, 419 925, 927 
Samuel, 927 
Cadwell, 

Thomas, 926 
Crampton, 

Mindwell, 926 
Charles, 

Mary, 927 
Dudley, 

Miss, 191 
Deming, 
Sarah, 193 
Ebenzer, 193 
Jonathan, 416 
Dodge, 
Jemina, 193 
Israel, 193 
John, 193 
Tristram, 193 
Israel, 193 
John, 193 
William, 193 
Samuel, 193 
Thomas, 193 
Dickinson, 
Jesse, 194 
Oliver, 194 
George, 194 
Thomas, 416 
Denison, 

Abigail, 414 
Doolittle, 

Abraham, 415 
Disbrow, 

Elizabeth, 416 
Eleanor, 416 
Dibble, 
Wakefield, 418 
Thomas, 418 
Day, 

Mary, 926 
Desbrow, 

Mary, 926 
Eddy, 

Hiram (Rev.), 192 
Edwards, 
Mary, 415 
William, 415 
Richard, 415 
Ann, 415 

Richard (Rev.), 415 
William, 415 
Eaton, 
Jonathan, 416 
John, 416 
Sarah, 416 
Everton, 
Joanna, 416 



Eno, 

James, 419, 927 

Sarah, 927 
Foote, 

Ann, 191 

Nathaniel, 191 
Fowler, 

Ambrose, 193 

William, 193 

Noah, 925 
Fellows, 

Ephraim, 417 
Goodwin, 

James, 192 

Mary, 192 

John (Deacon), 193 

Sarah, 193 
Goldsberry, 

Delay Fletcher, 193 
Graves, 

George (Deacon). 193, 416 

417 

Sarah, 193-417 
Sarah, 417 
Sarah, 416 
Gold, 
Deborah, 194 
Nathan (Major) 194. 92^ 
Deborah, 414, 419 
Guernsey, 
Joseph, 416 
John, 416 
Joseph, 416 
Joseph, 416 
Anne, 925 
Gallop, 

John (Capt), 417 
Gibbard, 
Sarah, 417 
William, 417 
Given s, 
John, 418 
Mary, 418 
Elizabeth, 418 
Gavet, 

Mary, 419 
Getchell, 

Miss, 419 
Gaylord, 

Johanna, 926 
Gerry, 
— 926 
Hale, 

Sir Matthew, 191 
Thomas (Deacon). 192 
William, 193 
Mary, 193 
Thomas, 925 
Elisha. 925 
Ephraim. 925 
Elisha, 925 
John, 926 
Hopkins, 
Rhoda, 191 



Hull, 
Andrew, Sr., 192 
Lowly Cook, 192 
Demaris, 192 
Lowly, 192 
Hannah, 192 
Demaris, 192 
Andrew, 192 
Sarah, 192 
Ursula, 192 
Mary, 192 
Esther, 192 
Susan, 192 
Louisa, 192 
Rebecca, 413 
Josiah, 927 
Hotchkiss. 

Jason, 192 
Hall, 

Dr. 192 
Hide, 

William, 192 
Hyde, 

William, 192 
Heald, 

John, 192 
Harvey, 
Martha, 194, 926 
Edmund, 194, 926 
Hindsdale, 
Hannah. 194 
Robert (Deacon), 419 
Huthwit, 
Judith, 413 
John, 413 
Hill, 
Sarah, 414 
John, 925 
Philip, 925 
Daniel, 925 
Gray, 925 
Rebecca, 925 
John, 925 
Holt. 
Mary. 415 
William, 4T5 
Hayes, 
Hannah, 414 
George. 414 
Seth, 414 
Eli, 414 
George, 414 
Plinn, 414 
Hannah, 414 

926 

Ruth. 926 
Lydia, 926 
Dimice. 926 
Humes, 
Nicholas, 416 
Margaret, 410 
Richard. 416 
Haynes. 
Joseph (Rev.), 41 7 
John (Gove mo r\ 417 



VII 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX— GENEALOGICAL 



Hemingway, 

Abraham, 417 
Hayden, 

Elizabeth, 418 
Harrison, 

Thomas (General), 418 
Holcomb, 

Elizabeth, 419 927 

Thomas, 419, 927 

Benaiah, 927 

HlNE, 

Anna, 419 
Hickox, 

Rachel, 927 
Ingham, 

Samuel (Dr.), 926 

Joseph, 926 
Jones, 

Hannah, 192 

Thomas, 192 

Thomas, 926 

Sarah, 926 
Johnson, 

John, 193 

Joseph, 193 

William, 193 
Kingsbury, 

Elizabeth, 194 
Kellogg, 

Joseph (Lieut). 416 
Kinne or Kinney, 

Kezia. 417 

Daniel, 417 
Leete, 

William, 190 

Tohn, 190 

Thomas, 190 
Lewis, 

Aaron, 191 
Lawrence, 

Laura, 192 
Linsley, 

John, 195 
Long, 

Mary, 413 
Lee, 

Joseph, 414, 419 
Lyon, 

Sarah, 416 
Lake, 

Hannah, 417 
Leach, 

Sarah, 417 
Lord. 

Richard, 417 
Mull, 

Sarah, 192 
Moss. 

Benjamin, 195 

John, 195 

John, 195 
Miller, 

Jonathan, 415 
Meekins, 

Mehitable, 416 



Merchant, 

Rachel, 416 
Morrow, 

418 

Marks, 

Mary, 418 
Markham, 

Priscilla, 925 
Murray, 

Seymour, 926 

John, 926 
Norton, 

Daniel, 192 
Needham, 

Edna, 194 
Nash, 

Sarah, 413 

Thomas, 413 

Mary, 415 
North am, 

Dorothy, 926 

Jonathan, 926 
Potter, 

Mary, 192 
Patchen, 

Abel (Captain), 192 
Post, 

Margaret, 192 
Palmer, 

Samuel, 194 
Pond, 

Samuel 194, 419 

Lois, 414, 419 
Perrin, 

Thomas, 195 
Pratt, 

414 

Charity, 414 

Edward. 414 

Jeremiah, 414 

Temperance, 414 

Hannah, 414 

John, Jr., 414 

John, 414, 926 

William, 414, 926 

Asa, 414 

John, 414 
Pennock. 

Thankful, 414 
Page, 

Ruth, 416 
Prindle, 

Eleazar, 416, 926 

William, 926 
Payne, 

Noah Smith. 417 

Stephen, 417 

Ebenezer Leach, 417 

Stephen. 417 

Bushnell. 417 
Peck, 

Hannah, 419 

Joseph, 419 



Peters, 

Samuel (Rev.), 418 

John, 418 
Phelps, 

William, 418 
Pillsbury, 

Joshua, 419 

Daniel, 419 

Job, 419 
Pendleton, 

Deborah, 925 

Joseph, 925 
Pease, 

John, 926 
Ransom, 

Joseph, 192 

Matthew, 192 
Robertson, 

Daniel, Jr., 194 

Betty 194 

Daniel, 194 

Lydia, 194 

Susannah, 194 

Theodosia, 194 

Susannah, 194 

Hannah, 194 

Daniel, 194 

Amelia, 194 

L. J. 194 

ROYCE, 

Robert, 195 

Elizabeth, 195 

Joshua, 195 

Nathaniel, 195 

Jonathan, 195 
Root, 

Joseph, 413 

Susanna, 413 

Gideon, 413 

Olive, 413 

Mabel, 413 

Justus, 413 

Thomas, 413 
Rose, 

Robert, 413 

Elizabeth, 413 
Ross, 

John, 418 

James, 418 

Hugh, 418 

Moses, 418 

Robert, 418 
Richards, 

Elizabeth, 418 
Shute, 
^Anna, 190 
Slade, 

Maria, 190 

Edward, 190 
Sears, 

Rachel, 192 

Elkanah, 192 
Sweet, 

Freelove. 193 

Joseph, 193 



VIII 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX— GENEALOGICAL 



SlLSBY, 

Lydia, 194 
Seymour, 

Richard, 415 
Sackett, 

Sarah, 415 
Somerboy, 

Abiel, 419 

Anthony, 419 

Abigail, 419 

Richard, 419 

Henry, 419 

Mary, 419 
Shepardson, 

Jared, 416 
Stevens, 

Henry, 416 

Eliakim, 416 

Elizabeth, 417 

Henry, Jr., 417 
Smith, 

Ruth, 416 

Margaret, 416 

Andrew, 417 

Ruth, 417 

Backus, 417 

Ichabod, 418 

Jerusha, 418 

Paul, 418 

Cotton Mather (Rev.), 418 

Jared, 926 
Stewart, 

Elisha, 417 

William, Jr., 417 

William, 417 
Sanford, 

Andrew, 417 
Service, 

418 

Stedman, 

Elizabeth, 418 
Slew, 

Dianna, 925 
Spencer, 

Mary, 926 

Elizabeth, 926 
Stebbins, 

Edward (Deacon), 926 

Elizabeth, 926 



Talcott, 

John, 191 

John, 191 

Anne, 191 

John, 191 

John, 191 
Treat, 

Bethuel (Capt.), 191 

Mary, 191 

Susannah, 191 

Robert, 191 
Treadway, 

James, 192 
Terrill, 

Charles, 193 

Job (Deacon), 417 

Elizabeth, 417 

Roger, 413, 926 
Tennant, 

Samuel, 193 

TlTHERTON, 

Susanna, 413 
Tully, 

Samuel, 414 
Tuttle, 

Phebe, 414 

Elizabeth, 415 
Terry, 

Abigail, 416 
Talmadge, 

Enos, 417 

Talmadge, 417 
Tapp, 

Edmund, 417 
Tyler, 

Jane, 418 

Eunice, 926 
Thurber, 

Priscilla, 418 

James, 418 
Thrall, 

William, 418 

Philura, 418 
Turney, 

Rebecca, 926 

Robert, 926 

Robert, 926 

Benjamin, 926 



Ufford, 

Sarah, 413, 926 

Thomas, 926 

Isabel, 926 

Abigail, 926 
Warner, 

Thomas, 191 
Wait, 

Chloe, 191 
Wooster, 

James, 191 
Warren, 

Abraham, 191 

William, 191 

Temperance, 191 
Webb, 

Samuel, 192 

Richard, 192 

Hannah, 192 
White, 

Nathaniel (Capt. I 

Elizabeth, 193 
Wood, 

Sarah, 194 
Ware, 

Sarah, 195 
Williams, 

Hannah, 414, 419 

Thomas, 419 

Rebecca, 419 

John, 416 

Sarah, 416 
Wheelock, 

Eleazar, 414 
Watson, 

John, 416 
Witter or Winter. 

Sarah, 416 
Wakefield. 

Mary, 418 
Walker. 

Joseph, 418 
With am, 

Rebecca, 419 
Wilson, 

Robert, 926 
Young, 

Tryphena. 414 
Yale, 

Hannah. 417 



103 



FAMILY GENEALOGIES 



PERKINS FAMILY, by Donald Lines Jacobus, including marriages, iq6 

PERKINS FAMILY DIARY. C. L. Haight, 666 

LINES FAMILY, by Donald Lines Jacobus 420-650 

DYMOKES or DIMOCKS. Joel N. Eno, A. M 

And much Genealogical Research throughout contents of this volume 



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The Connecticut Magazine 



volume IX 



BEGINNING SERIES OF 1905 



NUMBER I 



An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Edited by Francis Trevelyn Miller — Published in four books to the annual 
volume. Following is a list of contents in this edition, well illustrated, and 
ably written. Compiled and produced by The Connecticut Magazine Com- 
pany in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford, Connecticut. 



Art Cover 



Designed by E. A. Sherman of Hartford. 



Frontispiece— Memories Dear to the Heart of the New England Born 
Introductory 

Country Life in Connecticut , 

The Old Lane Thro' the Woodland Near John Brown's Birthplace in Torrington 

Harvest-Time at the Old Home — Scene in the East Canaan Valley 

The Dam Above the Mill Where We Played as Boys 

Joyous Days Before Youth Fled — Scene at Twin Lakes at Salisbury 

The Old Swimming Hole Down at the Bend of the River 

The Gorge Where the Wild Things Ran— Scene on the Housatonic Near Canaan 

The Old Homestead Where Sturdy Manhood Expands With Nature 

The Little Home in the Valley — Scene in West Norfolk 

Turning the Wheels of Industry — Scene in Winsted 

The Lake at the Mountain Side — Scene in Winsted 

The Village Across the Lake— Scene at Lakeville 

A Glimpse Down the Valley — Scene in Canaan 

A Vision of the Never-ending Beauties of Country Life 
From Rise to Set of Sun— A Poem . . . daniel j 

The Sparrow's Flight 



The Song of Pleasure 
The Song of True Love 
The Song of Fruition 
Nocturne . 



in Connecticut 
donahoe of Middletown 



Aristocracy Versus Democracy — The Struggle for Supremacy 



Who Were the Puritans 

On Finding An Indian Arrow Head 

My Old New England Home 

Illustrations from Drawings 
Fragments — From the Rose Maiden 
Winter— A Poem .... 
Hewing Homes From the Forests 
The Homesteads of Our Childhood 



-A Poem 



L. E. WHITON 

of New London 

. joel n. eno, m.a. of New Haven 

. Angelina tuttle of Wallingford 

dr. ida r. gridley, late of Collinsville 



From book of anna j. granniss of Plainville 

. theodore sedgwick gold of Cornwall 

Six photographic plates loaned by 

john h. dickerman of Mt. Carmel 

Volcanic and Seismic Disturbances in Southern Connecticut . • francis j. markham 
Five Illustrations from Photograpns formerly of East Hampton and Meriden 

Literature of the Louisiana Purchase . rev. george m. stone, d.d. of Hartford 

Illustrations from Photographs and Sketches 

The Puritan in Literature .... charles Frederick johnson, m.a., l.h.d. 
Professor of English Literature, Trinity College, Hartford 



2 

3 

4-16 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 
24 
26 
30 
32 
33 

49 

53 

54 

60 
61 
62 

65 

68 

75 
83 



Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of the second class. 
This Edition mailed in December, 1901, for first quarter of 1905-January, February and March. 



The Connecticut Magazine 



volume IX 



BEGINNING SERIES OF 1905 



NUMBER I 



Religious Life in New England a Century Ago • mrs. e. l. morris of New Haven 

In the Homes of Our Ancestors— Article on Pewter, mrs. henry champion of New Haven 
What Is a Tory . . • mary l. d. ferris, Former Editor of American Author, 

Published by Society of American Authors 
The Growth of Torrington • • gideon h. welch, Judge of Court of Common Pleas 

of Litchfield County 
48 Illustrations from Photographs by John N. Brooks, A. B. Ford, S. C. Work- 
man, T. M. V. Doughty and others 

The Industrial History of Torrington , edward bailey eaton 

28 Illustrations from Photographs 

Connecticut Artists and Their "Work — Ben Foster, alice sawtelle randall of Hartford 
5 Illustrations from Photographs by Herbert Randall 

Reminiscences of Old Slavery Days in Connecticut, judge martin h. smith of Suffield 
The Life of a Prominent Puritan Pastor — Samuel Stone, Elizabeth todd nash of Madison 

A New Year's Greeting by abiram chamberlain of Meriden 

Governor of Connecticut 

The Development of the Public Library of Connecticut Caroline m. hewins of Hartford 

16 Illustrations from Plates loaned by State 

Including: 

Reading Room — Kent Memorial Library, Suffield 

Kent Memorial Library in town of Suffield, Connecticut 

The George Maxwell Memorial Library at Rockville 

Public Library in town of Southington, Connecticut' 

Taylor Memorial Library at Milford 

Scoville Memorial Library Salisbury 

Public Library at Derby, Connecticut 

Peck Memorial Library in town of Berlin, (Kensington) Connecticut 

Dunham Hall Library, Willimantic Linen Co., Willimantic . 

Public Library in town of Thompson, Connecticut 

East Hampton Public Library in town of Chatham 

Public Library in Borough of Wallingford, Connecticut 

Old Library at Columbia, Connecticut 

Free Public Library, Danielson, town of Killingly, Connecticut . 

Cossitt Library in town of Granby, Connecticut .... 
A Long Journey on Horse-back in J788 Transcribed from Diary of John McClellan, 

by Jessy Trumbull McClellan of Woodstock 
Studies in Ancestry— Genealogical . . Department conducted by C. L. N. Camp 

of New Haven 
Publisher's Notes 



-7 

95 
97 



39 



M5 
i54 
159 

161 



162 
163 
164 

Ibz 
166 
167 
I6S 
169 
170 

171 

172 

173 
174 



- 3 



176 

185 

IOO 

204 



The series of 1905 now begins with this issue, covering- first quarter, 
months of January, February and March. The four numbers to volume IX 
will be issued as follows: (1) January 1 ; (2) April 1 ; (3) July 1 ; (4) October 1. 
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Address all communications and manuscript to The Connecticut Magaiine Company, Hart font, tour 
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The Connecticut Magazine 



volume IX 



BEGINNING SERIES OF 1905 



NUMBER I 



An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Edited by Francis Trevelyn Miller — Published in four books to the annual 
volume. Following is a list of contents in this edition, well illustrated, and 
ably written. Compiled and produced by The Connecticut Magazine Com- 
pany in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford, Connecticut. 



Designed by E. A. Sherman of Hartford. 

2 



Art Cover 

Frontispiece— Memories Dear to the Heart of the New England Born 
Introductory •' . • 

Country Life in Connecticut , 

The Old Lane Thro' the Woodland Near John Brown's Birthplace in Torrington 
Harvest-Time at the Old Home — Scene in the East Canaan Valley 
The Dam Above the Mill Where We Played as Boys 
Joyous Days Before Youth Fled — Scene at Twin Lakes at Salisbury 
The Old Swimming Hole Down at the Bend of the River 
The Gorge Where the Wild Things Ran— Scene on the Housatonic Near Canaan 
The Old Homestead Where Sturdy Manhood Expands With Nature 
The Little Home in the Valley — Scene in West Norfolk 
Turning the Wheels of Industry — Scene in Winsted 
The Lake at the Mountain Side— Scene in Winsted 
The Village Across the Lake— Scene at Lakeville 
A Glimpse Down the Valley — Scene in Canaan 

A Vision of the Never-ending Beauties of Country Life in Connecticut 
From Rise to Set of Sun — A Poem . . . daniel j. donahoe of Middletown 

The Sparrow's Flight 



The Song of Pleasure 
The Song of True Love 
The Song of Fruition 
Nocturne . 



Aristocracy Versus Democracy — The Struggle for Supremacy 



L. E. WHITON 

of New London 



Who Were the Puritans .... 
On Finding An Indian Arrow Head — A Poem 
My Old New England Home 

Illustrations from Drawings 
Fragments— From the Rose Maiden . 

Winter— A Poem 

Hewing Homes From the Forests 
The Homesteads of Our Childhood 



. joel n. eno, m.a. of New Haven 

. Angelina tuttle of Wallingford 

dr. ida r. gridley, late of Collinsville 



From book of anna j. granniss of Plainville 

. theodore sedgwick gold of Cornwall 

Six photographic plates loaned by 

john h. dickerman of Mt. Carmel 

Volcanic and Seismic Disturbances in Southern Connecticut . . francis j. markham 
Five Illustrations from Photograpns formerly of East Hampton and Meriden 

Literature of the Louisiana Purchase • rev. george m. stone, d.d. of Hartford 

Illustrations from Photographs and Sketches 

The Puritan in Literature .... charles Frederick johnson, m.a., l.h.d. 
Professor of English Literature, Trinity College, Hartford 



3 

4-16 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 
24 
26 
30 

32 
33 



49 

53 

54 

60 
61 
62 

65 

68 

75 
83 



Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of the second class. 
This Edition mailed in December, 1901, for first quarter of 1905-January, February and March. 



The Connecticut Magazine 



VOLUME IX BEGINNING SERIES OF 1905 NUMBER I 

Religious Life in New England a Century Ago . mrs. e. l. morris of New Haven 

In the Homes of Our Ancestors — Article on Pewter, mrs. henry champion of New Haven 92 

"What Is a Tory . • . mary l. d. ferris, Former Editor of American Author, 95 

Published by Society of American Authors 

The Growth of Torrington • • gideon h. welch, Judge of Court of Common Pleas <j~ 

of Litchfield County 
48 Illustrations from Photographs by John N. Brooks, A. B. Ford, S. C. Work- 
man, T. M. V. Doughty and others 

The Industrial History of Torrington , ed ward bailey eaton 122 

28 Illustrations from Photographs 

Connecticut Artists and Their Work — Ben Foster, alice sawtelle randall of Hartford 139 
5 Illustrations from Photographs by Herbert Randall 

Reminiscences of Old Slavery Days in Connecticut, judge martin h. smith of Suffield 145 

The Life of a Prominent Puritan Pastor — Samuel Stone, Elizabeth todd nash of Madison 1 54 

A New Year's Greeting by abiram chamberlain of Meriden 159 

Governor of Connecticut 

The Development of the Public Library of Connecticut Caroline m. hewins of Hartford 161 
16 Illustrations from Plates loaned by State 
Including: 

Reading Room — Kent Memorial Library, Suffield 162 

Kent Memorial Library in town of Suffield, Connecticut 163 

The George Maxwell Memorial Library at Rockville 164 

Public Library in town of Southington, Connecticut' ir>? 

Taylor Memorial Library at Milford 166 

Scoville Memorial Library Salisbury . . 167 

Public Library at Derby, Connecticut 16S 

Peck Memorial Library in town of Berlin, (Kensington) Connecticut . 169 

Dunham Hall Library, Willimantic Linen Co., Willimantic 170 

Public Library in town of Thompson, Connecticut 171 

East Hampton Public Library in town of Chatham 172 

Public Library in Borough of Wallingford, Connecticut 173 

Old Library at Columbia, Connecticut 174 

Free Public Library, Danielson, town of Killingly, Connecticut . . 175 

Cossitt Library in town of Granby, Connecticut i;6 

A Long Journey on Horse-back in J788 Transcribed from Diary of John McCi.ellan, 

by Jessy Trumbull McClellan of Woodstock 1S5 

Studies in Ancestry— Genealogical . . Department conducted by C. L. N. Camp 190 

of New Haven 

Publisher's Notes . -°4 



The series of 1905 now begins with this issue, covering first quarter, 
months of January, February and March. The four numbers to volume IX 
will be issued as follows: (1) January 1 ; (2) April 1 ; (3) July 1 ; (4) October 1. 
The publishers have long been endeavoring to get publication dates around to 
begin on the first of each year and it will be adhered to from this issue. This 
does not in any way effect subscriptions and each subscriber will receive the four 
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Bere Beginnetb (be ninth Book Showing 

the manner of Cife and the 

Attainment thereof in the 

Commonwealth of a 

Diligent People 



EDITED BY 



"h^K^ugi AZtt^jLa^^te^Li^ 




MEMORIES DEAR TO THE 

HEART OF THE NEW ENGLAND BORN 



THE 

Connecticut Magazine 

VOLUME IX NUMBER 1 



WITH kindred lineage, principles and aims, we cannot 
emphasize too strongly the truths for which we 
stand. While honoring the past our faces are 
toward the future. We are confident that you and all true 
descendants of the Pilgrim and the Puritan will wisely and 
loyally help our country in the new, untried place among the 
nations, to which it has been so suddenly summoned. ... It 
calls to our mind that little vessel, tossing in the immeasurable 
waste of waters, so crowded with its cargo of human life that the 
men slept in the very boats upon the davits, driven by winter 
blasts that were not so relentless as the spirit of persecution which 
the Pilgrims left behind, and named the " Mayflower," in uncon- 
scious prophecy of the fact that the long winter of political tyranny 
was about to break, and the springtime of civil and religious liberty 
to dawn for the human race ... a little group of carders, 
weavers and farmers . . . founding a colony in an unbroken 
wilderness, from whose vigorous loins would spring a mighty 
republic, which should dominate the world. . . . For one land, 
one people* one flag, and one destiny, let us reverently thank the 
God of our fathers. — Hon. James M. Beck in an address before 
the New England Society on ''The Democracy of the Mayfl&wtr " 



COUNTRY LIFE IN CONNECTICUT 




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FROM RISE to SET of SUN 



"Talis mihi videtur, rex, vita hominum 

quale cum te residente a coenam 
accenso foco in media calido effecto 

coenaculo adveniens unus passerum 

domum citissime pervolaverit mox 

de hieme in hiemem regrediens." 

Bede. lib. II. 13. 




By DANIEL J. DONAHOE of M i d d 1 e t < 



FLIGHT 



SPAR ROW'S 



THE 



SPAKE the Saxon of old 
When of the Christ he was told, 
"Out of the Wintry night 
Into the warmth and the light; 
Out of the light again 
Into the night and the rain; 
Thus, as the sparrow flies, 
Man is born and dies. 
Naught he knows of the whence, 
Naught he knows of the hence; 
Only from dark to dark 
Life's but a moment's spark; 
Only from death to death, 
Life's but a fleeting breath." 
Thus the Saxon of old 
When of the Christ he was told. 

Ah! 'twas a bitter faith, 
This that spake but of death. 
Well did the king in his hall 
Banish the wormwood and gall, 
And take from Christ's dear hand 
A sweeter faith for his land. 

Better it were to. say 
Life is a spendid day; 
A blessing, a trust, a hope, 
A star in the azure cope ; 

A hastening and a quest; 

A toiling without rest; 

A victory fought and won 

From rise to set of sun; 

A rose with odors rare 

Enjoying the noon-tide air; 

The passing of a soul 

From God to God, her goal; 

A spark of love from His breast, 

Flying from east to west; 

A wave from His infinite sea 

Back to infinity. 



18 



THE SPARROW'S FLIGHT 



Life is more than a breath, 

More, for there is no death; 

We are too blind to see 

The wondrous truths that be; 

And the pallor and chill and change 

Seems to us sad and strange, 

And the silences of night 

Fill our hearts with affright. 

But we tremble with living hope 
Soon as the flower-buds ope; 
We feel we are safe with God 
When the fern curls from the sod; 
And we know that heavenly gleams 
Are the life of our thoughts and dreams 
From a sea unto a sea — 
We are part of eternity. 




19 



FROM RISE to SET of SUN 



OUT of an unremembered land, ashore 
Beside an infinite sea that gleamed all strange 
And golden 'neath a newly -risen sun, 
I found myself awake; and rising up 
"I wandered from the sounding of the sea, 
Across the pleasant fields, that led along 
Fair hill-sides and broad valleys, far away. 

Under my feet the grass was lush and green, 

All sprinkled o'er with diamonds of the morn; 

The clover-beds were murmurous of bees, 

And birds in bush and tree were loud in songs 

That mingled with the odors from the flowers; 

Then through my soul, delirious of joy, 

From these wild beauties of the tender morn, 

There throbbed a passionate pulse of melody; 

And like the glad birds, lifting up my voice, 

I sang a song whose rhythmic beating flowed 

In measured motion with my brain and soul, 

Till all the fields, in golden cadences, 

Seemed turned to music, mild with mellow dreams. 

While walking through the fields thus full of joy, 

I saw a white bird spring from a low bush, 

And singing in a voice that seemed my own, 

He flitted on before me through the fields. 

A sudden passion seized my heart to take 

The singer, and I followed, followed far, 

Repeating the sweet strain that seemed my own, 

And listening to the music full of joy. 

Ere long the snow-white bird approached a cot 

That shyly nestled in a shadowy grove 

Under white blossoms sweet to scent and sight. 

Beside the cottage door a silver brook 

Was flowing with a murmur wondrous mild, 

Between the flowery banks that hemmed its way 

O'er dimpling shallows, shimmering to the sun. 

The bird, alighting on the cottage sill, 

Sent forth sweet trills of music; and I came, 

Following the singing wonder. Soon the door 

Was opened, and a maiden, coming forth, 

Took the white warbler in a hand as white, 

And kissed' him as he sang. How fair that maid, 

20 



I cannot tell! Her hair was like the sun, From 

And fairer than the nioon her tender face; Rise 

Robed all in white, a rosary of pearls to 

Hung from her silken cincture; and she stood f 

Where sweet white roses clustered round the cot, Sun 

And looked on me with eyes all tenderness; 

While in a voice of music thus she spake; 

"Come, sit among the flowers and hear the bird; 

Come, hear him sing his song of innocence; 

My gentle warbler, my angelic bird 

That sings in my own voice and speaks my words. 

I listened full of rapture to the words ; 

For while she spake her voice appeared to me 

Mine own voice and the music of the bird. 

Then I sat down among the roses white, 

And gave 'my heart unto the warbling bird ; 

While sweet the maiden spake to me, and seemed, 

In speaking one long undertone of song: — 

" 'Tis well for thee to rest among these flowers 

And fill thy soul with dreams of innocence; 

Here is the primal Eden, unattaint 

With world-love and world-woe. Who dwells with me 

Has hope, and knows the peace that comes from God. 

I am the voice of God. So far as sings 

Yon silver brook, my voice sings; and so far 

As soars and sings this warbler, there sing I. 

Guide thou thy will that whatsoe'er thou do 

Thou stray not farther than these songs shall go; 

For once thine ear shall lose them, nevermore 

Return is thine to these dear bowers of ease." 

While yet she spake, I heard a distant cry 
Far down the valley where the brooklet sang; 
And looking I beheld a throng of youths 
Converging from all points, in mad pursuit, 
With cry and cheering, of a great gray fox, 
That swiftly clomb a round hill crowned with oaks. 
The shouting and the cheering filled my heart 
With madness; and with winged feet I sped 
To join the chase. 

Still, running, I could hear 
The virgin's warning ringing in mine ear: — 
"Once lose my voice, return is never thine," 
And her low song came softly from afar 
While murmured at my feet the silver brook, 
Mirrored within whose waters I beheld 
My face reflected, like a ray of morn. 

21 



From Into the shadow of the oaken grove 

Rise T ne fox sped, and I followed. Here a tower, 

o . With portals and great windows opened wide, 

f Stood in the greenery of a shadowy glade; 

Sun And calmly leaning o'er the parapet, 

A maiden sat, the gray fox at her feet. 

I i 
A princess crowned with stars the maiden seemed, 
And robed in golden splendor; in her hand 
She held a golden volume, while with voice 
Soft as the murmurous sound of bees in June, 
She read strange words that filled my soul with awe, 
She read of gods, and heroes like to gods; 
Of wonders of the earth and air and sea; 
Of suns and moons and stars that, circling, sing 
In universal harmony; and I, 
Still listening heard the gentle undersong 
The silver brook sent upward. Evermore 
A throng of eager listeners strained to hear 
The golden story. Surging like a sea 
They came, and oft, in coming, made a sound 
That drowned the maiden's voice; then calmly she 
Would wave above their heads a golden wand, 
When the vast throng would sink to sudden peace. 

Ah me! so full my soul was with high words 

That fell from those fair lips, I madly strove 

To enter at the portal. Here I found 

An eager listener leaning at the door, 

Drinking the words, so that he barred my way; 

And caring only for my golden goal, 

I smote with evil will and struck him down. 

Then sudden numbness seized me; and mine ears 
Rang with a sound of thunder. Ah! no more 
The tender song and gentle undertone 
Of innocence came greeting me; no more 
I heard the silver brook, whose murmur mild 
Had cheered me on my way. I turned to seek 
The cottage; but the road was dark and strange; 
And I went groping onward like one blind. 

How long I wandered thus, I can not tell, 
So full of fear and misery was my mind; 
But soon I stood upon a rising ground 
And saw through distant meadows flowing fair, 
A noble stream, upon whose banks were groups 

22 



Of merry dancing damsels; while the sound From 

Of harp and flute and violin gave birth Rise 

To buoyant jollity. The sight refreshed *° 

My drooping spirits, fired my lagging feet, e f 

And down the hill I strode to join the throng. Sun 

Here on a mossy bank a virgin sate, 
'Mid roses rich and odorous, herself 
Brighter than roses. Round her evermore, 
Laden with roses, blithesome damsels danced, 
Singing glad lays of love; while gentle youths 
Came hurrying hither o'er the fields, and each, 
Seizing a damsel, joined the dance and song 
Then circling round the virgin for a time, 
They smiling broke the ring and tripped away, 
Passing from sight amid the distant woods, 
Or o'er the hills; but ever as they went 
New groups of damsels came with other youths, 
And joined the whirling dance and moved away. 

I threw me down upon the hillock green 

Beneath the virgin's feet; and with glad eyes 

Feasted my soul upon the merry rounds ; 

And evermore in murmuring melody, 

That thrilled me with the magic of the sound, 

The virgin sang. These were the words she sang: 



23 



THE SONG of PLEASURE 



Hark to the voice that the swallow 
Cheerily flings from the azure" \ — 

"Pleasure's awing; let us follow 

Fast with the passing of pleasure." 

Hark to the meadow-lark singing 

Over his home in the grasses; — 

"Summer her sweetness is bringing; 
Grasp the white gift ere it passes" 

Out of the odorous roses 

Rises a voice to impel us, — 
Out of the woods and the closes 

Hark what the melodies tell us! 

Doves in the woodland are cooing, 

Thrushes . unite with the dove's songs; 

Heaven is warm for the wooing; 

Earth is alive for the love songs. 

Joy in the wealth of its high-tide 

Floods, as with glory, the meadows; 

Seize the glad hour ere the night-tide 

Comes with the showers and the shadows. 

Come what come will with the morrow, 
Here are our hearts in the day light! 

Let us not linger, nor borrow 

Trouble from thought with its pale light. 



24 



w 



HILE thus I listened, lo, among the maids From 

Came one whose eyes were luminous as stars, B\se 

Whose lips were rose-buds, breathing odorous *° 



songs, of 

Delirious songs that made my blood run wild. Sun 

When, in the tripping mazes of her dance, 
She passed the lowly couch whereon I lay, 
I sprang .and seized her struggling in my arms ; 
And lifting up my voice, I sang her song, 
And bore her in a whirl of love and joy 
Across the flowery fields. 

But soon we came 
Upon a brambly plain that rent our feet 
And stayed our bleeding steps with piercing pangs. 
Then blew from out the east a chilling wind, 
That froze the very blood along our veins; 
And I could hear afar the moaning sea 
Beating with icy hands upon the shore, 
While blinding mists with trailing garments came 
Up -creeping through the dell, and a black cloud 
Shrouded the sun, and changed the day to night. 

I thought of the sweet damsel at my side 

And sought her clasp; but horror seized my soul, 

For oh! I found her not, though far and wide 

I searched amid the darkness. All the air 

Now rang with piercing wails, like wintry winds 

Through ancient pine-trees moaning; and the sound 

Struck me all miserable with wild fear 

And frenzy,, till I fell upon the earth 

So wounded like to death, that for a time 

The world was wholly blotted from my mind. 

How long I lay thus dead to all the world 

I cannot tell; but when my heart began 

To beat, the clouds were melting in swift rain, 

And all the meads were drenched in watery streams, 

I rose upon my feet like one o'ercome 

By some rank opiate, reeling to and fro, 

When lo, mine ears were smitten by the sharp 

And shuddering howling of a pack of wolves. 

Nearer and nearer came the affrighting cries, 
And faint with fear I fled, in giddy haste, 
Across the meadows, through the rushing rain, 
The ravenous rout pursuing. 

25 



From 
Rise 
to 
Set 
of 
Sun 



Here a lake, 
Broad-bosomed, slept, the mists upon its face 
Hiding the distant shore. A little skirl 
Upon the margin lay, with mast and sail, 
Inviting hope and peace by sudden flight. 
I pushed it from the strand, and leaping in, 
I lay upon the bottom, breathing free, 
And found soft breezes bearing me from harm. 



Long time upon the lake's wide margin sands, 
With muzzles pointed to the breaking clouds, 
And angry howls that chilled the shuddering veins, 
The wolves remained; then turning with low growls 
Of disappointment, vanished in the vale, 
And welcome silence came upon the place. 

Now broke from all the heavens the hurrying clouds, 

The rain ceased, and the mist in silver wreaths 

Uprose to greet the sun's returning rays. 

The curling waters glistened in the light; 

And from the farther shore, whose verdure shone 

Above the sparkling wavelets wondrous fair, 

Came sounds of gentle music, and the voice 

Of one who sang sweet words that floated out 

Upon the air like odors. Leaning o'er 

My flying boat, and breathing low to catch, 

With willing ears, the words, I heard this song: — 



THE SONG of TRUE LOVE 

Fair is the forehead of dawn, 

Bright is the eye of the morning; 

Diamonds of dew on the lawn 

Nourish the green they're adorning. 

Sweet to the bee is the rose, 

Careless and fair in its free time; 

Yet it but blooms to enclose 

Life for the harvest and seed-time . 

Hear that delirious lay! 

Wood thrush's, ravishing, restful; 
Broodeth the mate day by day, 

Joyous and proud of her nestful. 

Fairer than morn is the maid, 

Sweeter than music her voice is; 

O'er her such glory is laid, 

Man loves her and lives and rejoices. 

26 



IT needed neither toil nor skill to bring From 

My shallop safely to the further shore; Rise 

For in the bracing breeze it drew apace to 

Unto a point that sloped from a green hill f 

Down to the water's edge, a pleasant spot Sun 

With all its beauty doubled in a tide, 
That showed no ripple on its shining face. 
Green as the bank the wave was; and a shore 
Of velvet verdure reached to where a grove 
Of ancient trees, in sweet variety, 
Reared its green crown; oak, maple, elm., beech, ash, 
Pine, hemlock, hackmatack, fir, hickory 
Blended the shadows of their shapely boughs 
Across a greensward free of underbrush. 

Soon as the shallop grated on the sand 

I stepped ashore, and turning to the grove, 

Beheld a multitude of gentle forms 

Moving in placid quietude beneath 

The overhanging branches. Men and maidens fair 

With love-light beaming on each countenance, 

All speaking words of love that evermore 

Seemed echoing the woodnotes of the dove, 

Walked in the dappled shadows of the grove. 

Among the blossoming boughs a host of birds 

Flitted and fluttered, uttering happy songs, 

Whose silver sounds aroused the silences 

And made the tree-tops tremulous with glee. 

And still the virgin's gentle voice, that came 

To greet me on the water, rang above 

The bird-songs and the love-songs, full of joy. 

And looking farther I beheld a tower, 

Deep in the bosom of the woodland, girt 

With ivy round-about, its doors unbarred; 

And from a parapet upon the roof, 

Verdant and sweet with woodbine, 'mid the vines 

Leaning, all gowned in green, the virgin sang. 

Her brown hair, filleted with emerald silk 

Clouded her shoulders, and enframed a face 

Fair with a rare and rich maturity. 

A crucifix of chrysoprase she held 

Within one hand, and one hand, open-palmed, 

Was stretched in benediction o'er the pairs 

Of true-souled lovers entering at the door. 

27 



From For from each quarter men of serious mien 

™' se And maidens, beaming like the moon with love, — 

e + Pure love that makes the lover nobly fair, — 

f Drawn by the wondrous music, moved among 

Sun The shaded greenery of the grove, and there 

Clasped hands and drew in pairs, like mated birds, 
Unto the tower, and pausing at the door 
The virgin's tender blessing to receive, 
Glided adown the wide and luminous hall, 
And passed the postern portal benedight. 

And I long time among the shadows walked, 
My pulses beating with strange awe, my heart 
All void and weak for loneliness; when lo! 
Half -hid amid a clump of balmy pines, 
In the deep bosom of the grove I saw, 
Like a bright angel, one of gentle mien 
Moving. My heart leaped up with new-born joy, 
Fluttered and beat, and without will of mine 
Gave utterance to love in joyous songs. 
I turned me to the maid. Her gentle eyes 
Met mine with answering love, her mellow voice 
Blending with mine in music. We clasped hands 
And through the portals passed all benedight. 

We passed the portals, and a wide ravine 

Opened before us, through whose hollow flowed 

A silver stream, that sang between green banks 

Sprinkled with violets, yellow, white and blue. 

On either hand dank ferns with odors wild 

Curled from the sod, and spotted touch-me-not, 

Too rathe for blossoms, made rich greenery 

Up the steep slopes, where slender birches grew 

And wide-boughed chestnuts gave their twilight shade. 

Among the branches birds of every hue 
Were building nests, and singing at their toil 
Such wondrous melodies as filled the dell 
With music as from choirs of cherubim. 
The cat -bird, with his purring note of love, 
Followed by bubbling music, cheered his mate 
While sedulous she set her twigs in place 
And formed her bower of love; the bobolink 
Soaring in rapturous song above the dell 
Sprinkled a shower of dewy melody down 
To soothe his loved one laboring in the green; 

. 28 



The robin, on a linden's top-most bough From 

Perched, and there piped his proud and martial strain, Rise 
While from the brooklet's edge his busy wife to 

Brought clots of clay to ceil her shapely nest. 



Set 
of 

Sun 



With dove-like note of love the blue-bird sang, 
Flitting and fluttering from bough to bough, 
The busy huswife in her hollow tree 
Shaping her home the while with happy heart. 
Sparrow and linnet, oriole, finch, and thrush, 
Tanager, redwing, swallow, meadowlark. 
Grosbeak with burning rose upon his breast, 
And many an other warbler fair of plume, 
And loud with tuneful throat, full tenderly 
Sang, in this golden prime of hope and love, 
The genial melodies of nesting time. 

And passing down the valley, hand in hand, 

Our hearts aflame with hope and happiness, 

Soon in the sunlight did we find a spot 

Where blossoming woodbine and the sweet-brier^rose, 

Mingling their odors, flourished. Like the birds 

Singing amid our toil from day to day 

Under green trees we built a bower of love 

And breathed the air in ease and gratitude. 

The brook here widened, and the hills that had, 
Till now, on either hand confined our view, 
Fell in fair sloves away ; and open fields 
Appeared, of maize and ripened rye and oats, 
Glowing all golden 'neath the westering sun ; 
And pastures, leaning from the distant heights 
Down to the water's edges, where we stood, 
Shone with a glorious plentitude of flowers. 

And through the pastures, gathering goldenrod 
And asters blue and purple, children ran, 
Singing and shouting' in their careless glee, 
While sun-browned toilers labored in the fields. 

The trees stood dark upon the yellowing hills, 
Where herds of kine were grazing, and their calves, 
With steps uncertain, following. In the dells, 
Embowered by hazel covers, flocks of sheep 
Nibbled and browsed, while hundreds of young lambs 
Along the hill-sides bleating, skipped and played. 



29 



From 
Rise 
to 
Set 
of 
Sun 



And at my side were children, in whose eyes 
Shone pure reflections from my souls best light; 
Whose voices seemed mine own, and filled my heart 
With echoes out of heaven, so pleasant seemed 
Their music; like the lambs they skipped and played, 
And in the joy of childhood innocence 
Made merry all the vale wherein we walked. 



The air was rich with breath of ripened fruit, 

Apples and grapes and peaches. Bobolinks, 

New-fledged, were flocking southward, with quick notes 

Ringing in tinkling tones along the hills; 

And in the valley sloping down the west 

Whereto the stream was hurrying, I heard 

A woman singing; and her golden voice 

Flooded the world with music. Thus she sang: — 



THE 



SONG 



O F 



FRUITION 



Out of thy holy hand, 

Father of love, 
Blessings, like golden sand, 

Fall from above, 
Lighting with joy the land; 

Blessings a millionfold 

Falling like grains of gold, 
Boons from thy hollow hand, 

Father of love. 

ho, how the apple-tree 

There by the road — 

Brown with maturity — 
Bows to its load; 

Fulness to wasting, see! 

Food for the passing time, ' 
Seed for the coming prime', 

Aye shall an apple-tree 
Stand by the road. 



That is the redwing's note 

Down in the fen; 
Hark how his joyous throat 

Whistles again! 
There, in his glossy coat, 

Sits he all gratitude 

Over his growing brood; 
Aye shall a redwing's note 

Sound from the fen. 

Love is alive today 

Under the sun; 
Children and lambkins play, 

Frolic and run; 
While the old pass away, 

There's no ingratitude, 

Seeing their youth renewed. 
Seeing love's flood today 

Under the sun. 



So from thy hollow hand, 

■ Father of love, 
Blessings, like golden sand, 

Fall from above, 
Lighting with joy the land; 

Blessings a millionfold 

Falling like grains of gold 
Out of thy holy hand, 

Father of love. 



30 



A 



WOODED place, on either side the stream, From 

That wider grew and deeper, as it fell Rise 

Down the far-reaching slope, soon drew my steps; *° 



And entering, I beheld, amid the shade, } 

A russet tower, o'ergrown with reddening vines, Sun 

Profuse of foliage, so profuse, indeed, 
That little of the light that fell thereon 
Entered the shadowed windows. 'Mid the vines 
A dame, in russet robed, appeared and sang 
The soothing song whose notes had drawn me here. 



Beneath the tower a narrow gateway oped, 
Arching and shrouded under russet vines; 
And through the gateway men and matrons passed; 
Hastening they passed, as on an urgent quest, 
Sered by the heat and labor of the way. 

And I, upon the brookside standing, saw 

My face reflected in the deepened tide, 

Wrinkled and grizzled grown; alas, how changed 

From the reflection in the morning rill! 

Me, too, the heat and labor of the way 

Had sered, — the hastening of my urgent quest. 

And pausing not, I passed the narrow gate 
Into a land of autumn, where the leaves 
Were falling, and the sedges by the stream 
Were sighing, withered in a lonesome wind, 
The breath of coming winter. Far away 
The sun was sinki g in a rosy sea, 
Whose surges, breaking on the sounding shore, 
Made mournful music to my listening soul. 

O, strange, sad sea, thy mournful music comes, 
Like winds that wail among the winter pines, 
What time the earth, in icy slumber bound, 
Is waiting for the touch of spring, to rise 
Amid the joy and beauty of new life. 

O, infinite sea, beside thy shore I wait, 

In deepening twilight, and the struggling ray 

Of stars that o'er thy bosom rise and shine. 

Upon thy shore I linger; for I know 

That o'er thy wave my way lies; and I wait, 

With fearless heart, the coming of my bark, 

To bear me to the beauty of new life. 

31 



NOCTURNE 



/ stand on the shore alone, 

The sun is sunk in the sea, 
The stars arise in the darkening skies, 
One by one, and like angel eyes, 
They are gazing down where my dead past lies, 

But they bring no fear to me. 

They bring no fear to me, 

As I stand on the shore alone', 
Though the light of each star that shines from afar 
Is but a flaming torch of war, 
I shield my heart 'neath the sheltering scar 

That stands by the surging sea. 

But the sea, with its waves so wild, 

Is dashing against the shore, 
And though I abide in my cell, and hide, 
My boat is afloat on the flooding tide; 
Ah, soon away on the surge I'll ride, 

And the world shall be mine no more. 



32 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY; THE STRUGGLE 

FOR SUPREMACY 



THE RISE OF THE COMMONALITY IN OLD ENGLAND AND 
ITS ESTABLISHMENT OF SOVEREIGNITY IN NEW ENGLAND 
CONNECTICUT THE BIRTHPLACE OF THE BALLOT 

It is a significant historical fact of much interest in these days following the election of a President of 
the American Republic that the idea of a popular ballot originated in Connecticut. The system was insti- 
tuted in the days of Thomas Hooker, the father of Democracy, and in tracing the development of free gov- 
ernment, Mr. Whiton brings to light many important historical truths. " I have endeavored," he says " to 
rapidly follow some of these streams through their valleys from the remoter past, till they blend into the 
great stream of New England liberty. " He analyzes the characters of " two great men of our early history, 
John Winthrop and Thomas Hooker." Mr. Whi ton's reference to the possible relationship of John Pym, of 
the Long Parliament, and Thomas Hooker, is of much interest. In speaking of it he says : " I do not know 
whether there are any collections of Pym's letters or papers in existence, but if there are such they may 
possibly throw some further light on this possible relationship." Mr. Whiton is a prominent manufacturer 
and student of constitutional history residing in New London, Connecticut — Editor 



L. E. WHITON 



New London County 

THE English speaking race 
and people seem in these 
later times to be the " chosen 
people " for wonderful 
achievement in all that goes to make 
up civilization and progress. The 
growth and rapid development in all 
influence and power of the Anglo- 
Saxon race, and of the English lan- 
guage, is almost beyond comprehen- 
sion, when compared with any other 
living race or language. Apparently 
its vital power in modern history is 
the result of a blending of the divinely 
established ideal and spiritual teach- 
ings of an ancient chosen people, with 
the force and vigor of a race of great 
courage, and physical power, and 
endurance; and so in England and 
in English history, we can see the 
gradual and orderly growth of social 
forces into political institutions with 



Historical Society 

which New England and Connecticut 
history is most intimately connected. 

In the earliest Anglo-Saxon times 
there were leaders of the people, but 
no hereditary chiefs or kings. The 
rude freedom of the people found 
expression in the ancient town-moot, 
where the freemen and farmers met 
in the broad shadow of some spread- 
ing oak, or on the village green, to 
regulate their own civil affairs. 

The growth of numbers brought 
villages into contact; and the shire- 
moot was the natural development, 
where the deputies from the adjoin- 
ing villages could meet for the dis- 
cussion and regulation of affairs in 
which they were mutually interested. 
But in the general affairs of the race, 
distance and lack of communication 
made any large gathering of the peo- 
ple impossible. The natural result 



34 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY 



was a series of comparatively inde- 
pendent free communities, with 
enough common interests to bind 
them together against more distant 
groups, or a foreign foe, but making 
up a nation somewhat lacking in 
true cohesive power. All this natural 
freedom of Anglo-Saxon government 
in communities of mutual interest 
was suddenly overthrown by the 
Norman Conquest, in 1066, which 
introduced a foreign King, who im- 
mediately claimed all the lands by 
conquest, and rewarded his followers 
with the homesteads of the conquered 
people, thus establishing a feudal sys- 
tem under which the people became 
serfs attached to the soil and ruled 
arbitrarily by the feudal lords or 
barons; but there was left the spirit 
of the old individual freedom among 
the people; and the strong Saxon 
stream still flowed on, tempering 
the alien race into a mixture, in 
which the Saxon idea of freedom and 
liberty was preserved in a true nation- 
ality. 

If at first the two races were in 
conflict, the mixture of blood and 
heredity rapidly changed this, con- 
dition; and in 1215 we see the cur- 
rent of ancient freedom strong enough 
to break down and greatly weaken 
the power of the King. The Magna 
Chart a, or great charter of King John, 
the "Palladium of English Liberty," 
holds a most important place in his- 
tory, both because it was very com- 
plete, and also because it marked 
the rising power of the people, having 
been obtained by strong men of the 
newly mixed blood, by force of arms, 
from a King whose resistance was 
futile. 



But the contest between the Saxon 
and the Norman, the people and the 
King, was still active, with advan- 
tage often with the King. Fifty 
years later the people gained once 
more, under a constitution pro- 
claimed by Simon de Montfort, who 
was victorious over the King in the 
Battle of Lewes, and who afterward 
called the first true parliament of 
the people. Knights had been sum- 
moned to former councils; but never 
before had representatives from the 
towns' been called to sit in council 
with the bishops, barons and knights; 
and we are told that the main reliance 
of the successful rebel was upon the 
Commons. The power of the Com- 
mons continued to grow, and about 
1300 it acquired, or successfully as- 
serted, the right of taxation, then 
formally yielded by the King to the 
representatives of the people, and lay- 
ing English foundation for the claim, 
afterward such an important matter 
in our own history, that there must 
be no taxation without representation. 

The old Saxon and Norman races 
were now fairly fused into a vigorous 
but crude nation, not yet refined by 
that ancient spiritual fire first re- 
vealed to Moses in the burning bush, 
and which has ever since been the 
pillar of fire slowly leading the chosen 
people up out of the wilderness in 
their approach toward the promised 
land. The history is of wars and 
factions; impulsive rebellions and 
violated promises, sometimes favor- 
able to the people, sometimes to the 
King, but all the time strengthening 
the race spirit and the hardy physical 
vigor which was afterward to be so 
profoundly affected by the spiritual 



THE STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY 



35 



forces, whose advance guard came in 
the form of WicklifFs English Bible. 
The spiritual fires were soon thor- 
oughly kindled by brands scattered 
from the fires of martyrdom, which 
now blazed so fiercely through the 
kingdom. The power of impeach- 
ment against the ministers of the 
King was also asserted by the Com- 
mons at about the same time. An 
early effect of the spiritual forces was 
to definitely shape the English nation 
into its permanent form. The feudal 
lords or barons were largely extin- 
guished by the Wars of the Roses, 
leaving the forces of the people and 
of the King organized for a greater 
struggle than ever; and the people 
were already in a more favorable 
position than in any other country 
of the time, judged, of course, by 
the standards of the middle ages. 

The introduction of the art of 
printing; the rapid development of 
hardy maritime adventure so greatly 
stimulated by the discovery of Amer- 
ica; the distribution of printed Bibles 
and the growth of all English litera- 
ture ; the intensity of feeling aroused 
everywhere by the reformation, all 
are springs which^ contributed much 
to the growth of the great 
principles of liberty on the one 
side, and the assertion of class privi- 
lege and royal prerogative on the 
other ; until finally the early years of 
the 17th century see the great strug- 
gle fairly on, and tremendous issues 
joined. The stream of liberty and 
freedom is broader and deeper 
than ever; and the bounds are set 
more firmly. A great overflow is 
certain, and its purest stream reached 
our shores at Plymouth, in 1620, 



where in "ye presence of God and 
of one another," the signers of the 
Mayflower compact covenanted them- 
selves together into a civil body poli- 
tic,which we may believe was divinely 
ordered, as beginning the great reser- 
voir of liberty for all the world. We 
are, therefore, greatly interested in 
the troubled times of James and 
Charles, and especially in the men 
who were in the forefront of the 
struggle on the side of the people. 
The editor and the perfected print- 
ing press have now become the great 
popular teachers; on many accounts, 
unfortunately, usurping the positon 
occupied by the preacher and the 
pulpit in the times of which we speak. 
The great preachers and churchmen 
of this time were leaders, both for the 
people and for the King, and the 
contest was fiercest between them. 
Thomas Hooker was one of the most 
powerful in directness of appeal and 
in ability to secure and hold the at- 
tention of great audiences, both of 
the common people and of the more 
thoughtful leaders. He was just 
taking his degree in 1611 (at the age 
of twenty-five) when King James 
began the fight against the Commons 
of England by dissolving his first 
parliament. Apparently Hooker was 
distinguished more for the deep spir- 
ituality of his thought, and the direct- 
ness of his style and teaching, than 
for popular controversy; but he was 
intensely in sympathy with the peo- 
ple, and though very significant ly 
permitted to reside and lecture near 
London much later than some of the 
other leaders, he was forced to fly at 
last; and at the age of forty-tour 
left England for Holland in 1630, 



36 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS SUPREMACY 



having previously taught for a time, 
with John Eliot (then a young man 
of about twenty-four, afterward the 
great apostle to the Indians of New 
England, as an assistant). The pow- 
erful influence of Hooker upon Eliot 
may be noted in many similarities of 
character. It is a peculiar and pos- 
sibly a significant circumstance that 
there are no authentic portraits of 
either, which may indicate modesty 
of character, or lack of means: but 
for men of such prominence, it seems 
fair to infer the former. Eliot ap- 
pears to have fled directly to New 
England, where he arrived in 1631. 
Hooker stayed a short time in Hol- 
land, but apparently preferred the 
freer conditions of New England, and 
reached Boston in 1633. Of his fam- 
ily history, comparatively little is 
known except that he, like many 
great leaders, was a true son of the 
people, gifted with a great intellect, 
and a spiritual force born of the 
troubled times. Hooker's father ap- 
pears to have been for a long time an 
overseer or superintendent of the 
landed property and estates of a cer- 
tain Digby family, and is referred 
to in some of the records as "Mr." 
Hooker, indicating the respect in 
which he was held in the community. 
Thomas Hooker is known to have 
entered Cambridge in March, 1604, 
as a "Sizar," under the necessity of 
working himself through and, with 
many others in like circumstances, 
aided in serving the tables during his 
first year; possibly an impress of 
this early experience survives in the 
phrase in a certain letter to Win- 
throp, to be referred to later on, 
wherein he mentions a certain dis- 



cussion as coming "on with the salt 
and going off with the voyder," the 
voider being a tray in which rem- 
nants of food were removed after 
the meal. 

Some few years before his departure 
from England for Holland he married 
the companion and nurse of the mis- 
tress of the house which was his 
home, while stationed as a preacher 
in the vicinity of London. 

The great struggle for the rights 
of the people was also bravely cham- 
pioned by party leaders in the Par- 
liaments which King James and King 
Charles so fiercely challenged. Among 
these great leaders of the Commons 
who boldly asserted and defended 
the rights of the people there were two 
or three pre-eminent men, none more 
famous than John Hampden and 
John Pym. Of the two, Hampden 
seems to have possessed the greater 
popular magnetism and to have won 
a somewhat warmer place in the pop- 
ular affection: but Pym was the 
greater parliamentary leader, freely 
recognized as such by Hampden, and 
the great founder of party govern- 
ment in England. Both men were 
demanded, with three others, in a 
scene of thrilling dramatic interest, 
by Charles I, of Parliament, for 
arrest and execution as enemies of 
the King ; but were so ably defended 
by the speaker and their associates, 
that Charles was obliged to retire 
discomfitted amid cheers for parlia- 
mentary privilege; and the breach 
between King and people was still 
further widened. We are told of 
Pym that his wife, " Anna Hooker," 
died in 1620, and that he entered 
parliament for the first time in 1621 



THE STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY 



31 



We have also learned that in the 
Mar field family of our Thomas Hooker 
there were four sisters, "one of whom 
married a revolutionist by the name 
of Pym." Thus an intimate con- 
nection and bond of union between 
Thomas Hooker, afterwards of Con- 
necticut, and John Pym, the great 
leader of the people in the early years 
of the long Parliament, seems appar- 
ent. There are many interesting 
items which seem to throw the fur- 
ther light of internal evidence to 
support this inference. They were 
of nearly the same age, Pym having 
been born in 1584, and Hooker in 
1586. Pym first becomes prominent 
by a speech in the Parliament of 
1621, and for seeking to organize 
all loyal protestants under an oath 
of association. This Parliament so 
offended King James by its declara- 
tion that "their privileges were the 
ancient and undoubted birthright of 
the English people," that he sent for 
the Journals of the Commons and 
tore this record out with his own 
hands. Pym was imprisoned for 
three months after the dissolution of 
this Parliament, which would seem 
to indicate his personal connection 
with the Declaration. In the next 
Parliament, Pym pleaded for the 
restoration of the silenced Puritan 
clergy. In the Parliament of 1626 
he was a manager of the impeach- 
ment of Buckingham. In 1628 he 
was a signer and ardent advocate of 
the famous Petition of Right, which 
the King signed under financial stress, 
and which became known as the 
second great Charter of English Lib- 
erty. The Parliament of 1629 was 
also still disposed to assert the peo- 



ple's rights, and was dissolved by 
the King, who thereupon asserted 
the royal prerogative and vigorously 
attempted to govern without a Par- 
liament. For a period of eleven 
years, the Star Chamber, the High 
Commissions, the various Councils, 
ship money, tonnage and poundage, 
and forced loans, served to deeply 
stir the people. Apparently, with 
the dissolution of this Parliament, 
the protection which Pym, as a mem- 
ber of the Commons, may have been 
able to afford to Hooker, was of 
necessity withdrawn, thus forcing 
him to flee, after having been per- 
mitted to teach his principles of pop- 
ular freedom for a longer period than 
many others of much less power. 
Eliot, his assistant, reached Boston 
in 1631 ; and Hooker, after about 
two years in Holland, came to Bos- 
ton in 1633, in the full power and 
maturity of vigorous manhood, his 
lips touched with living coals, and 
his spirit fired with a devotion to 
those principles of liberty and equal- 
ity which are the very corner stones 
of true democracy. He was gladly 
welcomed by another great New 
Englander, whose name is also nobly 
written in many pages of our colonial 
history. 

John Winthrop, then Governor of 
Massachusetts, was also a very relig- 
ious man, profoundly affected by all 
matters of faith and pious observ- 
ance. It even seems a little ludi- 
crous to read the minute record of 
his early religious experiences, which 
are faithfully set down in a sort of 
spiritual autobiography, beginning 
somewhat before the age of twelve, 
and furnishing a very remark] 



38 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY 



instance of the influence, or perhaps 
the reflection, of prevalent religious 
discussion among his elders. The 
many contrasts between Winthrop 
and Hooker, who in later life were to 
become firm friends and associates 
in many great matters, were strongly 
marked by the • circumstances of 
birth; for the parents of John Win- 
throp were of landed estate, and of 
substance and repute for several 
generations. His grandfather, Adam 
Winthrop, a rich clothier of Suffolk, 
and for several years master of the 
famous cloth workers company of 
London, had purchased Grot on Manor 
in 1544. There was also family con- 
nection by marriage with Dr. John 
Still, Bishop of Bath and Wells — an 
aunt was the wife of Sir Thomas 
Mildmay. 

Destined to somewhat remarkable 
achievements matrimonially as well 
as politically, John Winthrop, early 
launched upon this part of his career, 
quite omitting his bachelors degree, 
and leaving college at the age of 
seventeen, to become a benedict, 
marrying in 1605, the daughter of 
a wealthy family, one of whom had 
been knighted in the previous year. 
A certain thrift seems to have some- 
what characterized the Governor in 
this line of adventure, for it is in- 
cidently set down that she brought 
her husband a "large portion of 
outward estate;" and in his subse- 
quent similar enterprises, this prec- 
edent seems to have been quite care- 
fully observed. But, since he was 
a lawyer, and had become a full 
fledged justice at the age of eighteen, 
we can the more readily understand 
the power of precedent in such a case. 



The contrasts between Winthrop and 
Hooker are marked also by the 
voluminous abundance of personal 
record in the case of Winthrop, and 
of the almost entire absence of every 
such record in the case of Hooker. 
Even Winthrop himself seems to see, 
in looking back over some of this 
early record, that the "vice of self- 
esteem infested him." 

After eleven years, and six chil- 
dren, his first wife died. A second 
wife "of old family," and an infant 
child, died within a year after his 
second marriage; and in 1618 his 
third marriage occurred, with Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir John Tyndal, 
who also welcomed the new comers 
in Boston in 1633, and was the 
Governor's companion for nearly thir- 
ty years. 

The record does not disclose any 
special activity on the part of Win- 
throp in the important events of these 
days of Puritan and other struggles, 
save the growing practice of law and 
the accumulation of estate. But it 
is very clear that his great ability in 
his chosen profession rapidly gained 
him influential clients; and also that 
his principal associates were men of 
aristocratic, but Puritan, position 
and influence; and therefore in es- 
pecial danger from the unjust taxa- 
tion and forced loans now being de- 
manded by the King. So the organ- 
ization of the Massachusetts Bay 
Company came about, apparently as 
a safe retreat from the rapidly grow- 
ing difficulties and threatened over- 
taxation and insecurity in England, 
under the exactions of Charles I. 
Winthrop 's connection with the col- 
ony appears to have come about 



THE STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY 



m 



suddenly, very possibly as counsel, 
or because of his legal repute, and 
the transfer of the Charter and Com- 
pany to Massachusetts occurred early 
in 1630, the government consisting 
of Governor Winthrop, Deputy f , 
ernor Dudley, and eighteen ma 
trates or assistants, to be annually 
elected by all the members: and 
came another and somewhat different 
stream into the great Western reser- 
voir of liberty. We have not time 
to trace the vicissitudes of the first 
two or three years; but in a short 
time, under the new conditions, the 
essentials qualities of each man stood 
out in bold relief. Winthrop by all 
inheritance, association, and educa- 
tion was an aristocrat of the best type, 
loyal to the King, but consistently 
Puritan in religion. There were some 
democratic tendencies in his com- 
pany, which the first two or three 
years' contact with the new world, 
and with the men of the already old 
Plymouth Co' ;e ems to have con- 

siderably strengthened. Some rather 
stormy scenes occurred in the early 
attempts to interpret the rights and 
powers conferred by the famous 
Charter, and Deputy Governor Dud- 
ley put some rather* awkward ques- 
tions as to the ground and limits of 
Winthrop 's authority, citing several 
specific cases wherein the deputy and 
the assistants appear to have been 
quite superfluous, except as orna- 
ments of the government. But the 
questioning does not disclose any 
proper ground for complaint as to 
the wisdom of the acts; and the 
purity of Winthrop' s motives, and 
his masterly ability and loyalty to 
the true welfare of the Bay Company 



of Massachusetts have always been 
fully recognized. It wa uch 

scenes that Hooker and his fellow 
passenger among them the Rev. 
John Cotton, entered, in Se; 
1633. Hooker, an intensely 
and spiritual minister, of I 
intellect, and with all the concen- 
trated essence of democracy in his 
heredity, education, and sympathy; 
and Cotton, of quite opposite con- 
viction in matters of governr. 
both of Church and State, but also 
of profound learning and great repu- 
tation. Hooker appears always to 
have held the friendly regard and 
esteem of Winthrop, but was the 
guest of Dudley upon arrival ; and on 
account of his sympathies, naturally 
became identified with the c 
cratic, and then comparatively weak- 
er party in the Bay. as pastor at 
Newtown, afterward . ige ; 

while Cotton immediately be 
connected in an official way with the 
Church in Boston. It is interesting 
as a query, but hardly profitable to 
discuss, the relative social influences 
also at work in the colony at this 
time. From what has come down 
to us by way of tradition regarding 
the real color of the Boston blood, 
we can perhaps assume that the great 
questions of aristocracy and demo- 
cracy may have also agitated the 
social world somewhat ; and it is 
probable that there were some "dis- 
tinctions" between the women of 
Boston and Newtown, as well as 
"differences" between their husbands; 
long since, however, happily obscured 
in the deep blue haze which now 
hangs over the whole region. That 
these distinctions increased s 



40 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY 



what is indicated by an action of 
the General Court, taken a few 
years later and reported by Govenor 
Winthrop as follows: 
"The Court: 

"Taking into consideration the 
great disorder general through the 
country in costliness of apparel, and 
following new fashions, sent for the 
elders of the churches, and con- 
ferred with thern about it, and laid 
it upon them, as belonging to them, 
to redress it, by urging it upon the 
consciences of the people, which 
they promised to do. But little was 
done about it, for divers of the elder s 
wives, etc., were in some measure 
partners in this general disorder.'' 
The advent of Hooker appears to 
have been a very powerful stimilus 
in all those matters relating to the 
rights of the people under the Charter, 
heretofore interpreted almost solely 
by Winthrop. We are told in Hub- 
bard's General History "that after 
Mr. Hooker's coming over it was no- 
ticed that many of the freeman grew 
to be very jealous of their liberties." 
We should remember that Hooker 
came in September, i6jj, and was 
settled as pastor at Newtown in 
October. In the Spring of i6ji, 
Winthrop records ' ' that notice of the 
General Court to be held on May 
14th, being sent out, the freemen 
deputed two of each town to meet 
and consider of such matters as they 
were to take order in, at the same 
general court, who having met de- 
sired a sight of the Patent, and, con- 
ceiving thereby that all their laws 
should be made at the general court, 
repaired to the Governor to advise 
with him about it, and about the 



abrogating of some orders formerly 
made." 

A clear picture of an aristocratic 
believer in the sovereign right of the 
magistrate is given by the Gov- 
ernor's reply, which appears in the 
record as follows: 

"He told them that when the 
Patent was granted, the number of 
the freemen was supposed to be so 
few as they might well join in mak- 
ing laws; but now they were grown 
so great a body as it was not possible 
for them to make or execute laws, 
but they must choose others for that 
purpose; and that howsoever it 
would be necessary hereafter, to have 
a select company to intend that work, 
yet for the present they were not 
furnished with a sufficient number of 
men qualified for such a business; 
neither could the commonwealth bear 
the loss of time of so many as must 
intend it; yet this they might do 
at present; viz., they might, at the 
general court, make an order that 
once in the year a certain number 
should be appointed (upon summons 
from the Governor) to revise all laws, 
etc., and to reform what they found 
amiss therein; but not to make any 
new laws, but prefer their greivances 
to the Court of Assistants; and that 
no assessment should be laid upon 
the country without the consent of 
such a committee." 

A note by the eminent scholar who 
prepared the journal for publication 
says that "no country on earth can 
afford the perfect history of any event 
more interesting to its inhabitants 
than that which is here related." 

"Winthrop seems to have spoken 
like an absolute sovereign deigning 



A STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY 



41 



to grant a favor to his subjects by- 
admitting them to representation at. 
court. Such was the origin of most 
of the assemblies, in other nations, 
of delegates of the people, by whom 
some influence of the majority is 
imparted to the government." 

An indication that the freemen 
were "jealous of their liberties," 
appears through the efforts of the 
aristocratic Cotton in his sermon at 
the opening of this general court of 
May, 1634, who "delivered the doc- 
trine" that "a magistrate ought not 
to be turned into the condition of 
a private man" by the people any- 
more than a "freeman ought to be 
turned, out of his free hold" by the 
magistrate, without "just cause," 
determined in a "public trial." We 
are told that this doctrine "fell in 
question" in the Court, and the 
opinion of the rest of the ministers 
being asked, it was referred to "fur- 
ther consideration," which quite sig- 
nificantly does not seem to be re- 
ported. Evidently this was theology, 
about which the doctors disagreed. 

The "spirit of freemen" regarding 
their liberties is also apparent by 
the way in which they immediately 
exceeded the bounds so graciously 
set for them by the Governor, in the 
previous interview with the dele- 
gation which " desired a sight of the 
Patent" for they proceeded to the 
election of a new Governor (this 
time Dudley), " chosen by papers," 
as Winthrop records: and this is 
indeed a noteworthy record, as it is 
the first political use of the ballot of 
which we have any history. It is 
rather funny, under the circum- 
stances, to note Winthrop 's remark 



that "many good orders were made 
at this Court;" for besides electing 
someone else to be Governor, it re- 
stored provisions of the Charter; 
repealed orders of previous Courts, 
imposed a fine (afterward remitted) 
upon the Court of Assistants for ex- 
ceeding their authority in a certain 
case; enlarged the liberty of the 
towns; forbade the assistants to 
absent themselves from the Court 
without leave, under penalty of a 
fine; required Governor Winthrop 
to render an account of his admin- 
istration of the public funds and 
property; and ordained a regular 
representation of the towns in the 
General Courts by deputies clothed 
with all powers, excepting only, the 
matter of the election of magistrates 
and other officers wherein "every 
freeman is to give his own voice." 

Surely this list of "many good 
laws" betokens a very notable 
achievement of the freemen, consider- 
ing Winthrop 's earlier statement that 
"for the present they were not fur- 
nished with a sufficient number of 
men qualified for such a business." 

We can readily believe that such 
a thorough discussion and assertion 
of the principles of democracy could 
not have occurred without being ac- 
companied by some deep seated 
social disturbances also; and we are 
told that Cotton wrote a certain 
letter about this time, to Lord Say 
& Sele, in which he made this state- 
ment: "Democracy I do not con- 
ceive that God ever did ordain 
fit government either for church or 
commonwealth." Undoubtedly this 
sweeping assertion of power by the 
people was a popular reaction 



42 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY 



certain proposals from some Puritan 
peers in England, that in considera- 
tion of hereditary place in the gov- 
ernment of the Colony, they would 
graciously transplant themselves and 
their estates to Massachusetts. It 
can readily be imagined that after 
reports of the "many good laws" of 
the General Court of 1634 had reached 
them, they were less anxious to trans- 
plant hereditary institutions to these 
inhospitable shores. Out of the agi- 
tations of this memorable year there 
seems finally to have come some 
determination by the people of New- 
town to move their town elsewhere. 
Some expeditions had already been 
sent to Connecticut to examine the 
country, and in the Fall General 
Court ' ' many things were agreed and 
concluded which do not appear upon 
record; but the main business which 
caused the adjournment of the Court 
was about the removal of Newtown." 
It appears that they had leave at the 
previous Court which "made many 
good laws" to look out some place 
for enlargement or removal, with 
promise of having it confirmed unto 
them if it were not prejudicial to any 
other plantation; and now they 
moved that they might have leave 
to remove to Connecticut. 

The matter was debated divers 
days and many reasons alleged pro 
and con, among which were the need 
for more room for growth, and we 
may perceive as a mark of his pro- 
phetic vision, that Mr. Hooker alleged 
a fundamental error had been com- 
mitted in setting the towns so near 
each other. The fruit fulness and 
commodiousness of Connecticut was 
also urged; and surely not the least 



reason was "the strong bent of their 
spirits to remove thither." Among 
the opposing arguments we note 
with special interest the statement 
by Governor Winthrop that the "de- 
parture of Mr. Hooker would not 
only draw many from us, but also 
divert other friends that would come 
to us." 

For the time being, the differences 
were composed, and the colony af- 
fairs proceeded without special rela- 
tion to Connecticut until 1636, unless 
we may note that Winthrop the 
younger came in the Fall of 1635 with 
Commission from Lord Say, Lord 
Brooke, and divers other great per- 
sons in England to begin a plantation 
in Connecticut and to be Governor 
there. Whether this may be as- 
sumed as bearing any anticipatory 
relation to the pending disturbances 
in the Bay Colony is uncertain; but 
the record seems to be rather in favor 
of the Newtown petitioners, and in 
1635 the removal of the people of 
Watertown, Dorchester and New- 
town began, for we are informed by 
Winthrop that "about sixty men, 
women and little children went by 
land toward Connecticut with their 
cows, horses and swine, and after a 
tedious and difficult journey arrived 
safe there." 

The following year "Mr. Hooker, 
pastor of the Church of Newtown, 
and the most of his congregation, 
went to Connecticut. His wife was 
carried in a horse litter; and they 
drove one hundred and sixty cattle 
and fed of their milk by the way." 
Thus began the settlement of Wind- 
sor, Hartford and Wethersfield, and 
a political movement of the utmost 



THE STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY 



43 



interest in the history of Constitutional 
Government', for, soon after, the peo- 
ple assembled in Constitutional Con- 
vention and adopted certain "Funda- 
mental Orders," which placed Con- 
necticut in the proud historical posi- 
tion of promulgating for the first 
time in the world, a written Consti- 
tution which recognized the full 
authority of the people in establishing 
an "orderly and decent government 
according to God," recognizing only 
this dual Sovereignty. It is worth 
our while to emphasize this important 
and unique position by some few 
quotations from eminent authorities: 

Johnson says in his history of 
Connecticut : 

" It is on the banks of the Connecti- 
cut, under the mighty preaching of 
Thomas Hooker, and in the Consti- 
tution to which he gave life, if not 
form, that we draw ,the first breath 
of that atmosphere which is now so 
familiar to us." 

, Fiskes' Beginnings of New England 
says: 

" It marked the beginning of Amer- 
ican Democracy, of which Thomas 
Hooker deserves more than any other 
man to be called the father." 

Another authority* says of Thomas 
Hooker that he was "The man who 
first visioned and did much to make 
possible our American Democracy." 

Robinson's Constitutional History 
of Connecticut says of this Consti- 
tution that it was "The first instance 
of a written Constitution adopted by 
the suffrages of a people and recogniz- 
ing no allegiance to the King, Prelate, 
or other earthly power." 

"No lover of democracy, no be- 
liever in the right of self-government 



by a people, can read it without a 
sense of worship, nor recall its authors 
but with reverence." 

Some shorthand notes of a sermon 
which Mr. Hooker preached at the 
time of the Connecticut General Court 
which formulated the Fundamental 
Orders, were found and deciphered 
more than two hundred years later, 
and afford the clear evidence that 
he exerted large influence in shaping 
this historical document; for in this 
sermon, from the text "Take you 
wise men, and understanding, and 
known among your tribes, and I will 
make them rulers over you." 

He states the Doctrine. 

1st. That the choice of public 
magistrates belongs unto the people 
by God's own allowance. 

2nd. The privilege of election 
which belongs to the people must be 
exercised according to the will and 
law of God. 

3rd. Those who have the power 
to appoint officers and magistrates, 
it is in their power also to set the 
bounds and limitations of the power 
and place unto which they call them, 
because the foundation of authority 
is laid in the free consent of the 
people. 

This is surely a clear statement of 
principles which we all now believe 
to be essential; and the full sermon, 
of which the notes give only the 
skeleton, must have been a remark- 
able description of democratic socie- 
ty. 

These Fundamental Orders pro- 
vided for the elections of Magistrates 
"on this manner." 

"Every person present and quali- 
fied for choice shall bring in (t< 



44 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY 



persons deputed to receive them) 
one single paper with the name of 
him written in it whom he desires 
to have Governor, and he that hath 
the greatest number of papers shall 
be Governor for that year." 

A similar process of election by 
"one single paper written upon" is 
outlined for the other magistrates. 

This definite Constitutional plan 
of election by "papers" is interest- 
ing when taken in connection with 
the fact that the Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Court in the spring of 1634, soon 
following Mr. Hooker's arrival, was 
notable not only for its "many good 
laws," but for the first election of 
Governor by means of written "pa- 
pers." 

These orders also provided that in 
case the "Governor and major part 
of Magistrates shall either neglect or 
refuse to call the two General Stand- 
ing Courts, or either of them, as also 
at other times when the occasions 
of the commonwealth require, the 
Freemen thereof, or the major part 
of them, shall petition to them so 
to do ; if then it be either denied or 
neglected, the said Freemen, or the 
major part of them, shall have power 
to give orders to the Constables of 
the several towns to do the same, 
and so may meet together, and choose 
to themselves a Moderator, and may 
proceed to do any act of power which 
any other General Court may." 

There are eleven of these ' ' Funda- 
mental Orders," in which about 
everything which has since been found 
essential to the practical organiza- 
tion and working of democratic gov- 
ment is "ordered, sentenced, and 
decreed." 



The tenth order provides, among 
other things, that no General Court 
"shall be adjourned or dissolved 
without the consent of ttu major 
part of the court." These eleven 
orders were voted January 24th, 1639, 

Having surmised the relationship 
previously mentioned between Thom- 
as Hooker and. John Pym, it is an 
interesting context to read the fol- 
lowing from an article in the Brit- 
tanica about Charles I: 

"In November, 1640, he was com- 
pelled to summon the long Parlia- 
ment. The Commons were now hap- 
py in a leader magnificently fitted 
for the times. His fiery energy was 
repressed, not quenched, by the ripe- 
ness of his age; his courage and 
determination were too firm to be 
shaken; his respect for law and 
order was deep and strong; but 
deeper still and stronger were his 
love for liberty, and his resolve that 
nothing should serve as a bulwark 
against despotism. With the sagac- 
ity of the true statesman, Pym struck 
the first blow at the strongest pillar 
of the hateful structure. 

"Charles yielded by confirming a 
bill, according to which the Parlia- 
ment then sitting was not to be dis- 
solved without its own consent. Be- 
fore the triumphant course of the 
Commons everything had now to 
give way. The Triennial Bill was 
passed, Ship money, the Star Cham- 
ber, the High Commission, the Council 
of the North, the Council of Wales, the 
Council of Lancaster and Cheshire, 
the whole system of illegal exaction 
and injustice were swept away." 

Truly a remarkable coincidence in 
point of time between the setting 



THE STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY 






up of the true principles of democracy 
in Connecticut, with provision that 
no General Court should be dissolved 
without its own consent, and the 
assertion of similar principles in 
England. The possible relationship 
between Hooker and Pym goes far 
to explain this coincidence. 

Not long after this time a call 
came from England for Mr. Cotton, 
Mr. Hooker and Mr. Davenport to 
go to England as members of an 
important church council which was 
to consider some questions of church 
government, etc. All were appar- 
ently ready to go, and we are told 
that in Boston, the call was "strongly 
apprehended to be of God;" but 
upon receipt of letters from Mr. 
Hooker, it appeared that he thought 
it "not wise or necessary to go three 
thousand miles to agree with three 
men," these being .the three who 
constituted the minority; and it 
soon transpired that his was the 
better judgment. One can almost 
conclude that he was in regular com- 
munication with friends in England 
who could inform him as to the prob- 
able course of events, so clearly did 
he forecast the matter. 

In Boston, affair^ were in a tem- 
pestuous state for a time following 
the settlement of Connecticut. The 
questions of Charter Rights, and 
what Winthrop calls, when describ- 
ing the election of Haynes to be 
Governor, "the absolute power of 
the people," were to some extent 
settled; but the opposing currents 
in the new state were still causing 
many eddies, some of which, espec- 
ially those of a religious nature, 
seriously threatened its welfare. Win- 



throp 's clear judgment was soon 
again in demand, and he was once 
more Governor. 

Into the midst of some of these 
Colonial differences, came a demand 
from England for the return of the 
Charter. For a time this seemed 
to unite the opposing factions in 
defence of their common rights ; and 
Winthrop, with his usual consummate 
lawyer's skill in such matters, pur- 
sued successfully his famous policy 
"to avoid and protract," which in 
this cause was greatly to the service 
of the Colony, for the Charter was 
retained; but we cannot resist the 
temptation to remark that perhaps 
this historic policy of Lawyer Win- 
throp has sometimes since been 
practiced in less worthy causes. 

Soon after the settlement of Con- 
necticut, some occasions for corres- 
pondence between Winthrop and 
Hooker arose, and an outline of Win- 
throp 's letter and a large part of 
Hooker's reply, are fortunately pre- 
served. Certain statements from this 
correspondence are so significant of 
the general position of the two 
leaders that they become virtual 
epitomes of our subject. Winthrop 
having written that he was "firmly 
persuaded of the unwarrantableness 
and unsafeness of referring matters 
of counsel or judicature to the body 
of the people, because the best part 
is always the least, and 01 that best 
part the wiser part is always the 
lesser." Hooker replied that "On 
matters of greater consequence which 
concern the common good, a general 
council chosen by all to trans 
business which concern all is most 



46 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY 



suitable to rule and most safe for 
relief of the whole." 

The contrast between these differ- 
ent beliefs marks the difference be- 
tween Aristocracy and Democracy : 
between government "of the people 
for the people by the people," and 
the "Divine right of Kings," which 
is gradually but surely perishing from 
the earth: the whole struggle of 
history and civilization is really 
between the "Winthrops" who be- 
lieve in the right of the "wiser lesser 
part," and the "Hookers" of Gen- 
eral Counsel." 

An example of Hooker's clear 
thought and the directness of his 
style as a preacher, appears in the 
following extracts from an answer 
by him to the question "What is 
a powerful minister?" 

"The word is compared to a sword; 
as, if a man should draw a sword 
and nourish it about, and should 
not strike a blow with it, it will doe 

no harme: A common kind of 

teaching when the Minister doth 
speake only hoveringly, and in the 
generall, and never applies the word 
of God particularly, may be com- 
pared to the confused noise that was 
in the ship wherein Jonah was, when 
the winds blew and the sea raged, 
and a great storm began to arise. . . . 
The common delivery of the word 

is like that confused noise all 

this while men sit and sleepe care- 
lessly and never looke about them, 
and rest secure ; but when particular 
application comes, that shakes a 

sinner, as the pilot did Jonah 

This general and common kind of 
teaching is like an enditement with- 
out a name: if a man should come 



to the assizes, and make a great 
exclamation and have no name to 
his enditement, alas, no man is 
troubled with it, no man fears it, 
no man shall receive any punishment 
by reason of it. So it is with this 
common kind of preaching, it is an 
enditement without a name." 

Both the great men were Puritans 
and patriots, and conscientiously 
differed, as men may still differ, 
upon the essential principles of gov- 
ernment; but both were able to in- 
clude in the articles of confederation 
between the New England planta- 
tions, the foundation statement that 
"We all came into these parts of 
America with one and the same end 
and aim, namely to advance the 
Kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

The Laws of Nature, which are 
the great and perfect examples, bear 
equally upon all. There can be no 
higher duty in a popular government 
than to preserve equality of right, 
not only before the laws, after they 
are made, but also in the process of 
making them. 

Armed struggles of class against 
class have become too frequent ; and 
the rapid growth of social divisions, 
and of defensive organizations, is a 
serious menace to the continued 
welfare of the States. These troubles 
are very largely the result of a deep 
seated objection to unequal laws. 
This objection is sometimes ignorant 
as to details, but it is nearly always 
right as to the essential facts. 

The power of materialism, and the 
financial rewards to be secured by 
serving the interests of selfish capi- 
tal are now so great, that these 
temptations must often be tremen- 



THE STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY 



;t 



dous. Perhaps it is not strange that 
some should seem to yield occasion- 
ally; it is not for us to judge, nor 
should we always follow: but it is 
of the greatest importance that cit- 
izens should all unite in an effort to 
establish safer conditions. 

The old town of Windsor pre- 
served for more than two hundred 
years the notes of Hooker's sermon 
at the General Court, to which we 
have referred; and at about the 
time when these notes were de- 
ciphered, this same old town of 
Windsor gave Connecticut a poet, 
whose spirit burned with the true 
fire of genius when he wrote the 
following verse upon "Opportunity:" 



This I beheld, or dreamed it in a dream: 
There spread a cloud of dust along a plain; 
And underneath the cloud, or in it, raged 
A furious battle: and men yelled, and swords 
Shocked upon swords and shields. A Princess 

banner 
Wavered, then staggered backward, hemmed by 

foes. 
A craven hung along the battle's edge, 
And thought "Had I a sword of keener steel — 
That blue blade that the King's son bears. 
But this blunt thing! " He snapt and flung it from 

his hand 
And lowering, crept away and left the field. 
Then came the King's son, wounded, sore bestead 
And weaponless, and saw the broken sword, 
Hilt-buried in the dry and trodden sand, 
And ran and snatched it; and with battle shout 
Lifted afresh he hewed his enemy down, 
And saved a great cause that heroic day. 



To return briefly Jto another inci- 
dent of Colonial history, Winthrop 
tells us at considerably greater length, 
the following interesting story about 
"A great business upon a very small 
occasion." 

During the year 1637, a poor widow 
of Boston lost a pig, and a pig strayed 
into the yard of a certain wealthy 
Captain, whom Winthrop says was 
noted as a "hard dealer in his course 
of trading." The Captain adver- 
tised the stray, but the pig was not 
claimed until a year after, when the 



poor widow claimed her property; 
but she failed to identify it clearly, 
and asserted that a pig which the 
Captain had meantime butchered, 
was the one which she had lost. 
The lawsuit which followed was 
first decided in the Captain's favor, 
but was finally appealed to the 
General Court, and became a famous 
controversy. After a hearing which 
occupied "the best part of seven 
days," the Magistrates decided seven 
to two in favor of the Captain; but 
the Deputies decided fifteen to eight 
in favor of the widow, who thus 
had a joint-ballot majority. How- 
ever, according to precedent, the 
"Negative Voice" being solely with 
the Magistrates, the widow lost her 
case in the court of final resort. The 
people became greatly aroused over 
the question, and demanded that the 
Magistrates be deprived of the power 
of the Negative Voice. The Magis- 
trates argued for their established 
prerogative and Winthrop declared 
that the desired change would "alter 
the frame of government" and make 
it a "mere Democracy." 

There are still some "hard dealers 
in their course of trading," and the 
poor widow's lost pig of Colonial 
days has multipled exceedingly. 

Concerning Winthrop, we have 
very full and complete written rec- 
ords; and to him we are indebted 
for many most interesting and in- 
structive details, both in the making 
and in the record of the early history 
of New England. 

Concerning Hooker, we have only 
the merest fragments of personal his- 
tory, and the following noble tribute 



48 



ARISTOCRACY VERSUS DEMOCRACY 



from his surviving friend, John Win- 
throp, who says, speaking of an 
epidemic, "That which made the 
stroke more sensible and grievous, 
both to them and all the country, 
was the death of that faithful servant 
of the Lord, Mr. Thomas Hooker, 
pastor of the Church of Hartford; 
who for piety, prudence, wisdom, 
zeal, learning, and what else might 
make him serviceable in the place 
and time he lived in, might be com- 
pared with men of greatest note; and 
he shall need no other praise; the 
fruits of his labors in both Englands 
shall preserve an honorable and happy 
remembrance of him forever." 

And so these two men stand before 
us. 

JOHN WINTHROP, Patriot, Gov- 
ernor, and Aristocrat, will ever live 
in the memory of Americans as one 
of the greatest men of early New 
England history. 

As a Christian Patriot, able to 
yield without bitterness when neces- 
sary, and still to serve the State with 
unswerving devotion; 

As a Governor, far-seeing, sagacious 
and always zealous for every interest 
of that State which afterwards fired 
those shots in defence of American 
liberty which are still echoing around 
the world ; 



As an Aristocrat, type of all con- 
servative wisdom, respect for the 
established order, and for the func- 
tions of Government; and supplying 
an element of great importance to 
the stability, balance and welfare of 
the great nation which has grown 
up out of the New England Con- 
federation. 

THOMAS HOOKER, Preacher 
Founder, Democrat. 

As a Preacher, so powerful that 

"Each ear that heard him said, he spake to me, 
So piercing was his holy ministry." 

As a founder of Connecticut, espec- 
ially worthy of the affection and last- 
ing honor of all its citizens. 

As a Democrat, gifted with the 
clearest, practical and prophetic vis- 
ion of true popular government ; rec- 
ognized as having, in Massachusetts, 
"inspired the freemen to become 
more jealous of their liberties;" and 
in Connecticut, those Fundamental 
Orders, which are famous as the first 
written Constitution in all History 
which recognizes only the supreme 
Sovereignty of God and of the People. 

Let me close with a verse from 
Samuel Stone's elegy on Thomas 
Hooker : 



"If any to this platform can reply 

With better reason, let this volume die. 
But better argument if none can give 
Then Thomas Hooker's policy shall live." 



WE ARE ALL TRAVELERS ALONG THE GREAT HIGHWAY— IF THE BURDEN 
OF A FELLOW-JOURNEYMAN BECOMES TOO HEAVY. THEN GIVE HIM 
A "LIFT"— IT'S A LONG AND HARD ROAD AND MAYBE SOME DAY YOU 
AND I WILL NEED A LITTLE FRIENDLY HELP 



WHO WERE THE PURITANS 

MEN WHO SACRIFICED FOR A SIMPLER AND PURER LIFE— 
OUR AGE NEEDS A REVIVAL OF PURITAN STURDINESS 
OF CONSCIENCE AND MORAL COURAGE— CLEAR EXPOSI- 
TION OF PURITAN PRINCIPLES 

BY 

JOEL N. ENO 

Of New Haven, Connecticut. 

Author of "The Dwellers," "The Nomenclature of Towns" and other articles in 
The Connecticut Magazine 



THERE has always been a 
Puritan element in the 
Church, even back to the 
days of Elijah and the "sev- 
en thousand who had not bowed the 
knee to Baal;" and in all succeeding 
ages those who stood for a pure and 
spiritual or heart -worship, rather than 
outward ceremonies. . 

A body of Christians arose in Eng- 
land in the sixteenth century "Re- 
formation" under Henry VIII (whose 
main object was to make himself in- 
stead of the Pope the head of the 
Church in England). They desired 
a spiritual worship and were called 
Puritans under Queen Elizabeth, 
about 1562, because they were al- 
ways pleading for a simpler, purer 
form of worship, and insisting on a 
stricter, purer life, and further reform 
within the Church of England, from 
which at that time they had no idea 
of separating. These ideas were 
strengthened by the cruel measures, 
including the Inquisition, used by the 
.Duke of Alva under the King of 
Spain to crush or exterminate the 
Dutch Protestants, 1567-1573, and 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew's 



day, 1572, of the French Protestants. 
The Dutch refugees from Alva 
brought with them to England an 
inspiration to a more radical doc- 
trine, Separatism; that is, that a 
local body of believers organizing 
themselves had a right to exist as 
a church, though separate from the 
State (or Government) Church. Sev- 
eral thousand humble people became 
Separatists. Elizabeth used pressure 
to suppress separate worship. Both 
Puritans and Separatists, on the ac- 
cession of James I, hoped that he, 
being Scotch, and reared among Pres- 
byterians, would be less rigid in en- 
forcing conformity to the Church of 
England. But James made even 
more despotic, if less politic, claims 
for royal prerogative. Many Sepa- 
ratists fled to Holland to escape 
oppression and punishment; whence 
one congregation, John Robinson's, 
sent forth the Pilgrim Fathers to 
Plymouth. The despotism of James 
I, and of his son Charles I, in State 
as well as in Church, roused a party 
of opposition, sometimes called the 
political Puritans, mostly commo- 
and middle-class Englishmen of strong 



50 



WHO WERE THE PURITANS 



minds, good judgment, sterling char- 
acter, Calvinistic theology, stern earn- 
est manners, strong integrity, per- 
sistent for liberty and right ; favoring 
education, especially of the clergy, 
much needed at that time; some of 
themselves university men, and some 
men of means. Starting as non-con- 
forming members of the Church of 
England, the Puritan element in 
general gradually grew up into two 
parties ecclesiastically; the more 
conservative and numerous tended 
to Presbyterianism and affiliation 
with the Scotch Presbyterians; the 
more radical and forceful party tend- 
ed to the principle of local church 
independence. 

Charles I, on coming to the throne, 
proved more obstinately tyrannical 
than his father, and many Independ- 
ents sought quietness and security 
in emigration. Thus they settled' 
New England; often by congrega- 
tions; as at Salem, the Dorchester 
Church afterwards settled at Wind- 
sor, Conn., Hooker's congregation at 
Hartford, and Davenport's at New 
Haven. The first period of Puritan 
emigration was from 1629 till the 
struggle between Charles I and Par- 
liament, which ended in the Civil 
War. 

Says one author: "The Puritans, 
though maligned and ridiculed, fur- 
nished much that was best in the 
free Constitution of England." The 
same may be said of the part of the 
Puritans in the free Constitution of 
the United States. The Puritans 
have been blamed for want of toler- 
ance — by those whose ancestors in 
Puritan times were in great need of 
excuse for their own intolerance. 



The idea of religious tolerance was 
then unknown except in some small 
corners of the world. Cromwell and 
Ms Independents, when dominant in 
England, during the Commonwealth, 
granted a degree of religious toleration 
which was in advance of the age. 

Great reforms, like great bodies, 
move slowly. Rome, either imperial 
or ecclesiastical, was not built in a 
day; nor could the principle of in- 
tolerance , which the Church of Rome 
taught by example and precept for 
many centuries, be outgrown in a 
day. 

The Independent, in old or New 
England, believed that religious in- 
terest though not ecclesiastical rule 
transcended secular. Unlike the 
Catholic and the Anglican, he owned 
not a human but only a Divine 
Supreme head of the church. We 
may admit that some, like Saul of 
Tarsus, may think they are "doing 
God service" in suppressing what 
"in ignorance" they think is dan- 
gerous religious error; for con- 
science itself is human and needs 
to be enlightened. The Puritans of 
New England sought light through 
a study of the Scriptures and such 
other learning as was then in vogue, 
founding Harvard College about six 
years after the beginning of Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony, and making a gen- 
eral ordinance in about 17 years, 
that every parent or master should 
furnish his child or apprentice with 
a common school education. Look- 
ing to the Scriptures for their rules 
of government, they thought they 
found them in the Mosaic model; 
so they dwelt in a considerable 
degree under the shadow of Sinai 



WHO WERE THE PURITANS 



51 



and the influence of the Spirit of the 
old dispensation. History shows 
that the lax age in which they lived 
sadly needed resolute and uncom- 
promising representatives of right- 
eousness. In missionary spirit they 
sought, too, to impart Christianity 
to the Indians. 

In modern times, the banishment 
of Roger Williams is cited as a 
striking example of intolerance. He 
was a young Cambridge University 
man and an ordained minister. Later 
though espousing Separatism, he de- 
sired to preach in Massachusetts, 
1631. A good man, but an extremist, 
with more zeal than tact ; fond of 
new ideas, and more free than re- 
spectful in expressing them, he is 
aptly characterized by John Quincy 
Adams as "conscientiously conten- 
tious." The very fact that such a 
man expected a place among the 
Puritans shows his high opinion of 
their toleration. The fact that he 
refused, to the people to whom he 
came, top reach for them unless they 
repented of having had communion 
with the Church of England, shows 
that he even presumed upon it. 

The Puritans had great reverence 
for the ten commandments and the 
Sabbath. Williams told the mag- 
istrates they had no right to punish 
Sabbath breaking or any other of- 
fence against the First Table (duties 
to God). He upbraided the minis- 
sters who had held a friendly con- 
ference, as thereby inclining to Pres- 
byterianism. It would have been 
wonderful and unnatural if he had 
not become a persona non grata to 
all classes of Puritans. Yet he 
preached for a time in Salem and 



then became assistant pastor to the 
Plymouth Separatists. It was thence 
probably, that he circulated a "book" 
denying the validity of the King's 
patents or grants of land, on the 
ground that he had no title to any 
land in America, and charging King 
James with a "publick lye" and 
blasphemy. The Puritans had exiled 
themselves, first from the Church of 
England, and then from England 
itself, to preserve unmixed what they 
believed was the purest form of 
religion. William's book was a chal- 
lenge to the most extreme and obsti- 
nate stickler for royal prerogative 
that ever sat upon the English throne ; 
at least no other pushed his stickling 
till he lost his kingdom and his head. 
In 1633, Williams was back at Salem, 
objecting to the ministerial confer- 
ence. To harbor him was to invite 
vengeance from the King, and per- 
haps the breaking up of the settle- 
ment. The authorities warned Wil- 
liams against persisting in his utter- 
ances against the King ; and at length 
after about two years of trial, set a 
time limit; if he persisted till then, 
he must do it elsewhere. He per- 
sisted, and left. Yet he afterwards 
speaks highly of Governor Winthrop, 
and the Massachusetts Council in 
1676, hearing that Williams' house 
was burned, offered him residence 
in any town. (See Geo. E. Ellis. 
"The Puritan Age in Massachusetts;" 
and the Colonial records.) 

The charge has been made that 
Williams was banished because he 
preached the purchase of lands from 
the Indians. The truth is, King 
James' grant suggested such pur- 
chase, and the early Puritan records 



52 



WHO WERE THE PURITANS 



and reports to England prove that it 
was the practice of the New England 
Colonists, and that they paid more 
as settlement increased the value. 
About the end of their first century 
they paid the Stockbridge Indians 
£1700 for the rather infertile Rich- 
mond-Lenox tract. At the then high 
rate of money it was probably at 
least $12,000, our money. Williams' 
theory criticized the English for buying 
on the basis of English, not Indian, 
land tenure. Governor Winthrop in 
his journal makes the pertinent hit 
that Williams' practice was the same 
as the Puritan. In the Quaker and 
some other cases, as one writer ob- 
serves, the Puritans punished and 
confined people in jail, whom we 
should put in an insane asylum, and 
whose wild doings the Quakers of a 
later day would be the* last to coun- 
tenance. 

The address of the Massachusetts 
Puritans, to King Charles I, in 1660, 
sets forth the cause of their emigra- 
tion, and their relation to the Church 
of England. "Wee could not live 
without the publicke worship of God. 
Wee were not permitted the use of 
publicke worship without such a 
yoake of subscription and conformity 
as wee could not consent unto with- 
out sinne. That wee might therefore 
enjoy divine worship without the 
human mixtures, without offence, 
either to God, man, or our own con- 
science, wee, with leave, but not 
without tears, departed from our 
country, kindred, and fathers' houses 
unto this Pathmos. Ourselves, who 
came away in our strength, are by 
reason of long absence many of us 
become grey haired, and some of us 



stooping for age. The omission of 
the prementioned injunctions, to- 
gether with the walking of our 
churches, as to the point of order, 
the congregational way, is all wherein 
wee differ from our orthodox breth- 
ren." 

The principle of fellowship and 
local association grew to a custom 
among the New England Independ- 
ent churches, thus making them 
Congregational. The first church of 
that name in New England was that 
organized in England, 1616, which 
came to Scituate, 1634, and settled 
permanently at West Barnstable, 
Mass., in 1639. From the original 
congregation, says Barber, sprang 
also the first church of modern Bap- 
tists in England. 

It is characteristic of human society 
to swing from one extreme to the 
other, from over-government to an- 
archy, from the tyranny of one to the 
tyranny of a mob, from stern char- 
acter and justice to softness and 
sentimentalism and condoning of 
crime. It is the latter of these ex- 
tremes, perilous and by the light of 
history, deadly, that threatens us. 
It is the same God in the moral as 
in the natural world, and Nature has 
a sure penalty for the breaker of 
her laws. Does not Nature herself 
teach, by pain, by sickness, by death 
itself, that not personal gratification 
of all our wishes, not selfish pleasure, 
is the main object of human exist- 
ence; but the greatest good to the 
greatest number, the evolution and 
advancement of the race as a whole 
through the improvement of the in- 
dividuals who are to be parents. 
Nature compels her creatures to 






WHO WERE THE PURITANS 53 

exercise their bodily and mental spoiled men and women, the great 

powers; the animals, for an object cause of spoiled and broken homes, 

lesson to us, train their young. Na- _^ < t1 . - . , , _ 

, ' n x J . , .1 moral weaklings, who in trouble flee 

ture does not allow us to remain chil- . 

dren, but evidently intends us to *° dnnk or to suicide. Our age needs 
develop into the bodily, mental and more than anything else, a revival 
moral stature of full manhood and of Puritan-like sturdiness of con- 
womanhood. Spoiled children make science and moral courage. 



ON FINDING AN INDIAN ARROW-HEAD 

By ANGELINA TUTTLE 

There in the field where since the white-man's reign 

My ancestors had yearly tilled and sown, 
Tossed from the soil where it so long had lain 

An arrow-head, frost-white and glistening shown. 
I stooped to seize the treasure there upcast 

With cry of thanks to plow and frost and rain 
When other hand than mine, from out the past 

Did snatch the trophy to itself again. 

With something kin to awe I glanced about, 

A change had fallen o'er the peaceful plain; 
Keen twang of a bow, and yell, and bloody route 

And ghastly, scalpless heads and heaps of slain 
Oppressed my sight. Then from the woodland wide 

The fleeing deer, pursued, scarce sprang in view 
Ere stinging arrow pierced his dappled side. 

Where chestnuts brown and nutty beech mast grew 
And native grasses hung their seeds to dry 

The grouse and turkey led a battening train, 
And flights of pigeons darkened half the sky — 

Amid them all the arrow stole its gain. 

Beside a tepee, squat, dark-haired and dim, 

A savage chipped with flint and stone ax, rude; 
He gossiped, eyed his work, basked in the sun, 

Ate, smoked and oft his patient task renewed, 
Till point acute, barbs peaked and jagged side, 

A shaft he gave well hung for aim and speed; 
Sat boasting of his skill, viewing with pride 

This thing his hand had shaped to serve his need. 

Three inches scarce of quartz, cruel and keen! 

Chilled is my heart, by fancies weird oppressed. 
I gaze about the dear familiar scene, 

Pre-empted of my own and dispossessed. 

Wallingford, Connecticut 




£*vt 



JEm-fri 



kitt^, 



MY OLD NEW ENGLAND HOME 

CHILDHOOD IN A CONNECTICUT VILLAGE A HALF CENTURY 
AGO— THE MOTHERS OF THE PRESENT GENERATION AND 
THEIR THRIFT — POSTHUMOUS PAPER LEFT BY THE LATE 

DR. IDA R. GRID LEY 

Of Collins ville, Connecticut 
(Illustrations found with manuscript in the effects of the deceased) 



SUNSET among the New 
England hills! The shad- 
ows wrap like a protecting 
mantle the valleys and hill- 
sides. Round one lone peak, the 
highest of all, the last long sunbeams 
still dance and shimmer in the gently 
swaying foliage. How I loved that 
old hill when I was a child ! For J -was 
born and spent my childhood on & 
remote farm among the New England., 
hills. In the mountain homes the 
old time habits and customs,; like the 
rays of the setting sun, linger far ^.ong.- 
er than among the villager people. 

Among the vivid pictures of my 
childhood's memories are scenes that 
people of the twentieth century will 
never witness. 

In a queer little red house down" 
under a hill, so hidden by trees and 



shrubs and flowers that one could 
scarcely see more than the chimney 
from the road, until just upon it, 
lived Mr. and Mrs. Almon Messinger, 
a pair that belonged to the age before 
stoves were invented. They never 
had one in their house, except a little 
one that belonged to a relative. I 
used to ; wat ch Mr&j fessinger .cooking, 
making 'boiled-eider ^ppk sauce and 
other ^goo4 things in her kettle hung 
on the ^ f , crane over, ,t lie Jire on the 
hearth^ and wonder how she could pre- 
mier her fire to our nice stove at home. 
Among- my - earliest home * memor- 
ies is the making: of jt^ie,- yearly stock 
of candles. This was- usually done 
late in the fall. For many even- 
ings mother would work busily twist- 
ing strands of Wicking pi the right 
length aricl size upon small pine rods 

To ym lo feaftjj • 91*1 



MY OLD NEW ENGLAND HOME 




Each rod usually carried six or eight 
wicks. When all the rods were filled 
mother chose a cold day and began 
the tedious work early; for this was 
something that one could not hurry. 
A big wide^topped iron kettle was 
filled almost to the brim with melted 
tallow. The rods Of wicks were shak- 
en out and laid in regular order across 
two wooden bars supported by blocks 
about fifteen inches from the floor 
in an unheated roofti. There the hot 
tallow was brought and <my mother, 
seated in a low chair beside the bars 
began the monotonous work of ' ' dip- 
ping" the candles. One rod was 
taken up, the wicks straightened and 
carefully dipped in the melted tallow, 
held for a moment in the air to drain 
and then replaced on the bars. Anoth- 
er rod quickly followed until all had 
been dipped once. This process the 
patient worker must repeat many 
times until the candles assume the 
proper size. It reads like an easy 
thing to do, but I remember that it 
took considerable skill to keep them 
from ,,being uneven and crooked. 
That is the way we made candles for 



"everyday" use. ' For "company 
use" we "run" the candles in moulds. 
That sounds easy too, but I remem- 
ber how they would stick some- 
times and break, and come out fit for 
anything but "company use." 

In summer my ever-busy mother 
made the supply of cheese for the 
coming year. I can see her now 
straining the foaming new milk into 
a large boiler, my pet and I standing 
by, eagerly watching. Kitty was 
selfishly interested and kept purring 
and rubbing and coaxing in that 
wordless language which all cats know 
so well how to use, until mother gave 
her the customary saucer of rich 
white foam. Then, from the cool back 
buttery, mother would bring the 
pitcher of rennet and pour into the 
warm milk as much as she thought 
necessary, stirring it rapidly with a 
tftg long white wooden knife, which 
she used later when the milk had set 
to cut the curd and let the whey sepa- 
rate. This was the first step in the 
long process of making a cheese. 
A day or two later my mother we\i\l 
bring into the kitchen a stack of 



56 



MY OLD NEW ENGLAND HOME 



creamy white hard curds. Slowly 
and tediously she cut each one into 
small dice-like pieces, and when all 
were finished, allowed them to stand 
a moment in hot water, then whisked 
the whole mass into a strainer in the 
cheese basket to drain off the whey, 
added just enough salt — my mother's 
judgment never needed the petty ac- 
curacy of measuring glass and scale — 
and sometimes a few finely minced 
leaves of fragrant sage fresh from the 
garden, then deftly packed it into the 
old cheese hoop and placed it in the 
press. What creakings and snap- 
pings and groanings resounded 
through the house that still summer 
day — while the old bag of stones on 
the rude lever steadily sank to the 
floor pressing the light curds into a 
compact, neat little cheese!! 

Sheep were kept upon our farm in 
those days and I have watched the 
whole process of transforming the 
wool into cloth. I can see now how 
scared and pleading the eyes of the 
patient sheep looked as they lay upon 
a rude platform in the barn, bound 
head and foot so they could not move, 
and my father running his merciless 
shears through their soft fleeces, clip 
— clip — clip, sometimes just grazing 




the skin, sometimes cutting more 
deeply. How they shivered the next 
day if there came a cold northeast 
rain! If we were in a hurry to use 
the wool, mother would wash it and 
dry it and take a pair of cards, and 
by motions which I can not de- 
scribe transform a lump of wool into 
a flat roll. Usually the wool was 
carried to the carding mills in Bur- 
lington to be made into pound rolls. 
I can hear now the cheerful hum and 
whirr of the wheel and my mother's 
measured tread, as she steadily paced 
back and forth, drawing out the 
clinging fibers into a thread and even- 
ly twisting it and pulling it to give 
it firmness and strength. Some of 
the yarn was reserved for making 
cloth and mother made dyes of mad- 
der, cochineal, indigo or logwood and 
colored the untwisted yarn. Then 
mysterious processes went on up in 
the attic, the warping of the "piece." 
The "chain," as it was called, was 
reeled on to the large spools and these 
set up on pins, one tier above another, 
in the warping bars. Now my moth- 
er took the threads from all the spools, 
arranging the threads according to 
the plan of the piece, and fastened 
them to one corner of the frame on 




OCcl SCftjj 



MY OLD NEW ENGLAND HOME 



57 




opposite side of the attic, then to the 
other corner, up and down and back 
and forth across that frame until the 
"chain" was in order ready to roll 
on the big beam of the loom, when 
father would come up to help. Some 
one held the "chain" steady and he 
"beamed it on" by turning a kind of 
rude crank. This done, there was 
still a number of hours work before 
the weaving could begin. The warp 
must be picked through the harness 
with the fingers and then through the 
reed with a flat wooden hook. 

Right cheerily buzzed and purred 
the little quill wheel when evening 
came and mother sat down to the 
tedious work of winding the "filling" 
on small paper quills just large enough 
to fit in the little boat shaped shuttles. 

The warp having been secured to 
a rod and that rod made fast to a 
beam in front, then the work of weav- 
ing began. To and fro the shuttle 
flew, back and forth swung the mov- 
able beam in the weaver's hands, 
beating unconscious time to the 
swiftly flying shuttle. 



That was a wonderful garret where 
our loom was. There never was 

another just like it. Away back un- 
der the roof were hidden some things 
whose mysteries I never dared to 
solve. Oh! what days those were 
when it rained! Then I could play 
"up garret," and I would build won- 
drous castles about those things I 
just saw peeping out away under the 
roof, while mother worked, now and 
then stopping to tell me an old time 
story. I guess I'll go up in the old 
attic some rainy day and hunt up 
thej|old |things and dream again — 
but stop a moment. The old loom 
is gone — the old garret is empty now 
— the old curiosities that tantalized 
my childish fancy so much are dust. 
In my dreams I live again those hap- 
py scenes and wake to find that 

"All are gone the old familiar faces 
Ghost-like I paced round the haunts 

of my childhood 
Earth seemed a dessert I was bound 

to traverse, 
Seeking to find the old familiar faces." 

Part of the yarn was doubled and 
twisted and reeled into skeins for 
knitting. When the long winter ev- 
enings came, Aunt Azubah sat in her 
corner by the south side of the stove 
with a candle on the stand beside her 
and mother at the table opposite 
with another candle and the two had 
good-natured knitting matches in 
which my aunt usually came out 
ahead, while my father sat in his arm 
chair by the wood box and tended 
the fire and told marvellous hunting 
stories and now and then a witch 
story that would make me cove: 
head up completely with the bed 
clothes when I went to bed that 



58 



MY OLD NEW ENGLAND HOME 



night. There was one about old Aunt 
Rosie, an old dame who lived alone 
and who used to wonder why the 
boys and girls refused her offered 
treat of buttermilk. "Why," said 
she, "Pussy likes it, and I like it." 
She had a reputation of being a witch. 
Some one in passing near her house 
one dark night had heard strange 
mutterings and rumblings through 
the hills — and Aunt Rosie was out — 
folks said; and actually one time 
somebody was churning cream and it 
wouldn't come, and it wouldn't come 
and somebody said "heat the poker," 
and somebody did it and put the 
poker in the cream and out jumped 
a big black cat, right out of the churn 
and ran away as fast as he could, and 
Aunt Rosie was laid up with a bad 
burn for a long time. About this 
time my mother's gentle voice inter- 
posed, "Horace, Horace, you mustn't 
tell such stories before the child." 
Then I was convinced that there was 
something dreadful in the big, grown- 
up world, and it might catch me that 
very night ; so I covered my head a 
little closer than usual that night 
when I went to bed ; just leaving the 
tip of my nose sticking out ; a habit 
of -which I haven't succeeded in break- 
ing myself to this day. 

Often their reminiscences took a 
deeper vein. How those old stories 
that father and mother and aunt 
were so fond of telling, thrilled and 
charmed me. One of them was from 
a series of faithful pictures "of that 
most revered personage of the past, 
the minister. For over • a ; century 
the people on the hins'Tiaft' looked 
fondly to the little church in the val- 
ley for their inspiration. The N win- 



ter of 1857 was one noted for its ter- 
rible storms. In the midst of one of 
the severest snow storms, Jairus Burt, 
the pastor of that church for thirty 
years, died. My father never wear- 
ied telling how the men from far and 
near on the hills gathered with their 
stout ox teams and broke the roads 
to the church the day before the fun- 
eral, and how the winds blew that 
night and packed the fast -gathering 
snow into new drifts and in the morn- 
ing all the roads were filled with 
drifts higher and firmer than the day 
before; but, undaunted, the men and 
their teams gathered once more and 
in the stinging cold wind worked 
their way, painfully shovelling the 
snow step by step until they reached 
the church. None went from the 
hills to that service except with ox- 
teams. Very few women were brave 
enough to face the intense cold of 
that storm, and so the men from the 
hills and the valley came together and 
buried him who had led them in their 
thought for thirty years. No com- 
mon man was he. When the first 
whispers of freedom for the slave 
were heard he caught the sound long 







0m 



* Uy !*?i nlV"" 



ss*««ei'y old icw 



MY OLD NEW ENGLAND HOME 



59 




OCoL CXtKci 

before other deafened ears and began 
to preach stirring abolition sermons 
that shook the old church to its very 
foundations. The brethren waited 
on him in a body and asked him to 
promise to stop praying for the slaves. 
"That," said he, with fine prescience, 
"I cannot do, for the time may come 
when you may want me to pray for 
them." He lived to see the day 
when every one of those who wished 
him to desist was ready to urge him 
on in the cause of freedom. 

Then my mother would tell, with 
that old time fondness for death-bed 
scenes and dying words, how, when 
all knew that Mr. Burt must die, one 
of the brothers of the church asked 
him what his feelings were about 
dying, and how the old preacher re- 
plied, - 'VBrotheity r I have no fears." 

Some days, when it stormed real 
hard, my mother would bring from 
its treasured corner , a i ,han,dful of 
smooth, silky , grey flax atfd her, own 
mother's little linen wheel &nd, seat- 
ing herself near the 1 window to' make 
the most of the dim light of' t'frer grey 
day, she ! would put the 1 flax on the 



distaff and turn the wheel with the 
treadle, and, moistening the flax fib- 
ers from the little can of water that 
hung on the wheel, she would deftly 
twist and roll them and pull them 
out together into a fine even thread. 
I can hear now the soft purr of the 
little wheel regularly broken by the 
click-clack of the treadle. My moth- 
er always loved this work; for it 
brought her hosts of happy memories 
of her own childhood and her mother ; 
but she seldom spun much flax be- 
cause flax raising had ceased long ago 
to be an industry among the farmers. 
When I was a child I sowed a few 
flax seeds just to see how the blos- 
som looked, and I can picture to 
myself how beautiful a field of flax 
must have been in bloom, a waving, 
shimmering sea of blue and green. 
What maiden of today can ever 
take such pride in her wedding outfit 
of ready made linen, bought in a de- 
partment store, as she could in one of 
1800? The maiden of 1800 watched 
the flax blossom, helped prepare it 
for hatchalling, carded it, spun it, 
wove it, bleached the cloth and ted- 




"W t Si 

r 



60 



MY OLD NEW ENGLAND HOME 



iously sewed by hand every one of 
the dainty articles. What a host of 
dreams and hopes and plans were 
blended in the warp and woof of such 
fabrics ! No wonder our mothers and 
grandmothers cherished most ten- 



derly every scrap of cloth so rich in 
memories ! 

As I look at the past, I cannot help 
querying whether the world has 
gained or lost by taking these in- 
dustries out of our homes and mas- 
sing them in great centers. 



FRAGMENTS FROM "THE ROSE MAIDEN" 

(Sung by the Hartford Conservatory Choral Union.) 



Green vale and vine-clad mountain 

Lie locked in snowy sleep : 
No lark is skywood singing, 

And all the world doth weep. 
Still do great clouds of darkness 

Float o 'er the silent land, 
Like forms of phantom giants, 

That wander hand in hand. 



Oh! hear thou king of. beauty 
The sadness of my sigh ! 
Though Summer comes in glory, 
In Winter must I pine, 
Whose soul is filled with longing 
For greater bliss than thine! 

Nay — why should all my gladness 

For thee alone be pain? 
'Tis to make red the roses 

That Spring will bloom again. 



But hast thou then forgotten, 

Thou, who a Rose art born, 
That 'tis the fairest Roses 

That have the sharpest thorn? 
That fount thou fain would 'st drink of, 

Ne'er pure on earth appears, 
Whose sweetness must be mingled 

With bitterness of tears. 



Where gloomy pine-trees rustle, 

And slender larches stir, 
Where spread their heavy plumage 

The cedar and the fir. 
There on the forest's margin, 

The ranger's cottage stood 



And looked across the valley 

Down from the dark green wood 
Among the pine-trees madly 

The wild north wind may rush, 
And scatter cones and branches, 

And rave through brake and bush 
Both though o'er hill and valley 

The winds of Winter storm, 
Still fast within that cottage 

Stay's Summer's radiant form. 



Hast thou wandered in the forest, 

In its depths so green and still ? 
Hast thou listened to the music 

Of the leaf and of the rill 
Hast thou wandered in the forest 

When the Sun 's first gladness shines, 
And the purple light of morning 

Sets aglow the towering pines ? 
If thou hast aright beholden 

All the glory of the trees — 
If thy soul has rightly gathered 

All their wondrous harmonies — 
In the shadow of the forest 

Shall thy bitter longing cease, 
And thy heart shall weep no longer, 

And thy spirit shall have peace. 



Yea! e'en as die the roses, 

Must die the^ truest heart, 
They that rejoice, must sorrow, 

And they that love, must part, 
But yet, O God, we praise Thee, 

Who blendest night and morn ; 
Too lovely were Thy roses, 

Were they without a thorn. 



WINTER 

By ANNA J. GRANNISS 

In her book of poems "Speedwell " 



He is here, he has come in his coat of mail; 
His breath is the frost, his tears are the hail, 
His voice is the voice of the shrieking winds, 
And his crime is the worst of mortal sins, 
For his coming slays and his coming kills; 
Not a flower has he left to fields or hills, 
And woe to the lamb that has missed the fold, 
And woe to the shivering poor and old! 

His laugh is the roar of the mighty sea 
Leaping up its banks in a savage glee, 
And combing and tearing its own white locks 
On the cruel teeth of the jagged rocks. 
Through the blinding mist of the cold salt spray, 
The fishermen's wives peer out and pray, 
And woe to the mariner far at sea, 
Without a good hope for eternity! 

The cold hand of winter grips like a vise; 
His smile is the gleam of the sun on ice; 
He drives in the chariot of the storm, 
On the black cloud-rack you may see his form; 
His whip is a lash of the stinging sleet, 
And woe to the mortal with no retreat, 
While his keen eye searches every place 
For a crouching form or a half-starved face. 

His cloak is of ermine as soft as down; 
It glitters with crystals from hem to crown, 
And hidden away 'neath it's inmost fold, 
Unharmed by tempest, untouched by the cold, 
Beats the heart of Christmas — the love aglow 
Which was lighted two thousand years ago; 
And Winter's stern lips break forth in the song 
Which the world has known and has loved so long. 

Though his frosty breath may blight and kill, 

New flowers will come to the field and hill. 

We will seek the lambs that have missed the fold, 

And tenderly cherish the poor and old. 

We'll pray for the mariner out at sea, 

That his anchor hold for eternity. 

We will bid our neighbors be of good cheer, 

For the heart of Christmas beats all the year! 

It gives new life to the veins of spring; 

It throbs through the measures the glad birds sing; 

It sends the warm blood to the Summer's face, 

And gives unto Autumn her royal grace. 

But Winter, of all, is supremely blest, 

With that glowing heart in his rugged breast; 

Men say he has ever been cold and wild, 

But he cradles the birthday of "The Child!" 



Plainville, Connecticut 



HEWING HOMES FROM THE FORESTS 

HOUSE-BUILDING IN EARLY PART OF LAST CENTURY 
A SOCIAL EVENT ATTENDED BY NEIGHBORS— BOUN- 
TIFUL LUNCH PROVIDED AND ATHLETIC CONTESTS 
—ARTICLE BY THE DISTINGUISHED OCTOGENARIAN 

THEODORE SEDGWICK GOLD 

Of West Cornwall, Connecticut. 
Author of "Fostering the Habit of Industry" in recent issue of The Connecticut Magazine 



IN the early part of the last 
century there were many 
good farm and village houses 
erected in Connecticut. The 
conditions under which they were 
built are worthy of remembrance. 
There were carpenters in every town ; 
masons and painters were less nu- 
merous. There were boss carpen- 
ters, competent to lay out work and 
familiar with every bit of woodwork 
in a house from the selection of the 
timber in the forest to the comple- 
tion of the dwelling. If the farmer 
was fortunate in having pine or 
whitewood in his forests, he was 
independent in furnishing his building 
material, for of course he had oak 
and chestnut, and perhaps hemlock, 
butternut, ash, maple and cherry. 

The boss carpenters, being engaged 
a year or more in advance, gave the 
farmer the bill of hewing timber, and 
of the sawed stuff, boards, planks 
lath, studs, etc. The beams and 
posts were huge timbers, often a 
foot square, hewed with the broad 
axe; the sleepers of the ground floor 
were also of large size, and hewed 
perhaps only on one side, as were 
the rafters. 

The mountain brook gave power to 
the neighboring saw mills. If the 



farmers had a mechanical turn, he 
made his own shingles on rainy days, 
or there were shingle shavers who cut 
the blocks in the forest and sized and 
shaved the shingles. The only arti- 
cles to be bought were lime, glass, 
brick, and a part of the nails and 
hardware. I say a part, for cut nails 
were just coming in to use and 
wrought nails were carefully pulled 
out from old buildings and used 
again, the farmer and his boys heat- 
ing them in the kitchen fire and 
straightening them on an anvil or 
an axe head stuck in a log, for the 
farmer was a worthy mate of the 
"busy housewife" who always spun 
or knit in the long winter evenings, 
as he churned or made axe helves, 
or read the weekly paper. 

The hardware was mostly made 
by the local blacksmith, whose skill 
is proved by his century enduring 
work. 

The boss carpenters usually had a 
shop, and employed one or more 
journeymen and kept one or two 
apprentices. In the winter and bad 
weather they worked in the shop, 
and made the doors, sash, window 
frames and blinds, if used, also got 
out the floor boards from rough lum- 
ber, by hand with rip saw and planes, 



HEWING HOMES FROM THE FORESTS 



63 



and ornamental mantles and cas- 
ings. 

The carpenters would usually come 
early in April and hew out the tim- 
ber and frame it and be ready to 
"raise" as soon as the foundations 
were ready. The "raising" was the 
great event of the year. The neigh- 
bors far and near were all invited and 
"many hands made light work" of 
the heavy timbers, and the job was 
safely accomplished before the hard 
cider or stronger liquids took effect. 
A bountiful lunch was provided. 
Then wrestling and ball games 
filled out the day. 

The carpenters commonly boarded 
with the farmer, going home over 
Sunday, if not too far. They worked 
a little before breakfast, keeping 
tools in order, and were ready for the 
day's work by 6 A. M. and worked 
till sundown with an, hour to wash 
up for dinner and to get back to 
work. They had supper soon after 
close of work. If they were at a 
nearly finished job, they would com- 
plete it, if daylight lasted. 

The boss carpenters usually re- 
ceived $2.00 or $3.00 per day, the 
journeyman $1.75 to $2.00 and an 
apprentice 50 cents to $1.00. The 
journeyman was able to lay out work 
as well as the boss, and nice work was 
often put in his charge. He had 
his own chest of tools. The appren- 
tices did as much hard work as any, 
but received small pay from the boss, 
who was expected to teach them all 
about the use and care of tools and 
laying out work. If the boss had 
other jobs engaged he would put on 
men enough to finish the house in 
two or three months, but otherwise 



it might drag along till cold weather. 
This is a story that carpenters tell 
of their craft: "That they make 
folks twice glad — first when they 
come, and second when they leave 
the completed work." 

The masons usually worked two 
together, first perhaps in building 
cellar work and chimneys, and later 
in lathing and plastering. There 
were stone masons who split and cut 
stone and laid cellar walls, and those 
who laid the brick and plastered. 
These received about the same wages 
as carpenters or a little higher, be- 
cause their employment was steady, 
but each man's pay depended upon 
his reputation for skill and honest 
work. The man of good judgment 
in planning work, economy in use of 
materials, and general efficiency, nev- 
er lacked employment and his price 
was never questioned, but there were 
others who had many an idle day. 

I have supposed all of this work 
to have been done by the day, but it 
was safe to let out the job to a good, 
energetic boss, who could save money 
both for himself and his employer, 
while an inefficient master would do 
poor work and save little even for 
himself. 

The farmer was supposed to do 
all his own hauling of timber, stone, 
lumber and other materials so as to 
provide against delay, and a house 
thus built, which the family have 
planned and labored together in 
building, is one of the foundations 
of a happy household, which children 
to the third and fourth generations 
may take pride in and enjoy. A 
long time is spent in planning the 
house, in size, location of rooms. 



64 



HEWING HOMES FROM THE FORESTS 



style in finishing, kind of wood em- 
ployed in floors and covering, ac- 
cording to the resources of the builder, 
and present and prospective demands 
of the family. 

Sometimes a newly married couple, 
just starting in life, built a house to 
accommodate a dozen or more and 
this was speedily filled with a lively 
family. Sometimes the old house 
was occupied till the growing de- 
mands of the family crowded, es- 
pecially when the daughters required 
more room to receive their visiting 
friends. 

It was not rare that one generation 
began housekeeping in a log house, 
then built a frame house of wood, 
later followed by a more durable 
and pretentious one of brick. The 
house -mother had her share in this 
house planning and building, and car- 
ried patiently her burden in boarding 
the extra laborers. Now for some 
of the results! The family in such 
a house, built by their joint labors, 
received an education of the highest 
value. Foresight, working in har- 
mony with the revolving year, in 
accordance with the laws of nature, 
is a heritage of a farm boy. The 
greater undertaking of building a 
house, under the conditions of gath- 
ring and preparing the materials 
for its construction, takes in a new 
field of experience, beyond the annual 



rotation of farm work. Too little 
account is taken of this foresight, 
which becomes a habit with the farm- 
bred child and has much to do with 
success and happiness in life. Chil- 
dren thus bred, formed an attachment 
to the old farm home, not only for 
the family itself, that it sheltered, 
but for all its childhood memories 
in furnishing food and shelter, cloth- 
ing and for all material wants, but 
also as establishing those habits of 
industry and foresight, holding on 
through life, which the tide of mi- 
gration has carried even to the Pa- 
cific Coast and the Isles of the sea 
beyond. 

Youth may be eager to seek the 
busy haunts of trade and commerce, 
yet it is the privilege and delight of 
age to seek again these quiet retreats 
of hallowed memory, thus binding 
together city and country, state and 
nation, and farm life holds its own 
as the basis of all material prosperity, 
where self dependence and helpful- 
ness for others is encouraged, the 
basis of all moral power and growth. 



Note. — There were other instances of house 
building of a different sort. A sudden emergency 
called for activity. A large farm house was burned 
during the absence of the owner in the War of the 
Revolution. Tradition is that the neighbors rallied 
in the thinly settled township, and in thirty-six hours 
from timber standing in the forest a complete 
frame stood on the old foundation. Every man 
for miles was a neighbor and came equipped with 
team and tools. These men were no poorer for 
this effort — for neighborly kindness enriches giver 
as well as recipient. 



HE IS GREAT WHO CONFERS THE MOST BENEFITS - 

FRIENDSHIP BUYS FRIENDSHIP. 

— Emerson. 




Plate loaned by John H. Dickerman Photograph by R. B. O'Brien 

OLD JONATHAN DICKERMAN HOUSE AT MT. CAR.MEL 




Plate loaned by John H. Dickerman Photograph b] B. II 9dMMfe 

OLD LEVERETT TUTTLE HOMESTEAD AT MT. CARMEL 



66 



THE HOMESTEADS OE OUR CHILDHOOD 




Plate loaned by John H. Dickerman Photograph by B. H. Schenck 

OLD JESSE TUTTLE PLACE AT MT. CARMEL 

Land purchased from the Indians and has always since been in the Tuttle family 







Plate loaned by John H. Dickerman Photograph by H. B. Welch) 

OLD SIMEON TODD HOMESTEAD AT MT. CARMEL 



THE HOMESTEADS OF OUR CHILDHOOD 




Plate loaned by John H. Dickerman Photograph by R. E. (TBrlen 

OLD CHATTERTON HOMESTEAD AT MT. CARMEL 




Plate loaned by John H. Dickerman Photograph by W. II Seheaek 

OLD ELAM IVES HOUSE AT MT. CARMEL 




DEEP CLEFT IN THE CLIFFS OF WEST PEAK, MERIDEN, CONNECTICUT 

VOLCANIC AND SEISMIC DISTURBANCES IN 
SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT 

LONG ISLAND ONCE A PART OF CONNECTICUT 
UNTIL AN ARM OF THE SEA RUSHED IN AND 
SEPARATED THEM GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

BY 

FRANCIS G. MARKHAM 

BORN IN EAST HAMPTON, CONNECTICUT IN 1 829 

AUTHOR OF "EARLY COINAGE OF MONEY IN AMERICA," "LONGEVITY AND THE MODERN DIETA- 

RIAN," AND OTHER ARTICLES IN THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE 



VERY few persons are aware of 
the tremendous disturbances 
in the nature of earth con- 
vulsions and gigantic vol- 
canic eruptions that took place in 
Connecticut in long past ages; long 
before historic man as recorded in 



the Bible Genesis. Where now are 
cities, villages and quiet homes, 
fertile farms and large forests, was 
once a scene of terrible devastation. 
A mammoth volcano vomited fire, 
ashes, melted rock, and these cov- 
ered a large territory in the southern 



VOLCANIC AND SEISMIC DISTURBANCES 



6, 



and central portions of the state. 
The question will immediately 
arise, How can these things be 
known? and the answer will be 
forthcoming at once. The effects 
are visible to-day and the causes 
can readily be traced. It is true 
that many of these effects have 
been recently discovered, but that 
is for the reason that a trained 
scientific eye has not heretofore 
been turned in that direction. 

More than twenty years ago a 
solidified ash heap was found near 
the old turnpike road between 
Hartford and New Haven, some 
three miles north of Meriden, close 
to the base of Mount Lamentation. 
Geologists at once pronounced these 
ashes to be of volcanic origin. 
Ages had caused the mass to 
harden, and it was as solid as some 
sandstone. Mixed at irregular in- 
tervals were what is technically 
known as "bombs" ; that is, pebbles 
of various sizes from that of a 



marble to a cocoanut. These were 
of a quartz formation, mixed with 
ashes, like plumbs in a pudding. 
Unlike other volcanic material, 
these pebbles did not fuse. At first 
it was supposed that the crater of 
this extinct fire mountain was close 
to the ash heap and search was 
made to discover its whereabouts. 
Subsequently, other ash deposits 
were found in Kensington and more 
of them in various other places, 
many miles from each other. In 
fact, one was recently found in 
southern Massachusetts, not far 
from Mount Tom. This has led 
some to believe that there were 
several volcano?, but it is more than 
probable that there was only one, 
and a magnificent "belcher," with 
tremendous force beneath, that 
caused the ground to be covered in 
so many different places. 

Diligent search has been made to 
find the exact locality of this vol- 
cano. Not a few think that Black 




WINTER LANDSCAPE FROM WEST PEAK, MERIDEN, CONNECTICUT 

Reprinted from The Connecticut Maga/ine, Volume IV, Numl ( 



7° 



VOLCANIC AND SEISMIC DISTURBANCES 



Pond, on the Middletown road, three 
miles east of Meriden, is the long- 
lost crater. More scientists believe 
that it was located at or near Mount 
Carmel, six miles southwest of Wal- 
lingford. Unless I am much mis- 
taken, we shall never find the true 
location. 

This is not a novel, an imagina- 
tive story. It is a veritable history, 
and ancient history at that. 

Mother Earth was in the throes 
of intestinal trouble. Liquid fire 
was coursing through various chan- 
nels down deep beneath the surface. 
There were rumbling explosions, 
groanings and internal excitement 
that must find vent. And soon it 
came, and what pen can describe 
the grand power that shattered the 
earth in so many places. My vocab- 
ulary of words is sadly wanting to 
paint the picture. One may read 
pages of Dante's "Inferno" and 
faintly gather the idea of this terri- 
ble earth shake. Or a still bet- 
ter understanding of the situa- 
tion may be obtained by perusing 
the last chapters of Jules Verne's 
description of the destruction of 
"Mysterious Island." 

Mountains of earth and rocks 
were uplifted hundreds of feet. 
These rocks were seamed in every 
direction and the crevices varied in 
width from the fractional part of an 
inch to several feet. Most of them 
were perpendicular,showing that the 
power was expended from beneath 
and upward. Then, again, huge 
masses of these rocks were tumbled 
from the summits down into the 
valleys beneath, in many instances 
miles from their starting point. 
Such sights are seen to-day and are 
widely different from stones and 
rocks found in various other places 
due to the glacial period. 

Great chasms were formed. 
Rivers were choked and dammed 
and new channels sought and 
found. Different portions of land 
became separated and the sea 
rushed in between. In fact the 
whole surface of the territory of the 



now State of Connecticut was 
changed. 

The northern portion of Long 
Island was, before this time, a part 
of Connecticut, if not the whole 
island. A personal visit from what 
used to be called Astoria, now a 
part of Greater New York, through 
Northport, Huntington, Port Jeffer- 
son to Orient Point, convinces me 
that north Long Island and south 
Connecticut are identical and once 
a part of the same territory. The 
soil, the trees and shrubs are pro- 
ductions of both sections. Chestnut 
trees and the beautiful laurel bushes 
are found alike in southern Con- 
necticut and northern Long Island. 
This is not a new theory but has 
been advanced for many years. 
Students applying themselves to 
the question differ as to how this 
separation took place. Many think 
that when this great earth disturb- 
ance occurred, a portion of Con- 
necticut was sliced off and driven 
to the south, forming what is now 
Long Island, and an arm of the 
sea — Long Island Sound — rushed in 
between. My own belief is that 
during this great upheaval, when 
mountains and hills were newly 
created, a cavity or vacuum was 
made far down under the surface 
and, as a consequence, the earth 
sank to fill the cavity and the afore- 
said arm of the sea, or Sound, 
caused an equilibrium to be estab- 
lished. 

This furnishes more thoughts on 
a different subject. For territorial 
and sentimental reasons. New York 
should never have claimed Long 
Island. That island should belong 
to Connecticut. The reader may 
judge for himself if he has followed 
what has been presented as to the 
truth of the statement. New York 
also claimed and obtained Fishers 
Island, though only six or eight 
miles from the Connecticut shore 
and distant from New York State 
proper more than one hundred 
miles. The question of jurisdiction 
over this island was once a serious 



IN SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT 



7« 





■flHfer > 


§P** 






Si 




*"-'. -^SEX 




K£M' . *Wi3 





WEST PEAK SWEPT BY DECEMBER SNOWS 
Reprinted from The Connecticut Magazine, Volume IV, Number 2 



matter between the states and for 
what reason it was granted to New- 
York is unknown to this writer. 

Again, another feature of this 
peculiar subject presents itself. 
Where now stands the beautiful 
city of New Haven, with its lovely 
green, college and college build- 
ings, churches and blocks of stores 
and public edifices, its historic elms, 
was once covered by the curling 
waves of the sea. If there were 
fishes in those days they were swim- 
ming over the now historic ground. 
An arm of the sea extended where 
West River flows through Westville 
up to the Westville palisades. 
Another proceeded up Mill River, 
west of East Rock through Whit- 
neyville to Hamden. A longer 
stretch up the Quinnipiac through 
the west portion of Wallingford ex- 
tended into Southington. And 
another branch along the line of 
the New York, New Haven and 
Hartford Railroad, following the 



course of Harbor Brook, found its 
terminus in Berlin. Whether the 
sea has receded or the land elevated 
may be an open question. What is 
certain, the ground about the West 
River is higher than formerly and 
this rise has taken place within a 
few generations. Sloops with car- 
goes at one time discharged as far 
up as where is now the traveled 
road, also the trolley line between 
New Haven and Westville. To- 
day a mud scow could scarcely 
reach such a destination. 

It has long been a belief of my 
own, which has come to me after 
some years of study, that the 
famous''Moodus noises" was a result 
of, and connected with, the great 
volcanic eruptions and seismic dis- 
turbances in the ancient days. Not 
a few people in our state to-i!.iy 
will pronounce these noises to be a 
myth; a tradition which has no 
foundation in fact, but simply a 
superstition of the fathers. Such 



7 2 



VOLCANIC AND SEISMIC DISTURBANCES 




PERPENDICULAR CLIFFS OF WEST PEAK, MERIDEN, CONNECTICUT 



persons are wholly wrong. They 
did exist and are matters of record 
in history, and many now living- 
can testify to having passed through 
experiences with them. A writer 
in The Connecticut Magazine, 
some months since, gave an ac- 
count which was interesting and no 
doubt valuable to many readers. 
The story was first told in Trum- 
bull's early history of Connecticut; 
afterward the same statements were 
published in Dr. Field's statistical 
account of Middlesex County, and 
still later by Barber in his history 
of Connecticut, published about 
1836. Principally, all these stories 
were one, and nothing new has 
since been added. The writer could 
tell of many stories heard in his 
younger days, foolish, superstitious 
and irrelevant tales, that ought not 
to be printed in connection with 
this history. But I may be par- 
doned for mentioning two personal 



experiences that will illustrate the 
character of these noises. The first 
happened when I was about eight 
years old, when living in southern 
Chatham, East Hampton Society. It 
was a black, stormy night in Jan- 
uary. My father and mother were 
making an evening call on a neigh- 
bor and the boy was alone with his 
grandmother. Early in the evening, 
without a moment's warning, there 
came what seemed to be a tremen- 
dous rattle of stones on the south- 
ern wall and roof of the house. 
Chairs and other furniture were 
dancing about, dishes were tossed 
up and down. Every instant those 
stones were expected to break 
through. Consternation prevailed 
and the frightened lad sought the 
protecting arms of his paternal 
relative. She, good lady, did not 
say a word, but her face whitened, 
lips tightened and she was fright- 
ened, as well as myself. The dis- 



IN SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT 



73 



charge lasted only for a minute or 
two and suddenly ceased. After 
only a small space of time the bat- 
tery opened again, but now it was 
not so loud, so fierce in its attack, 
and soon died away altogether. The 
next hour we spent together was a 
miserable one, expecting at any 
minute a reappearance of the ap- 
parent deluge of stones. One cen- 
tral idea in the boy's brain remains 
at the present, and that was, the 
end of the world was at hand. 

Soon after nine father and mother 
came home, and the still agitated 
old lady questioned her son: "Did 
you hear those dreadful noises an 
hour ago?" "Certainly, mother," 
"And what were they?" "Why, 
don't you know? Those were 
Moodus noises." And so they were. 
Immediately gentle peace descend- 
ed and rested upon that disturbed 
household. 

The second experience may be 
more briefly told. It occurred some 
ten years after the first. My father 
sent me to Moodus on an errand, 



This errand was quickly finished 
and I decided to return home by 
way of Leesville, a little hamlet 
situated at the mouth of Salmon 
River where it empties into Lees- 
ville Cove. A near relative lived 
there and I was to call on him. 
All roads leading to this village 
were long, crooked, steep and stony, 
and when passing slowly down and 
within sight of the house a tremen- 
dous clatter sounded directly behind 
me. It was like a runaway team 
and the vehicle loaded with scrap 
iron. The rattle and rumble made 
things jar. Instinctively the horse 
was drawn to the side of the road 
that a collision might be avoided. 
Looking behind, nothing unusual 
was to be seen and now nothing to 
be heard. In a minute more the 
banging commenced again, but this 
time the noise was not so fierce and 
loud, but was apparently further 
away. Much mystified, but not 
greatly frightened, I drove into the 
yard of my friend's house, where 
he met me, smiling and with ex- 




MOUNTAINS TOWERING BETWEEN SOUTHING fON \NP MER1D1 N 



74 



VOLCANIC AND SEISMIC DISTURBANCES 



tended hand. The first question 
was, of course, "Did you hear that 
dreadful banging j ust now?" ' ' Yes 
indeed." "And what was it?" 
"Don't you know? That was a 
Moodus noise." Explanation was 
sufficient. My visit was a pleasant 
one. 

The question has been asked 
many times. Where do these noises 
originate and what the cause? No 
definite, complete answer can be 
given. They seem to be louder 
and fiercer along, or near, Salmon 
River, which for quite a distance 
forms the boundary between East 
Haddam (Moodus) and the town of 
Chatham. A number of theories 
have been advanced as to the cause 
of these miniature earthquakes. 
None of them is quite satisfactory. 
With some hesitancy I will give my 
own opinion. Some remains of the 
ancient fires are yet deep down in 
the bowels of the earth. Water 
trickles down through the crevices 
of rocks, reaches the fire. Steam is 
generated, expands and explodes. 
That is my theory and the satisfac- 
tion may be expressed; no one can 
say that it is not true. 

The question will naturally be ask- 
ed; Is it possible, or probable, that 
these disturbances will ever reap- 
pear in this locality again? Who 
can tell. The short-sighted mind 
of man may never foreknow. It is 
not within the province of science 
to trace the fire channels under the 
earth's surface; their direction; 
when or where the pent-up fires may 
break out. It may be Vesuvius in 
Italy, Hecla in Iceland; Mauna Loa, 
Sandwich Islands; St. Elias, Alas- 
ka, or from the sixteen active vol- 
canoes in Mexico? Perhaps the 
more recent terrific and destructive 
eruptions of Pelee and La Soufriere 
in the Island of Martinique may soon 
be repeated. Can scientists answer? 

What a shocking number of lives 
have been lost and vast amounts of 
property been destroyed by earth- 
shakes and tidal waves. Perhaps 



the greatest sacrifice of human 
lives occurred in the year 1731 at 
Pekin, China, when one hundred 
thousand lives were lost. In 1755 
that wonderful earthquake de- 
stroyed the city of Lisbon in Portu- 
gal and fifteen hundred houses 
destroyed with thirty thousand 
people killed — buried many fathoms 
deep under the sea! This same 
convulsion reached Malaga in 
Spain, where may lives were lost. 
Also across the Mediterranean Sea, 
and there the city of Fez in Morocco 
was partly destroyed and much loss 
of life. Tidal waves caused by 
internal explosions or earthquakes 
have sent many human souls quickly 
into eternity. Witness the great 
tidal wave, only a few years since, 
when the coast of Japan, China and 
adjacent islands were inundated 
and thousands of the inhabitants 
miserably perished. 

A catalogue of the many earth- 
quakes that have afflicted the world 
from j 606 B. C. down to the present 
is on record. While purporting to 
be official, for obvious reasons, the 
records cannot be entirely correct. 
No doubt the loss of life is exag- 
gerated in many instances. Still, 
that wholesale manner in which 
men, women and children have 
been killed is fearful to contem- 
plate. It may be truly said that 
more than one million persons have 
thus been obliterated! 

Just a word of advice as to the 
possible danger from earth dis- 
turbances in this latitude ever 
reaching us again. That advice is: 
don't worry. Eat, drink, sleep, 
work and play and let not your 
hearts be troubled. Man cannot 
foretell. Neither can he prevent 
disasters of this nature. Only the 
Almighty power that created the 
universe and made the laws for the 
government of the same, only His 
omniscience can possess the intelli- 
gence that regulates these seismic 
and volcanic disturbances. Then 
let us rest in peace. 




THE CONNECTICUT STATE BUILDING DURING LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION 



THE LITERATURE OF THE 

PU RCH ASE 



LOUISIANA 



OTHER THAN ITS MATERIAL SIGNIFICANCE IT HAS 

CONTRIBUTED TO LETTERS EXPRESSIONS LEADING 

TO ITS CONSUMMATION GIVE GRAPHIC PEN PICTURES 
OF THE PERIOD A WORLD'S FAIR AFTERMATH 



BY 

REV. GEORGE M. STONE, D.D. 

PASTOR ASYLUM AVENUE BAPTIST CHURCH AT HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT, FOR LAST 

TWENTY-FIVE YEARS 



THE World's Fair at St. Louis 
has been called "a great 
anthem of harmonious ef- 
fort." For reasons aside 
from its notable commemorations of 
the purchase of a vast territory 
from France by the United States — 
more than seven times the area of 
Great Britain and Ireland — it is an 
historic event of the first magnitude. 
Among these reasons we may not 
pass by the contribution it has inci- 



dentally made to our national litera- 
ture. The state papers and corre- 
spondence connected with the pur- 
chase, extending through several 
years previous to the consummation 
in 1803 have recently been pub- 
lished by the government. They 
form a body of most interesting 
and graphic pen-pictures of the 
period covered, and reveal in clear 
light the main actors in the event, 
including Napoleon, then First 



LITERATURE OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 77 




DINING ROOM CONNECTICUT STATE BUILDING 

Showing Hepplewhite Sideboard — Low-boy with Spanish feet— Dining Table, first empire — Set Chippendale Chairs 

Hepplewhite Chair 



Consul of France, and the high con- 
tracting parties on both sides. The 
most conspicuous of these were 
President Jefferson, on our part, 
and Barbe Marbois, on the part of 
France. But Livingston and Madi- 
son figure largely in this corre- 
spondence, together with Monroe 
and others, who were actors in the 
later negotiations. Incidentally, 
such notable names as those of Tal- 
leyrand and Joseph Bonaparte are 
named in connection with Napoleon 
the First, who is himself always 
designated at this time as Bona- 
parte. The characteristics of this 
remarkable man, as he appeared to 
those who were associated with him 
during the years 1802 and 1803, the 
time when negotiations regarding 
the great Louisiana tractwerechiefly 
under discussion, are among the 
most interesting disclosures of this 
volume of correspondence. He was 
flushed now with the victories of the 
Italian and Egyptian campaigns. 
The bridge of Lodi, and Areola, 
Rivoli, the crossing of the Alps, 



the spectacular Battle of the Pyra- 
mids, with more of rapid and bril- 
liant achievement, were behind 
him. He had become, if not the 
idol of France, the admired hero, 
the cynosure of all eyes, before that 
mercurial people. The map of 
Europe interested him far more 
than the map of the Western Conti- 
nent, but when Spain transferred 
the great territory of Louisiana to 
France, it became a matter of much 
interest to the man who was then 
reaching out for the crown of the 
latter. In the United States the 
matter excited greatest apprehen- 
sion and alarm. This was due in 
part to the imperious temper of 
Bonaparte, which had aroused jeal- 
ousy on two continents. Men like 
President Jefferson were in the dark 
as to the policy which France might 
adopt under the leadership oi the 
young conqueror who had aston- 
ished the old world and who might, 
notwithstanding the amicable rela- 
tions which had previously existed 
between France and the United 



78 



LITERATURE OE THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 




BEDROOM IN THE CONNECTICUT STATE BUILDING 
Showing Carved-post Bedstead — Bureau, first empire— Candle Stand, "tilt and swivel' 1 



States, be led into a hostile attitude 
toward her sister republic on the 
other side of the water. The pre- 
carious outlet for our western 
farmers, while a foreign power pos- 
sessed the mouth of the great Mis- 
sissippi River, made the condition 
a very serious one. 

In one of these letters, written 
by President Jefferson April .25, 
1802, he does not conceal his sense 
of the difficulties of the case. He 
says : 

"In Europe nothing but Europe 
is seen, or supposed to have any 
right in the affairs of nations, but 
this little event of France's possess- 
ing herself of Louisiana, which is 
thrown in as nothing, as a mere 
make-weight in the general settle- 
ment of accounts — this speck which 
now appears as an invisible point 
upon the horizon — is the embryo of 
a tornado which will burst on the 
countries on both sides of the 
Atlantic, and involve in its effects 
their highest destinies. That it 
may yet be avoided is my sincere 



prayer, and if you can be the 
means of informing the wisdom of 
Bonaparte of all its consequences 
you will deserve well of both coun- 
tries." 

So wrote Jefferson to M. Dupont, 
a friend of both nations. The rights 
of our commerce at the mouth of 
the Mississippi, together with the 
possibility of a purchase of Louisi- 
ana, were the vital issues at Wash- 
ington and over the West at this 
time. James Monroe was soon ap- 
pointed Minister Extraordinary to 
cooperate with Chancellor Living- 
ston, our Minister at the French 
Court, to secure in a peaceful way 
these desirable results. 

President Jefferson, writing in 
February, 1803, expresses himself 
with still greater stringency over 
the situation. He says: 

"The use of the Mississippi is so 
indispensable that we cannot hesi- 
tate one moment to hazard our exis- 
tence for its maintenance. . . . 
It may be said if this object is so 
all-important to us, why do we not 



LITERATURE OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 



79 




Early Colonial Mirror, 1750 — Banjo Clock, i8ig— Mirror with Acanthus Leaves, 1825— Concul Table, iSi; — 
Candelabra, 1825— Candle Stand, 1760— Martha Washington Tea Table, 1780— Tip Table, owned by Gen*] Jeremiah 
Wadsworth, 1760 

offer such a sum as to insure its 
purchase? The answer is simple, 
We are an agricultural people, 
poor in money and owing great 
debts." 



The personal equation of the 
First Consul, anxious for personal 
prestige, impatient not only of con- 
tradiction, but also of suggestion, 
greatly complicated the essential 
difficulties of the situation. 



Minister Livingston, writing to 
Madison, our Secretary of State, in 
this confused time, says: 

"There never was a government 
in which less could be done by r. 
tiation than here. There is no peo- 
ple, no legislature, no counsellors. 
One man is everything. He seldom 
asks advice and never hears it 
unasked. . . . The extreme 
hauteur of this government to all 



80 LITERATURE OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 





CHARTER OAK FRAME AND TABLET 

Above was on exhibition at Connecticut State Building during Louisiana Purchase Exposition— It is made of genuine 
wood from the famous Charter Oak, carved in symbolic design and bearing four dates of great significance in the 
history of Connecticut, 1630, 1662, 1687, 1789 — The tablet bears the title "Connecticut, The Constitution State," and 
quotations from distinguished historians upholding the claim 



around them will not suffer peace 
to^be of long continuance." 

Never were two men placed in 
more perplexing surroundings than 
were these two Americans — Living- 
ston and Monroe — in Paris, waiting 
upon the changeful will of the First 
Consul and his obsequious asso- 
ciates. Mr. Livingston, writing at 
midnight of April 13, 1803, between 
his hopes and fears, reports Marbois 
as thus describing Bonaparte to him : 

"You know the temper of a 
youthful conqueror; everything he 
does is rapid as lightning. We 
have only to speak to him as oppor- 
tunity presents itself; perhaps in a 
crowd, where he bears no contradic- 
tion. When I am alone with him I 
can speak more freely and he 
attends, but this opportunity seldom 
happens and is always accidental," 

Then the sum asked for Louisiana 



was at first wholly beyond the power 
of the United States to command. 
The most skillful diplomacy and 
the most tireless patience were re- 
quired to wait out the unreasonable 
and half capricious temper of the 
French statesmen, and at the same 
time satisfy the excited Congress at 
home. Happily, we had in M. 
Marbois a calm and judicious friend, 
who knew our country thoroughly 
and who had won the confidence of 
Bonaparte. He had represented 
France in an official capacity in the 
United States, and was an ardent 
sympathizer in our revolutionary 
struggle. Bonaparte chose him to 
act in the matter of Louisiana, 
instead of Talleyrand, whom he is 
said not to have wholly trusted. 
The overtures from Marbois, which 
were the first indications of a will- 
ingness on the part of Bonaparte to 
cede the whole territory to the 



LITERATURE OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 



8r 




1639 ^^\ N ^' 
CONSTiqmiON 
IWSCONNECTJCUT. 

CHAOTER SECURED BY ^ 
JOHN WSNTHROP.^ 

1687^ ■•^v^ 

THE CHARTER J4K^^" HIDDE.I^ 
IN THE ^fppi*. 0AK.n\ 

it 1 

UNITED STATESC0NSTITUT10N s 
ADOPTED ON 

CONNECTJCUT'S .MODEL^ 




OFFICIAL STATE BADGE 

United States for a price reasonably 
limited, were received by Livingston 
and Monroe as almost too good news 
to be true. Marbois subsequently 
said of the transaction: 

44 Instead of the cession of a town 
and its inconsiderable territory, a 
vast portion of America was in 



some sort offered to the United 
States. They only asked for the 
mere right of navigating the Mis- 
sissippi, and their sovereignty was 
about to be extended over the 
largest rivers in the world." 

The total sum agreed upon finally 
was fifteen millions of dollars. It 
is recorded that when Livingston 
placed his name to the treaty of 
cession, he arose and, shaking hands 
with Monroe and Marbois, said : 
44 We have lived long, but this is the 
noblest work of our lives." 

The celebrated treaty arrived in 
Washington July 14, 1803, and was 
not long after ratified by Congress. 

Questions of very considerable 
interest soon arose respecting the 
true boundaries of the ceded terri- 
tory. Its fertile plains, its noble 
rivers and mountain chains were 
both to Spain and France a terra 
incognita. Talleyrand said to Liv- 
ingston: 44 You must take it as we 
received it." 44 But what did you 
mean to take?" said Livingston. 
44 I do not know," replied Talley- 
rand, 4, I can give you no direction. 
You have made a noble bargain for 
yourselves, and I suppose you will 
make the most of it." 
^Not exaggerated was the state- 
ment of the historian who said: 
44 The cession ranked in historical 




OFFICIAL SEAL AND MARKER 



82 



LITERATURE OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 



importance next to the Declaration 
of Independence and the adoption 
of the Constitution." 

The taking possession at New 
Orleans involved an unique order 
of proceedings. First the Spanish 
authorities made a transfer to the 
French. The Spanish national flag 
was removed for the French ensign, 
which latter remained only for the 
brief period of twenty days. Then 
the second transfer was made to 
the United States by the French. 
Following the lowering of the 
French colors, the Stars and Stripes 
went up, greeted by trumpets, the 
salutations of troops, and the 
hearty cheers of American specta- 
tors. 

The letters of President Jefferson, 
in this extensive correspondence, 
reveal the qualities of his far-seeing 
and sagacious mind. Perhaps no 
other person living at the time 
weighed with a judgment so clear 
and penetrating all the issues in- 
volved in the transaction of the pur- 
chase. His satisfaction in the clos- 
ing of it was not concealed, and his 
profound satisfaction appears in a 
letter to Dr. Priestly, written from 
Washington January 29, 1804. He 
says: 

"I very early saw that Louisiana 
was indeed a speck in our horizon 
which was to burst in a tornado; 
and the public are unapprised how 
near this catastrophe was. Nothing 
but a frank and friendly develop- 
ment of causes and effects on our 
part, and good sense enough in 
Bonaparte to see that the train was 
unavoidable, and would change the 
face of the world, saved us from 
the storm. I did not expect he 



would yield until a war took place 
between France and England." 

The cloud of war which seemed 
at one time to be imminent, grow- 
ing out of disturbed relations be- 
tween Spain and the United States, 
in view of the objections to the 
cession on the part of the former, 
was soon happily dissipated, and 
the occupation of the Louisiana 
territory made peacefully secure. 

These extracts from the files of 
the State Department of 1802 and 
1803 may fitly close with the follow- 
ing record of the comprehensive 
estimate of Minister Livingston on 
the signing of the treaty : 

"The treaty we have signed has 
not been brought about by pressure ; 
nor dictated by force. Equally 
advantageous to both the contract- 
ing parties, it will change vast 
solitudes into a flourishing country. 
Today the United States take their 
place among the powers of the first 
rank. Moreover, if wars are inev- 
itable, France will have in the new 
world a friend, increasing year by 
year in power, which cannot fail to 
become puissant and respected on 
all the seas of the Earth. These 
treaties will become a guarantee of 
peace and good-will between com- 
mercial states. The instrument we 
have signed will cause no tears to 
flow. It will prepare centuries of 
happiness for innumerable genera- 
tions of the human race. The Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri will see them 
prosper and increase in the midst 
of equality under just laws freed 
from the errors of superstition, 
from the scourges of bad govern- 
ment and truly worthy of the regard 
and care of Providence." 



THE PURITAN IN LITERATURE 



THERE WERE SCHOLARS AMONG THE FIRST IMMIGRANTS 
WHO WROTE STRONG ELIZABETHAN ENGLISH BUT NO 
MEN WITH LITERARY QUALITY OR POETIC TEMPERAMENT 



BY 



CHARLES FREDERICK JOHNSON, M.A., L.H.D. 

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE AT TRINITY COLLEGE, HARTFORD 



M 



EN who emigrate, leaving be- 
hind them all the advan- 
tages of a settled civiliza- 
tion, the well-tilled fields, 
the churches about which are the 
burial ground of their fathers, the 
cities where life flows in a full 
tide — in a word, everything which 
appeals to love of country or of 
beauty — must be men of strong 
wills and of adventurous courage. 
Whether the impelling motive is 
a desire to better their material con- 
dition and the conviction that the 
old home is overcrowded, or the 
desire to escape from social condi- 
tions which restrict the freedom of 
action or expression a man of Eng- 
lish blood feels is his right, there 
must be something heroic in their 
hearts. 

This is especially true of the 
Englishmen who emigrated to the 
wilderness of America in the seven- 
teenth century. They knew how 
long, dangerous and trying was the 
voyage in a small ship over three 
thousand miles of water. They 
knew that they would find nothing 
but forests or, at best, the crude 
and scanty conveniences of frontier 
settlements, and that they must 
give up everything which made life 
agreeable to the senses. It is 
probable that had the first Plymouth 
settlers been able to foresee the 
hardships of the first winter after 
the Mayflower returned they would 
have remained in Holland. Much, 



no doubt, they did foresee, and that 
they came knowing what they must 
have known, though not the fearful 
sufferings which proved too much 
for the bodily endurance of over 
half of their numbers, proves that 
they were men of courage and forti- 
tude though the religious impulse 
was the dominant note of their 
characters. 

Now, men of this type are not the 
men who by nature love literary 
expression. The literary man is 
contemplative and philosophical. 
He loves the "still air of quiet and 
delightful studies." He is rooted 
in the past, his heart responds to 
old associations, he needs fellow- 
ship. Life appears to him a pano- 
rama, full of contrasts but inter- 
esting as a spectacle. He com- 
ments on it with gentle pathos, as 
Gray did in the "Churchyard of 
Stoke Rogis," or bitterly as Pope 
and Swift wrote of London, or with 
a humorous philosophy, as Gold- 
smith did, or with a mixture of 
common sense and prejudice, as Dr. 
Johnson did. Sometimes he loves 
the country scenes, the 

Meadows trim, with daisies pied, 
Shallow brooks and rivers wide. 

which delighted the eye of young 
Milton; or 

Towered cities please him then, 

And the busy hum of men, 

Where throngs of knights and barons bold 

In weeds of peace high triumphs hold. 



8 4 



THE PURITAN IN LITERATURE 



The writer loves the "passing 
show." And this was especially true 
of the seventeenth century before 
men had invested the wild places of 
the earth with a peculiar enchan- 
ment. No writer before Wordsworth 
loved nature in solitude. 

These considerations may serve 
to explain why no man of the pecu- 
liar temperament which marks the 
literary artist joined the early emi- 
grants from England to America. 
Such a one would have been out of 
place in a community where every 
man had to work for his living, 
where the conditions were such that 
the main object was to escape death 
from cold or starvation. There 
were scholars among the Boston 
Bay immigrants, no doubt; but a 
poet or a man profoundly interested 
in life as a spectacle would have 
found no home and no sympathy. 
He would have been of no use; he 
could have appealed to no one had 
he put in literary form the trials 
and struggles of pioneer life. And, 
indeed, his peculiar temperament 
would have prevented him from 
coming at all. So we find in Brad- 
ford's and Winthrop's journals and 
in the sermons of the first century 
in America, fine, strong, Eliza- 
bethan English, simplicity some- 
times and earnestness always, hut 
no literary form, no artistic con- 
sciousness on the part of the 
writers, and no detachment of the 
artist from his work; in a word, 
only one-half — though that may be 
the foundation half — of the quali- 
ties that go to make up a literary 
product. The poetic product — Mrs. 
Bradstreet's verse the "Bav Psalm 
Book" and the "Day of Doom"— 
are too elementary in construction 
to deserve the name of literature 
unless we extend the definition to 
include every untrained attempt at 
expression. 

The same reasons which explain 
why there was no literary produc- 
tion in America for the first century 
may also explain why for the next 



two centuries there was so little in 
the west. Literary men do not 
emigrate to unsettled communities, 
as said before, or, if they do, they 
do not write. The vigorous, adven- 
turous men leave home and "take 
the chances." But the blood was 
the same as in the old home. When 
life becomes settled, the artist is 
sure to appear, though his grandsire 
may have been of sterner stuff and 
his grandsire 's life was not en- 
vironed by the influences which 
cultivated the love for beauty and 
the cultivation of the various ways 
in which men seek to express their 
sense of the mystery of life. 

But, furthermore, the virile char- 
acter of the original immigrants 
persisted in their descendants to 
remote generations. The solid 
foundation of literature is thought, 
for literature is thought expressed 
emotionally. The Puritans were 
essentially intellectual. Their 

thought seems to us now to have 
been confined within the limits of 
a narrow system, but within those 
bounds it was vigorous. No intel- 
lectual drones could have followed 
with delight, as they did, the long 
and intricate argument of an elec- 
tion sermon. Again, their absorb- 
ing interest was with the things of 
an unseen world and with an ideal 
of duty and the supernatural sanc- 
tion of the moral law. Men whose 
overmastering anxiety was to be 
assured that they had brought their 
wills into harmony with the divine 
will, and so become God's elect, 
acquire and transmit strong wills, a 
vigorous mentality and a reverence 
for the distinction between right 
and wrong. Their view of life is 
intense though it may be narrow. 
They may be wrong in the applica- 
tion of principles to conduct, their 
principles may not be illuminated 
by gracious sympathies, but they 
never will be indifferent or care- 
lessly superficial. When the princi- 
ples are criticised in the light of 
fuller knowledge and modified by a 



THE PURITAN IN LITERATURE 



85 



fuller comprehension of the nature 
of the divine order — imperfect as 
it must always remain to finite 
intelligences — the old intellectual 
vigor, the sense of the seriousness 
of the world and the innate convic- 
tion of the worth of righteousness 
will remain. The Puritan in litera- 
ture is represented by Emerson, 
Hawthorne, Longfellow, Whittier, 
in whose pages the hatred of sin 
and the enthusiasm for justice is as 
evident as it is in the sermons of 
Jonathan Edwards, but the outlook 
on life is no longer restricted by 
the philosophy of a French clergy- 
man of the sixteenth century. The 
fences have been taken down, 
fences built by man himself to 
restrict the view of God's world, 
and the poet can see in this direc- 
tion and that over the field of 
humanity. But in essentials the 
poet is the same old Puritan 
who feared to do evil and wished 
to learn to do right. In the 
literature of the Puritans which 
did not appear till the nineteenth 
century, when he had leisure to 
look into his heart and write, and 
when first the artist appeared in 
America, there is no hint that sin 
may be attractive or that life is a 
playground in which it is best to 
enjoy some childish game in a 
refined manner. The sense of re- 
sponsibility to the Master is still 
present — it is a constituent part of 
the characters of the \Puritan artist 
as it was of the Puritan preacher 
who translated the Gospel into the 
Indian language. Longfellow says, 
in his simple verse : 

Life is real, life is earnest 
And the grave is not its goal. 

Bryant's "Thanatopsis" is a Puri- 
tan utterance on the solemnity of 
death. 

Emerson writes: 

"The soul is. Under all this 
rushing sea of circumstance whose 
waters ebb and flow with perfect 
balance lies the aboriginal abyss of 



real being . . . The soul saith: 
*I am born into the great, the uni- 
versal mind, I, the imperfect, adore 
my own Perfect.' " 

Hawthorne's tales are only a 
presentation of subtle and unex- 
pected spiritual forces working in 
our humdrum New England life. 
Everywhere we find the Puritan 
seriousness in our literature of the 
highest worth. Poe, of course, is 
not touched by it, but deals with 
the perverse, the incongruous, and 
the evanescent aspects of the world, 
and the workings of his genius are 
in direct contrast to the Puritan in 
literature. Poe, indeed, was as 
much a foreigner in America as 
Shelley was in England. 

There are two enthusiasms which 
inspire literary expression and are 
the fount and spring of its existence. 
One is the enthusiasm for moral 
beauty and the other is the enthusi- 
asm for concrete beauty, whether 
expressed in sound, form or color. 
The greater poets, like Shakespeare 
and Milton, respond to both of these 
emotions equally. Others of lesser 
rank are influenced disproportion- 
ately by one or the other of them. 
Poe and Swinburne love melody of 
expression and are not deeply 
stirred by the thought of heroism 
and moral integrity. It may be 
that our Puritan literature is not 
deeply fused in the aesthetic passion. 
Emerson was touched by the beauty 
of the lovely flower, Rhodora, but 
he makes it a symbol of divinity. 
Apparently he did not love beauty 
for its own sake. With Longfellow 
and Whittier it is always the gentler, 
quieter moods of nature that are 
artistically presented — those moods 
which have most affinity for good- 
ness. Neither celebrates brilliant 
color, for instance, but brilliant 
color has it own significance; it is 
one powerful expression of the 
general aesthetic scheme which 
underlies all created things. It may 
be this is a weakness in our later 



86 



THE PURITAN IN LITERATURE 



Puritan literature, for it deprives it 
of the characteristic of universality. 
But it is a direct inheritance from 
Boston Bay and Plymouth Rock. 
When the love of beautiful form 
and the reverence for the' moral 
ideal are united in the artist, he 
produces a masterpiece like the 
"Scarlet Letter," but we must con- 
fess that such a union is rare. No 
one would wish to lower the lofty 
severity of Emerson's standard, 
though we may wish that a sense of 
the beauty — especially in verse — 
had molded his thought in rhythm 
worthy its elevation and dignity. 

Joy in life, such youthful effer- 
vescence in the presence of nature 
and friends as finds expression in 
the poetry of Burns, is also wanting 
in our Puritan literature. Joy is 
not felt by those whose eyes are 
fixed on the meaning of the reality 
of life. Introspective contemplation 
does not promote high spirits and 
in New England the aspects of 
nature conduce more to resignation 
than to gayety. Perhaps the world 
is too old for spontaneous, cheerful 
song, at all events it has not been 
the outcome of our Puritan civiliza- 
tion and probably never will be. 
We are not a singing people, like 
the Latin races. Yet our ancestors 
were Englishmen of the age of the 
Elizabethan lyric, though appar- 
ently not the Englishmen that sang 
them. At all events, they brought 
none of them here, and of the popu- 
lar ballad verse only such memory 
as could indite the caricatures of the 



"Bay Psalm Book" and the "Day 
of Doom." That this is a loss 
cannot well be denied, and we must 
console ourselves with the thought 
that we have received by collateral 
inheritance at least the capacity to 
appreciate Elizabethan song even if 
through direct inheritance we are 
too serious-minded to reproduce it. 
The historical interest of such 
writings as have come down to us 
from the Puritan centuries of 
America remains very great even if 
their literary value is slight. They 
enable us to see how our fathers 
felt, what things they considered of 
importance, how they ordered their 
daily lives and what their standards 
were. And if we can put ourselves 
a little in their places and under- 
stand their frame of mind our re- 
gard for them will increase. We 
shall find, too, that they were 
devoid of some of the literary sins 
of our own time. They never wrote 
affectedly or with self-conscious- 
ness, they had a clear idea of what 
they wanted to say, though not 
always sufficient practice to say it 
with absolute clearness. That, 
however, is a deficiency not un- 
known among their descendants 
and, as Ben Johnson said of Shakes- 
peare: "they redeemed their vices 
by their virtues. There was ever 
more in them to be praised than to 
be pardoned" — very far more, for 
that which is to be praised is the 
root of the matter and that which is 
to be pardoned is superficial and 
non-essential. 



RING OUT FALSE PRIDE IN PLACE AND BLOOD, 
THE CIVIC SLANDER AND THE SPITE; 
RING IN THE LOVE OF TRUTH AND RIGHT, 
RING IN THE COMMON LOVE OF GOOD. 

Tennyson * f fn Memoriam" 



RELIGIOUS LIFE IN NEW ENGLAND 
A CENTURY AGO 

THE THEOLOGY OF THE PURITAN OUR HERITAGE FROM HIM 

IS IRON IN THE BLOOD DILUTED BUT NOT LOST TODAY WE 

REALIZE THE BEAUTY, AS WELL AS THE DUTY, OF GOODNESS 

BY 

MRS. E. L. MORRIS 

OF NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT 



AS I write the words, there 
comes before me a vision of 
stern men and long-suffering 
women who climbed the 
steep ascent to Heaven through 
suffering, toil and pain. They were 
people who never got out of the 
Old Testament, and to whom the 
life to come was far more vivid 
than the life that is. Their creed 
was impossible to man ; and in try- 
ing to live up to it they lost all 
sweetness out of life. It was Camp- 
bell, I believe, who says, in writing 
of this period: "The Puritan 
crossed the line of his own logic, 
failed to see his own drift, was 
caught in a tide he could not resist, 
wrought according to his light and 
vanished." 

The Puritan long since went out, 
but his light remains. "Gnawing 
at his tough old creeds, "he gained a 
certain power of digestion that is 
altogether lost to us. But our her- 
itage from him is iron in the blood, 
happily diluted and tempered but 
never wholly lost. 

To our forefathers the Supreme 
Being was an awful and relentless 
Deity, sitting in wrath in his high 
place, infinitely removed from mor- 
tals, a greater and more implacable 
Jove, with surer thunderbolt and 
more of them. 

"Pride," says Dr. Chauncey (second 
president of Harvard College), is a 
sin that God testifies his anger 
against by earthquakes. Also Sab- 
bath breaking." 



There was none of the twentieth 
century good comradeship between 
God and man a century ago. Man 
judged his brother man and woman 
without pity. Mt. Sinai was more 
significant than Calvary. Conse- 
quently, the fathers were like the 
God they worshipped — a God of 
their own setting up from Moses' 
pattern, and the image of a Heaven- 
ly Father must have been some- 
thing appalling to a young and 
tender mind. 

In the great company of the for- 
given our Puritan ancestors must 
stand at the Last Day; but we can- 
not think of their children standing 
beside them without the awe that 
invests the presence of the Divine. 

The sons and daughters of the 
past century were brought up in the 
duty, not beauty, of holiness. 
Strangely enough there were 
streaks of human nature in most of 
them that rods and cruel stripes 
could not wholly destroy; and the 
wretched boys shut up together in 
the galleries of the meeting houses 
gave the tithingman exercise 
enough to warm his chilly blood 
during the progress of the two-hour 
sermon and often equally long 
prayer. It amuses us in these lax 
days to think of the cumbersome 
machinery employed to keep apart 
restless boys condemned to sit 
together through all this wordi- 
ness; though something of our 
fathers still lingers in the dictum 
that condemns hundreds of college 



88 



RELIGIOUS LIFE IN NEW ENGLAND 



boys to remote corners of a chapel 
beyond sight and hearing of the 
preacher; and expects them thereby 
to honor the Sabbath day and keep 
it holy. 

The Puritan Sabbath dawned 
early after a Puritan Saturday night, 
when all servile labor and vain 
recreation were forbidden, from the 
going down of the sun. There is a 
local tradition to the effect that in 
the town of Woodbridge a worthy 
farmer was hastening home one 
Saturday evening with his yoke of 
oxen and cart, when to his dismay 
the sun set inopportunely. He was 
still a good half-mile from home, 
so unyoking his team he left them 
where they stood until the Sabbath 
was past — a proof that the Puritan 
did cross the line of his own logic 
in not standing by his team. 

There was no traveling on the 
Sabbath day. The inns were closed 
and no respectable person was sup- 
posed to be out except on the way 
to or from meeting, or in answer to 
some urgent call for help in case of 
sickness or death. 

I well remember an ancestor of 
my own who was fond of open air 
and broad views even in things 
sacred, who invariably took a decent 
walk on a Sunday afternoon to the 
bmying ground, though possibly in 
a roundabout way, while the family 
read good books at home, hoping 
and possibly praying that this might 
not be brought up against their 
beloved head when final accounts 
were settled. But this was long 
years after the rigid rule and stern 
practice of other generations. 

I can see the devout families 
going up to their Zion, usually a 
city set on a hill where in winter 
the untempered winds of Heaven 
buffeted the loosely-covered house 
of the Lord and swept a space bare 
of snow about its doors. The bell 
tolled mournfully as old and young, 
grandparents and babes, walked or 
were borne to the sacredly frozen 
place. Each family took its foot- 
stove filled with bright embers of 



that sacred fire that preserved life, 
going not without heart burnings, 
if we may credit the records, to the 
places assigned at the " seating of 
the meeting." Here, indeed, was 
a sowing of tares among wheat. 
Age and honor took the first places; 
but long afterward it was voted in a 
little New England meeting house 
that a man who paid taxes on forty 
pounds a year should sit higher 
than a man who was forty years old. 

Shut up in high pews, some with 
their backs toward the preacher, 
sat the godly family, while their 
spiritual leader prayed and taught 
in gloves, and often with his head 
covered from the cruel cold. Why 
fire should have been considered a 
profanation of the House of God is 
not clear unless it savored of com- 
fort or was a thing offered to idols, 
for after a time even footstoves 
were forbidden. To the shivering 
young, who were driven as lambs 
to the sacrifice, the thought of God 
as a consuming fire must have had 
in it a certain element of relief. 

Babes even were brought to meet- 
ing, for where none but the sick 
stayed at home, they could not be 
left. So a portion of the building 
was set apart for a wooden cage, 
where those too young, too feeble 
or too sleepy to sit upright, were 
bestowed like parcels, to be re- 
claimed at the close of the long 
service. 

Were these left to the tender 
mercies of the tithingman, we ask 
ourselves, or was there some mother 
in this comfortless Israel with a 
heart human enough to visit these 
small souls in prison, to warm, com- 
fort and possibly minister to them 
with some unnoticed portion of food 
or drink, while the interminable 
preaching, prayer and psalm went 
on? 

When the boys in the gallery 
became too outrageous, laughing, 
scuffling and even in summer 
"damnifying the glass" in order to 
let a breath of air into the stifling 
gallery, the tithingman haled them 



RELIGIOUS LIFE IN NEW ENGLAND 



89 



by the collar to the "noon house" 
or "Sabbaday house" just outside, 
and applied such vigorous correc- 
tion that the mothers within must 
have writhed in their pews, if love 
of God had not quenched love of 
their kind. 

These noon houses saved life by 
their generous wood fire, where 
frozen dinners as well as frozen 
toes might be thawed during the 
hour of merciful release. Here the 
good deacons might thrust bars of 
iron into the embers and with them 
set their mugs of flip fizzling. Boys 
were not expected to be warmed at 
this religious fire, but we trust that 
the babes were thawed, along with 
the pies and doughnuts, preparatory 
to the second service. 

It was the custom for the elders 
to stand during the long prayer. 
A certain Rev. Mr. Brewster, of 
blessed memory, thought the min- 
ister would do better to make two 
short prayers, "as ye hartes and 
spirits of all, espetialy ye weak, 
could hardly continue and stand 
bente as it were so long toward God 
as they ought to do in duty, without 
flagging or falling off." 

The sermon was often two hours 
long and the prayer occasionally of 
equal length. In this petition there 
were so many things to ask for, 
things that every one was interested 
in, that brevity was impossible as 
well as unseemly. When one had 
an opportunity to talk face to face 
with his Maker, like a high priest 
making atonement for his sinning 
people, it was not a matter to be 
lightly passed over or condensed. 
As the people stood, old men lean- 
ing like Jacob on the top of a staff, 
losing their balance often — over- 
come with sinful sleep and so giving 
the enemy, in the shape of gallery 
boys, cause for offense — the man in 
black high up in a little box opposite 
the singers' seat, prayed for deliv- 
erance from Indians, from foreign 
interference, plagues, murrain, fail- 
ure of crops, storms, earthquakes, 
changes in the government at home. 



In the long sermon, current events 
were often brought in to enliven 
the whole and keep the congrega- 
tion awake. 

Campbell records the fact that at 
Watertown, after a great fight be- 
tween a snake and a mouse, Mr. 
Wilson of Boston, a sincere and 
holy man, took this as a theme for 
his sermon, insisted on the snake 
being the devil and the mouse Puri- 
tans which God brought to over- 
come satan and dispossess him of 
his kingdom. 

A Puritan minister, whose name 
is not recorded, preaching to a 
Plymouth colony congregation, be- 
sought them to set a good example 
because they came out to convert 
the world to Christianity, when one 
among the audience stood up and 
said: "Sir, that is what the people 
of the Bay came out for; we came 
to catch fish." 

Children were brought to the 
altar for baptism on the Lord's Day 
following their birth. In summer 
time this was no hardship, though 
distance might make it difficult. 
But in the deeps of winter, when 
snow lay on the ground for months 
and the meeting house was like a 
thing caught and frozen stiff in 
mid-air, none but those of Puritan 
blood could have survived the 
ordeal. One minister says he broke 
the ice in the christening bowl and 
the babes seemed to shrink from the 
water. But we never hear of a pro- 
test in sound, even from those 
whom one good shepherd immersed, 
believing it to be the only true way 
to insure the soul's salvation. He 
had his own dreams of the Jordan, 
perhaps, and fancied it an icebound 
river like his own New England 
streams. On one occasion, Dr. 
Toppen of Newbury, not satisfied 
with the father's evangelical piety, 
stood at the christening bowl nnd 
announced: "I baptize this child 
on the woman's account." 

In later days there were neigh- 
borhood prayer meetings held in 
turn in the school houses of the 



9o 



RELIGIOUS LIFE IN NEW ENGLAND 



different districts. Notice of these 
was given out from the pulpit on 
the Lord's Day, to the effect that 
on Wednesday next there would be 
a meeting for prayer in the school 
house at Woodtick, it might be, 
Nonawaug, Pomperang, Spindle 
Hill, Quasapaug, Squantuck or 
South End. At these meetings the 
candles for lighting were brought 
by the families belonging to the 
appointed district. 

Training Day was the first New 
England holiday. There were six 
of these in a year, each opened by 
prayer and psalm singing. Relig- 
ious notices were also given out 
before the company broke up. 
There was need of much religion to 
temper the stream of ardent spirits 
that ministered to the comfort of 
Training Day, as well as Anni- 
versary Day — this last a special 
festival for ministers who gathered 
in large towns for dinner, prayer 
and praise. 

About the year 1730, according to 
President Wadsworth of Harvard, 
the college Commencement Day 
was usually set for Friday, in order 
that there might be less remaining 
time in the week to be spent in 
frolicking. Mrs. Earle, in her 
' ' Sabbath in Puritan New England, ' ' 
tells of an extraordinary custom 
that prevailed in several churches, 
giving to the deacons a serious but 
thankless office — that of distri- 
buting, during the month, a metal 
check to each worthy church mem- 
ber. On presentation of this bit of 
pewter, the check bearer was 
allowed to partake of the com- 
munion. In the coin collection of 
the "American Antiquarian," are 
little pewter tokens stamped with a 
heart. In New Hampshire the 
Scotch Presbyterian custom was 
followed of assembling the churches 
twice a year, to partake of the 
Lord's Supper, This assembly was 
always held in Londonderry, and 
ministers and congregations gath- 
ered from all the towns around. 
Preparatory services were held on 



Thursday, Friday and Saturday. 
Long tables were placed in the 
aisles of the meeting house on the 
Sabbath and after a protracted and 
solemn address upon the deep 
meaning of the celebration and the 
duties of the church members, the 
elders of the congregation were 
seated at the table where they par- 
took of the Sacrament. Thin cakes 
of unleavened bread were specially 
prepared for this sacred service. 
Often seven hundred church mem- 
bers were present. The services 
were prolonged from early morning 
until nightfall. When so many 
were to partake of the Lord's 
Supper, it seemed necessary that 
unworthy persons should be kept 
from presenting themselves. Hence, 
the tables were fenced off and each 
communicant was obliged to present 
a "token." One stern old Puritan, 
in a town not named, having been 
officially expelled from church mem- 
bership for some temporal offense, 
still refused to consider himself 
excommunicated, and for twenty 
years calmly and doggedly attended 
the communion service bearing his 
own wine and bread and, in the, 
solitude of his own pew, communed 
with God if not with his fellow 
men, until he conquered by sheer 
obstinacy and determination, and 
was again admitted to church fel- 
lowship. -— * -^ 

The ordination of a minister was 
a great event, celebrated by an 
immense gathering of people from 
far and near. In Connecticut, and 
it is said, in Massachusetts also, this 
was followed by an ordination ball 
given sometimes in the minister's 
house. Mrs. Earle says: "The 
fashion of giving ordination balls 
did not die out with colonial times. 
In Federal days it still continued, 
a specially gay ball being given in 
the Town of Wolcott, Connecticut, 
at an ordination in 181 1." 

There was always an ordination 
supper, a plentiful feast, at which 
visiting ministers and the new 
pastor were always present, ready 



RELIGIOUS LIFE IN NEW ENGLAND 



9i 



to partake with true clerical appe- 
tite. At this feast, all sorts of New- 
England dainties were served, to- 
gether with a liberal supply of cider, 
punch and grog. The bowls of 
punch were mixed on the very door- 
step of the church, and beer was 
also brewed to complete the feast. 
44 In addition to this, portable bars 
were sometimes established at the 
church door, and strong drinks 
were distributed free of charge to 
the entire assemblage. ' ' 

As late as 1825, at the installation 
of Dr. Leonard Bacon over the First 
Congregational Church in New 
Haven, free drinks were furnished 
at an adjacent bar to all who chose 
to order them, and were paid for by 
the generous and hospitable society. 
Our forefathers verily had ways of 
warming the blood more direct than 
by means of sinful fires in the 
meeting house. It is amazing to us 
to see how hard drinking was tem- 
pered by religion. For New Eng- 
land was a God-fearing land where 
men lived in terror of death and 
the judgment. 

At last the Sunday school came 
as a blessed relief from the sermon 
that had in some places grown to a 
three-hour length. In a certain 
Vermont town it was necessary to 
shorten the sermon for this milder 
form of service. The people seem 
to have carried the measure in this 
case; but the incensed parson took 
the pulpit Bible with him to the 
noon house, and so preserved it 
from the hands of "profaning 
teachers." 

Bronson Alcott, addressing the 
centenary meeting at Wolcott in 
1873, says it was the custom for 
children to repeat at home the text 
of the sermon, giving chapter and 
verse, and often the whole chapter 
was then read in the family. In the 
same town, under the ministry of 
Mr. Keys, a cultivated scholar, a 
Sunday school service was held for 
two summers. Addresses were 
made by the pastor, deacons and 



others. The children repeated texts 
of scripture and answered questions 
from the catechism. Each child 
received credit in mills for every ten 
verses recited and was paid at the 
close of the season by a book equal 
in value to the credits received. 
This prize was "Doddridge's Princi- 
ples of the Christian Religion" in 
verse, for the use of children. One 
of these hymns begins with: 

How glorious is our heavenly King 
Who reigns above the sky : 

How shall a child presume to sing 
His dreadful majesty. 

Mr. Keys also catechized the 
young people at home and in the 
district schools, using two cate- 
chisms, and questioning the Episco- 
palians from one, while his own 
flock was instructed from the other. 

Half a century ago it was cus- 
tomary for the family to stand dur- 
ing grace at table. At morning and 
evening prayers the head of the 
family always stood, in token of 
reverence to the Supreme Being. 
I well remember the deep and 
solemn tones of my grandfather's 
voice as he began his address to the 
Almighty in some noble scriptural 
phraseology. One form in particu- 
lar thrills me to this day as I recall 
the words of the Prayer of Moses, 
in that solemn sacrifice at the home 
altar: 

Lord thou hast been our dwelling place 
in all generations. Before the mountains 
were brought forth, or ever thou hadst 
formed the earth and the world, even from 
everlasting to everlasting thou art God. 
(Adding): And of thy years there is no 
end. 

Campbell, in his book on the 
"Puritan in Holland and America," 
says: 

"The Puritans were great enough 
and have done enough for humanity 
to stand forth and like Cromwell be 
painted without the concealment of 
a defect or the exaggeration of a vir- 
tue. They had but faint ideas of 
civil or religious liberty, but men 
must get liberty for themselves be- 
fore they think of it for others. 



IN THE HOMES OF OUR ANCESTORS 

BEING ESPECIALLY A WRITING ON THE USE 
OF PEWTER IN EARLY HOUSEHOLD UTENSILS 



BY 

MRS. HENRY CHAMPION 

OF NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT 



PEWTER— to what extent was 
it used in the homes of our 
ancestors in Colonial and 
Revolutionary times? 

In trying to answer this question, 
I have ascertained a few facts that 
may be of interest, and I give them 
to you very informally: 

It is not probable that the chests 
that came over in the "Mayflower" 
contained a single article of earthen 
ware among the worldly possessions 
of the Pilgrim mothers. The uten- 
sils of the kitchen and table were 
then of wood, iron and pewter. 
Occasionally a silver tankard was 
brought over from England via 
Holland. At first, pieces of boards 
were used for plates; later they 
were turned out of wood. Next we 
find that pewter in various forms 
came into use. Alice Morse Earle 
says, in her interesting book, "Cus- 
toms and Fashions in Old-New 
England:" "The time when our 
country was settled was the era 
when pewter had begun to take the 
place of wooden ware. The first 
mention made of pewter is in 1430, 
when a permit was given for a 
vessel to carry some from England 
to Scotland for King James the 
First." Shakespeare, in his play of 
Henry the Second, speaks of "The 
motion of a pewterer's hammer." 
That would be nearly three hundred 
years earlier, but the "permit" is 
authentic as to date — 1430. 

A word as to the metal itself and 
the method of manufacture : Pewter 
is a mixture of tin and lead or tin 



and copper. The dull, soft-looking 
pewter is of tin and lead, and most 
of that made in this country during 
the Colonial and Revolutionary 
days was of that sort. That made 
in England was generally of the 
harder variety — tin and copper — 
that would take a fine polish almost 
equal to silver. France regulates 
by law the amount of lead that 
may be used — 15^ parts out of 100. 

The trade of pewterer was an 
influential one in England and 
became so in this country; the 
number increasing as the country 
grew. 

Of course, the first articles were 
brought from England. From the 
earliest wills of the colony down to 
nearly the close of the last century 
we find articles of pewter mentioned 
and from them can make out quite 
a list of articles, at first rare, but 
that became the property of almost 
every New England family later. 

One of the earliest wills in the 
New Haven Probate Court, dated 
1647, has on the inventory list: 

"Pewter valued at ^5. S. 7." 

Theophilus Eaton, the first Gov- 
ernor of the New Haven Colony, 
who died 1657, had a "pewter 
cistern," probably a large flagon or 
tankard. Later we find: Estate 
of Samuel Smith, one tankard, 
basin, porringer, six platters, five 
plates and other pewter. 

As late as 1773 we find, on inven- 
tory list of estate of Eben Clark, 
thirty-one and one-half pounds of 
pewter. 



IN THE HOMES OF OUR ANCESTORS 



93 



A complete list of articles ob- 
tained in this way shows that it 
includes most of the needs of a 
primitive household in the way of 
kitchen and table furnishings, ex- 
cept cooking utensils, which were of 
iron. The list includes round and 
oblong platters, plates of different 
sizes, bowls, cups or mugs, por- 
ringers of all sizes from two inches 
in diameter to nine or ten inches. 
A posset (variously spelled) was 
like a small porringer about three 
inches in diameter and was used to 
heat medicine and serve pap to 
infants. Flagons, or "cans" as they 
were often called, were used for cider. 
Bottles; Governor Endicott speaks 
of receiving one from England in 
1629, but they were never com- 
mon. Early lamps ; when whale-oil 
began to be used the lamps were 
almost exclusively of pewter. Can- 
dle-sticks; though before they be- 
came common, a contrivance called 
a "Betty-lamp" was used. This 
was a shallow receptacle of pewter, 
circular or oval in shape, with a 
projecting nose an inch or two 
long. Grease was put in the cup 
part and the wick of twisted rag 
had one end in the grease, the 
other, lighted, rested on the nose. 
When Governor Endicott arrived 
in Massachusetts he wrote at once 
to his wife to bring some candles 
when she came, he evidently did 
not like the Betty-lamp. Candles 
were for a long time costly luxuries 
in New England, for there were not 
enough cattle from which to secure 
the fat. It is said that often during 
the long prayer at the close of the 
day the candle would be extin- 
guished. Some of our Yankee ances- 
tors must have invented what was 
called a "save-all" — an addition to 
a candlestick, also of pewter, consist- 
ing of several rings with iron pins 
to hold up the last bit of the candle. 
Molds for candles were made of 
pewter, generally in bunches of six. 
Then there were "trencher-salts" 
or salt-cellars. 



Spoons of various sizes were 
made in brass molds, the two parts 
fitting very closely together and 
were rubbed with oil or white of 
an egg before the melted pewter 
was poured in. Wornout platters 
and plates were often cast into 
spoons. 

Plates and shallow dishes were 
made by hammering, and jugs and 
bowls were pressed into shape by a 
revolving wheel. A friend in New 
Haven has a communion set of 
pewter consisting of a flagon, three 
cups and a baptismal bowl. 

A set of pewter platters, plates 
and dishes was called a "garnish of 
pewter," and was a source of great 
pride to the Colonial housewife and 
her daughter of revolutionary days. 
A "garnish" was a favorite wed- 
ding present. 

The smaller pewter articles were 
hung on hooks on the front of the 
dresser that stood by the kitchen 
wall, while the plates and platters 
stood in rows on the dresser shelves. 

Dingy pewter was considered a 
disgrace. Addison says: "The eye 
of the mistress made the pewter 
shine." A Virginia housekeeper 
wrote in 1728: "A good housekeeper 
may be known by her bright pew- 
ter." The same thought may be 
found in a rhyme of that day: 

The porringers, that in a row 

Hang high and made a glittering show. 

Longfellow says: 

The pewter plates on the dresser, 
Caught and reflected the flames as shields 
of armies the sunshine. 

Much time and labor were de- 
voted to polishing the pewter 
and the better variety was made to 
shine like silver. A plant of the 
equisetum or horsetail family was 
used for this purpose, and is still 
familiarly called "scouring-rush. "* 

One naturally asks, What has be- 
come of all this pewter? Here and 
there are a few pieces, but nothing 
in comparison with the amount that 
seems to have been in use. There 



94 



IN THE HOMES OF OUR ANCESTORS 



is no doubt but that much of the 
American variety — tin and lead — 
was consecrated to the cause of 
Liberty and, cast into bullets, 
helped to win our independence. 

After the Revolutionary War the 
commerce with England increased 
and earthenware began to make its 
appearance, and to gradually re- 
place pewter in the kitchen and on 
the table of the "well-to-do." Some 
rich families who had sets of 
Chinese pottery and porcelain, 
brought from the East Indies, with 
whom a trade had suddenly sprung 
up, still used their pewter for every 
day. John Hancock said "he pre- 
ferred pewter, he did not like the 
clatter of porcelain." 

Advertisements of pewter for sale 
appeared in New England news- 
papers till quite into the last cen- 
tury. 

It is said that the first earthen- 



ware teapots brought from England 
were of black ware. It was thought 
that color brought out the flavor of 
the tea better than any other. 

A historical paper would hardly 
be complete without an allusion to 
Washington and, fortunately, "Lam- 
bert's History of the New Haven 
Colony" furnishes one that also 
refers to my subject — pewter: 

"Washington stopped at the old 
tavern in Milford during his tour 
through the ' country in 1789. Not 
relishing the supper of boiled meat 
and potatoes set before him, he 
called for a bowl of bread and milk. 
It was brought him, and also a 
pewter spoon with a broken handle. 
He asked for a silver spoon, but 
was. told there was none in the 
house, whereupon he gave the serv- 
ant maid a two shilling piece and 
told her to go and borrow one. She 
borrowed one at the minister's." 




Drawing by E. A. Sherman 



W H 



O R 



IT IS A NAME FIRST GIVEN TO HIGHWAYMEN AND LATER 

APPLIED POLITICALLY WHIG IS DERIVED FROM " SOUR MILK" 

AND BOTH TERMS WERE USED WITH DERISIVE INTENT 

BY 

MARY L. D. FERRIS 

AUTHOR OF MANY LITERARY CRITICISMS AND EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN AUTHOR DURING ITS 
PUBLICATION BY THE SOCIETY OF AMERICAN AUTHORS 



A FRIEND of mine who is 
greatly interested in patri- 
otic societies, and prides her- 
self that she has a longer 
line of eligible ancestors than any 
other woman in existence, came to 
me the other day in great trouble. 
Looking at her disturbed coun- 
tenance, and fully aware of the 
bent of her mind, I could not but 
feel that Adam was to be envied 
after all for his lack of an ancestral 
tree, but I merely repeat what a 
youngster said to me recently: 
"Aren't you 'most tired of ances- 
tors?" "Dear me," she began, 
"what shall I do with Volckert van 
Siolen Vander Heyden, to prove 
that he was not a Tory?' ' ' ' Nothing 
easier, my dear; kill him before the 
Revolution." "Don't laugh at 
me," my fair friend continued; 
"What is a Tory?" 

On the evening of the ninth of 
February, 1775 — I know your pas- 
sion for accuracy — some gentlemen 
were dining together at a house in 
New York, and in the course of con- 
versation one of the company fre- 
quently used the word "Tory." 
The gentleman at whose house they 
dined, asked him your question: 

"Pray, Mr. , what is a Tory?" 

He replied, "A Tory is a thing 
whose head is in England and its 
body in America and whose neck 
ought to be stretched." Oddly 
enough, I was looking over an old 



file of newspapers only yesterday, 
and came across a copy of the New 
York Packet of January 18, 1776, 
containing an article on the subject, 
which is an interesting account, as 
it defines the term in the days when 
it was in constant use : 

Though much has been said of 
late about Whig and Tory, few 
persons are acquainted with their 
origin: In the year 1679, King 
Charles the Second fell sick, in the 
summer, upon which the Duke of 
York, his brother, an avowed papist, 
returned immediately to court, 
without the king's leave, with a 
view to secure the succession of the 
crown to himself, as his majesty 
had no legitimate issue. This 
alarmed the Protestants, and made 
them eager for the sitting of Parlia- 
ment, and gave rise to sundry peti- 
tions, signed by great numbers of 
hands, both in city and country, 
which was very displeasing to his 
majesty. That arbitrary tyrant told 
the petitioners that he was judge of 
what was fit to be done. "You 
would not take it well," said he, 
"if I should meddle with your 
affairs, and I desire you will not 
meddle with mine." Upon this, 
counter-addresses were promoted 
by the influence of the court over 
all the nation, expressing a detesta- 
tion and abhorrence of the practice 
of the petitioners, and referring the 
sitting of the Parliament absolutely 



9 6 



WHAT IS 



TORY 



to the king's pleasure, by which 
they obtained the name of 
abhorrers; which occasioned a 
great ferment among the people, so 
that sundry of the privy council 
deserted their stations at court. 

The petitioners for the sitting of 
parliament, and their adversaries — 
the abhorrers of such petitions — 
gave rise to the two grand parties 
which have since divided the nation 
under the distinguishing names of 
Whig and Tory. The Whigs, or 
low churchmen, were for confining 
the royal prerogative within the 
compass of law, for which reason 
their adversaries charged them with 
republican principles, and gave 
them the reproachful name of 
Whig, or sour milk — a name first 
given to the Presbyterians in Scot- 
land when they were persecuted by 
the high church because, when they 
were forced to flee from their habi- 
tations, hungry and thirsty, they 
often drank buttermilk whig, or 
whey, when they came to any 
friend's house that would shelter 
and entertain them. 

The Tories, or high churchmen, 
stood on the side of the prerogative, 
and were for setting the king above 
law. No men did more to enslave 
the nation and introduce popery 
than they. Their adversaries there- 
fore gave them the name of Tories — 
a name first given to Irish robbers 
or highwaymen who lived upon 
plunder and were prepared for any 
daring or villainous enterprise. 

A good authority says that Whig 
is from Whiggamores, a name given 
to the Scots in the southwest who, 
for want of corn in that quarter, 
used annually to repair to Leith to 
buy stores that came from the 
north, and that all who drove 
were called " Whiggamores," or 
"Whiggs," from the term "Wig- 
gam," in driving their horses. 

Another derivation of the name 



is that the club of the party from 
which the Whigs sprang had as its 
motto, "We Hope in God," and that 
the name Whig is taken from the 
initial letters of the motto. 

With the use of the word "Whig" 
in England, as expressive of liberal, 
it was the most significant word to 
apply to these subjects in America, 
who had the political wisdom to see 
that George II attempted to ignore 
or subvert their legislative bodies, 
and that they were contending 
against the king under the mark of 
parliament. Hence the word grad- 
ually became synonymous with 
patriot. When the Revolution 
broke out, the liberals, or Whigs, 
became its supporters, and upon 
peace being declared, became the 
first political party of the Revolu- 
tionary period, or, properly speak- 
ing, the first American political 
party. The Tories, or English, 
upheld the principle of "passive 
obedience to the crown," while the 
Whigs aimed to "fight up and 
against the King and against his 
people," neither, however, proceed- 
ing to uphold the people as a politi- 
cal force. The Federalists were an 
outcome of the strong government 
Whigs. 

There are various derivations of 
the word "Tory," most of them 
tending in the same direction, as 
meaning partisan of the king, and it 
is said the name may have origi- 
nated in the highwayman's demand, 
"Force, force!" "Give, give!" 

Tory hunting was a pastime that 
has found a place in the nursery 
rhyme: "I went to the wood and 
killed a tory." 

"Patriotism," growled Sam John- 
son, "is the last refuge of a scoun- 
drel," over against which we can 
place the words of Lincoln, that 
"Government of the people, by the 
people, for the people, shall not 
perish from the earth." 







Photograph 



ON THE NAUGATUCK RIVER 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 

FRONTIER INVADED BY ENGLISHMEN FROM DEVONSHIRE 

TOWN INCORPORATED FROM WINDSOR IN 1 740 — 

FORT ERECTEP FOR PROTECTION FROM RAIDS OF 

MOHAWK INDIANS IN I 744 INTERESTING STORY 

OF ITS DEVELOPMENT TO PRESENT DAY 



BY 

GIDEON H. WELCH 

JUDGE OF COURT OF COMMON PLEAS OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY 

Judge Welch has been a resident of Torrington for thirty-four years and during this time has been actively 
identified with its interests. He was born in East Haddam, and was graduated from Yale University in 1868, and 
from the Yale Law School in 1870, Entering Torrington when it was in its industrial beginning, he was honored by 
his townspeople with many public responsibilities, his executive capacities including membership in the state legisla- 
ture in 1881, and in the state senate in 1899. For eight years he has occupied a judgeship on the bench of the court of 
common pleas of Litchfield county. The following article gives a keen insight into the remarkable growth of the 
town of which Judge Welch writes — Editor 



GROWTH, if of a healthy char- 
acter, is ever a matter of deep 
human interest. We are nat- 
urally attracted to any evi- 
dence of development in the animal 
and vegetable kingdom. The life of 
the naturalist is absorbed in his con- 
templation of the evolution of the ob- 
jects of natural history. Every spec- 
ialist devotes his energies to watching 
closely the expansion of subjects in 



his own branch of investigation. 
There can be nothing of more intense 
interest to the thoughtful and inquir- 
ing mind in general than the growth 
and development of a community, es 
pecially in the ease in which its pros- 
perity, numerically and financially, has 
been phenomenal. To the citizens of 
our commonwealth the history of such 
a community is of especial interest 
when, as in the present instance, it is 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 



99 




From photograph iu possession of Mrs. N. W. Bollej 

WHEN TORRINGTON WAS WOLCOTTVILLE 

As it appeared thirty years ago looking up Water street from Main street— This section today is the commercial cen- 
ter of the borough 




From photograph iu possession ol Mr>. N W 



SPREADING ELMS ARE FELLED BY PROGRESS 
View about twenty years ago looking down Water street from " Boarding house " hill-site of new post oficfl bt 
on the left— Morrison's block and Lilley block replace the wooden structures on the right 



loo 



THE GROWTH OF TORRI N GTO N 




■ , <% > 

Photograph by John N. Brooks 

THE EVOLUTION OF A PUBLIC BUILDING 

Methodist church which was transformed into the 
first town hall, showing lock-up for prisoners in rear 
— City Hall today occupies this site 

within the borders, of our goodly 
state. Windsor is the parent colony 
from which the territory known as 
Torrington, was taken. It contained, 
by act of partition of the General As- 
sembly in May, 1732, twenty thou- 
sand, nine hundred and twenty-four 
acres, and the size of the town in acres 
has remained unchanged, except that 
in the year 1866, by act of the General 
Assembly of that year, a small slice of 
the town of Litchfield was annexed to 
it. The "Act of Partition" also be- 
stowed on this territory its present 
name. 

Among the colonists who were di- 
recting public affairs here in the ear- 
lier part of the eighteenth century, 
were undoubtedly men from Devon- 
shire, the southernmost county of 
England, for from a hamlet in that 
county they brought over the name 
which designates the subject of this 
article. 

Etymologically, the name is from 
three ancient Briton words, tor, a hill, 
hring, a circle, and ton, a town, mean- 
ing a hill encircled town. 

But little is known of the Aborig- 
ines. Presumably there were very few 



in this territory, for no natural lake 
and no large stream of water, such as- 
would be the favorite haunts of the 
red men, lie within its borders. 

But it has been ascertained that 
some members of the Tunxis tribe 
made it their home here temporarily. 
In October, 1744, the town built a 
fort in the western part for protection 
from the raids of the Mohawk In- 
dians. 

The town of Torrington was incor- 
porated in the year 1740. 

The earliest town meeting was hold- 
en December 9, 1740, at which Eben- 




Photograph by John H. Brooks 



GEOLOGICAL CURIOSITY 

Peculiar rock formation in southern part of 
ton, known as Sentinel Rock or Lion's Head— 
of lion are plainly discernible 



Torring- 
Features- 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 



101 



*""~' 



«*■ s *. 



■t-\ 



i 




Photograph bj John S. Brooks 



IN EARLY RAILROAD DAYS 
Old depot of Naugatuck railroad on Water street 




Paotocnpa bj Join N 

BEFORE BUSINESS BLOCKS BRIDGED THE RIVER 
Looking west from old Center bridge over Naugatuck river twenty years ago— Fear of Turner and SeyMW 
Manufacturing Company's old plant on right 



102 



THE GROWTH OF TORRI N GTON 





JOHN BROWN, TORRINGTON S LEADING HISTORIC FIGURE 
Born in northwestern part of the town May 9, i8co — Hero of Harper's Ferry — Picture at left is now published 
for the first time ; it was taken in Brown's beardless days and copied from an original in the fall of 1859, shortly 
before Brown's execution, by T. M. V. Doughty of Winsted 

ezer Lyman, the first permanent resi- 
dent, was chosen moderator. With- 
out transacting any further business- 
it was adjourned to the 15th of the 
same month, at, to us, the unseason- 
able hour of 8 o'clock in the forenoon,, 
when the lawful town officers were 
appointed for the ensuing year. 

All annual town meetings were, at 
that early period, held in the month of 
December throughout the state. 

The earliest dwelling house in town 
was built in the year 1734, and was 
owned by one Joseph Ellsworth. 
Ebenezer Lyman built the second 
house in 1735, in which he resided for 
many years. In this house the earliest 
known birth in Torrington occurred,, 
that of a daughter, in June, 1738. 
The earlier settlers lived in log houses. 
The church was organized in 1741. 
The first "meeting house" was erected 
in 1 75 1. The first school house was 
built in 1745, and was of the dimen- 
sions twenty-five feet square. These 
buildings were in the vicinity of the 
fort and were undoubtedly construct- 
ed with logs. 




Photograph hy 
John N.Brooks 



FALLS AT WEST TORRINGTON 
Outlet of Crystal lake, source of Torrington' 
water supply 



THE GROWTH OF TO RRI NGTON 



«o3 




BIRTHPLACE OF HARPER S FERRY HERO 



Photograph l>v 
John N. Brookfl 



House in which John Brown was born in Torrington, still preserved in its original form by the John Brown 
Association — Loaned by Daughters of American Revolution from book " Chapter Sketches of Connecticut " 



The earliest settlements in town 
were on the hills. First upon the 
western hills, then upon the eastern 
or "Torring-ford hills," afterwards on 
the "Newfield hills," and last of all 
in the valley in that portion of the 
town afterwards called Wolcottville, 
now known as the borough of Tor- 
rington. 

It is the object and intention of 
the writer of this article to dwell 
almost exclusively on the history 
of that portion of the town the 
most recently settled, for that part 
has been the fountainhead of the in- 
dustrial and financial progress of the 
town and the life blood of its growth 
and prosperity during the last ninety 
years. Therefore I am excluded from 
a detailed biography of the many note- 
worthy men on the hills who served 
the town valiantly in the Revolution- 
ary war, or in the halls of legislation 
or who, in founding and maintaining 
it in the earlier years, religiously, edu- 
cationally and morally, did a noble 
part. Information on these matters 




i-iH>u.Kn.|>ii bg a. u. t-ord 
MONUMENT TO FATHER OF FOREIGN 
MISSIONS 
Erected in honor of Samuel I Mills, born in hills 
era part of Torrington, known as **T« 
April ix, 1783 



104 



THE GROWTH OF TORRI N G TO N 




Photograph by A. B. Ford 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 
BUILDING 

and on many others relative to the 
early history of the town, can readily 
be obtained by reference to the history 
of the town issued by the Rev. Samuel 
Orcutt in 1878. To this history, an 
admirable and exhaustive one, the 
writer is indebted for some of the facts 




herein given. But it would prove an 
act of rank injustice to the old town, 
if I failed to .mention two of its natives, 
born upon the hills, who became in 
after life famous, and whose names 
are not only indelibly impressed on 
American history, but who have a 
world-wide renown. 

John Brown (of Harper's Ferry 
fame) was born in the northwestern 
part of the town May 9, 1800. When 
he was five years of age his father re- 
moved with his family to Ohio. In 
that state he spent his childhood and 




Pnotograph by John N. Brooks 

FIRST FRAME DWELLING IN TORRINGTON 

Built by John Brooker in 1803— Now stands on Hunger- 
ford estate on Litchfield street 



Photograph by J ohn N. Brooks 

BTRST BUILDING OF TORRINGTON FIRE . 

DEPARTMENT 

Formerly composed of the Crystal Hook and Ladder 
company and the Excelsior Hose company, now 
known as Mutual Fire company, No. 1 

youth, but his earliest recollections ex- 
tended also to his birthplace. He was 
always unsettled as to his home, and 
was of an adventurous disposition, 
but was as honest, resolute and com- 
batative as a Puritan. 

He was twice married and was the 
father of twenty children. The whole 
family was devoted to his enterprises, 
which all converged toward freedom 
for the slave. In 1855, he emigrated 
to Kansas, where he had many bloody 
conflicts with the pro-slavery party. In 
1859 he organized an invasion of Vir- 
ginia to liberate the slaves. On Octo- 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 



io 5 



ber 1 6 of that year, aided by twenty- 
two associates, of whom six were ne- 
groes, he surprised Harper's Ferry 
and captured the arsenal and armory. 
He and his party were overcome the 
next day by United States troops and 
he and his surviving followers were 
surrendered to the state authorities 
for trial. Under sentence of the court 
he was hung at Charlestown, Va., De- 
cember 2, 1859, manifesting to the 
end the serenity and courage of a true 
martyr. His undertaking at Harper's 
Ferrv disclosed and intensified the 




Photograph by A. B. Fold 

TORRINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT 
Present home of Mutual Fire company 

feeling between the northern and 
southern states on the subject of slav- 
ery, and the seeds he sowed then and 
there resulted in a harvest of freedom 
for the slave in later years. Hence he 
may be said to have dealt the death 
blow to slavery in this country. The 
house in which this famous emanci- 
pator was born, is still standing, pre- 
served in its original form. It is un- 
der the control of the "John Brown 
Association," whose officers are James 
D. Dewell, of New Haven, president ; 
Rev. T. C. Richards, West Torring- 
ton, secretary, and D. C. Kilbourne of 
Litchfield, treasurer. Any contribu- 
tion in aid of the preservation of the 




Photogiaph by Johu >. Brooks 
FIRST CHURCH BUILDING OF TRINITY 
EPISCOPAL SOCIETY 
Dedicated December, 1844 

property will be gladly received and 
wisely applied by them. 

Samuel J. Mills, the "Father of 
Foreign Missions in America," was 
born on the hills in the eastern part of 




Photograph bj a. B. Koni 
TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH 
As it appears today 



io6 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTO N 




Photograph by A. B. Ford 
FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 
West Torrington 

the town (Torringford Society) April 
21, 1783. His biography, condensed 
from that afforded by Johnson's Cy- 
clopaedia, is as follows : He entered 
Williams College in 1806, and in Sep- 
tember, 1808, was the principal or- 



ganizer of a society of undergraduates 
who contemplated becoming mission- 
aries in foreign lands. This was the 
very first organization in behalf of 
that object in America. He grad- 
uated in 1809, and spent some months 
at Yale College, studying theology and 
seeking adherents to his missionary 
project. Entering Andover Theologi- 
cal Seminary in 1810 he with others 
associated with him memorialized the 
General Association of Massachusetts 
upon the subject of foreign missions, 
an act which resulted in the formation 
of the "American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions." He 
was licensed to preach in 181 2 and af- 
ter missionary labors in several states 
of the union he promoted the forma- 
tion of the "American Bible Society" 
and the "American Colonization So- 
ciety," as well as other missionary or- 
ganizations, and was sent by the Col- 
onization Society to western Africa to 
select a site for a colony. He accom- 
plished his object in Africa, the fol- 
lowing year, in what is now Liberia, 
and on his return died at sea June 16, 




Photograph by John N. Brooks 
WHEN TORRINGTON WAS NEW ORLEANS VILLAGE 
Old Burying Yard, occupying half acre of land deeded to the community in 1812 by Eliphalet Eno -now occupied by 
the German Lutheran church and parsonage on South Main street 



THE GROWTH OF TO RRI N GTON 



107 




methodist episcopal church center congregational church 

french congregational church - calvary baptist church- al>\ em 1 church 
st. Paul's German evangelical Lutheran church 

st. francis roman catholic chur( h 

Photographs by A. 1?. Ford 



io8 



THE GROWTH OF TORRIN GTON 




Photograph by A. B. Ford 
RESIDENCE OF HON. O. R. FYLER 
Prominent in Connecticut politics for many years, and member of one of Torrington's oldest families 



1818. He was a man of remarkable 
piety, and love for humanity, and pos- 
sessing great foresight, gave all. his 
strength and faith to the beneficent 
enterprises which he was instrumental 
in forming. 

The Borough of Torrington, to the 
description of which this article is 
chiefly devoted, is located in the south- 
ern part of the town, in the most de- 
lightful part of the Naugatuck valley, 
and is about fifty miles northerly from 
the tide waters of Long Island Sound. 
It has acquired the name of a remark- 
ably lively and wide-awake commun- 
ity, far excelling as it does in growth 
and development, all other places in 
Litchfield county, and comparing fav- 
orably with all other towns in the 
state in its numerical, industrial and 
financial progress. 

This portion of the town was, at 
the organization of the town in 1740, 



and for more than sixty years there- 
after, a dense forest of large pines 
which were so symmetrical that they 
were much sought by shipbuilders 
along the Sound as masts for their 
vessels, many of them being of such 
goodly proportions that they were used 
in the ships of the navy of Great Brit- 
ain. Hence this region was known 
and designated for many years and 
until 1806 as "Mast Swamp." It was 
considered during all these years, the 
most uninhabitable territory in the 
town, fit only for the habitation of 
beasts and savages. So it became the 
last portion to be occupied by civilized 
men. 

There is, however, one solitary ex- 
ception, that of Paul Peck, a frontiers- 
man and huntsman, who lived here in 
the primeval solitude of the swamp 
for some years prior to the Revolution. 
His forest home was located in the 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 



I Of/ 




Photograph by A. B. Ford 
WHERE THOROUGHFARES MEET 
Intersection of South Main and Litchfield streets, showing residence of Mrs. L. W. Coe 



southern part of this region, on the 
eastern side of the hill in the piece of 
ground formerly known as the "Valley 
Park," on South Main street. When 
the plowshare of civilization a few 
years ago destroyed the foundation of 
this pioneer's old home, it unearthed 
an immense trap marked P. P., which 
it is supposed were the initials of this 
hunter, and which was used to clear 
this region of wild beasts. Although 
rough in exterior and uneducated in 
letters the heart of a true patriot beat 
in his bosom, for on hearing of the in- 
vasion of Danbury by the British in 
1777, he deserted his cabin, shouldered 
his trusty musket, and on the 26th day 
of March, 1777, in his efforts to repel 
the invader, found a hero's grave. So 
far as can be ascertained, he was the 
sole representative from "Mast 
Swamp" in the Revolutionary war. 
As has been stated, this region was 



undesirable for residential purposes. 
It would have been equally undesirable 
for business purposes except for the 
water power of the Naugatuck river, 
which is the primary source of tin 
population and wealth of this place. 
It was in early times a sizeable stream 
worthy of the name of river. The ex- 
tensive forests protected the land from 
the direct rays of the sun, thereby re- 
tarding the flow of water so that tin 
river was continuously and copiously 
fed by small streams throughout the 
year. For many years past, with the 
disappearance of the forests and 
woods, the river has been one oi tur- 
bulence at the time of spring thaws or 
heavy rains, but a mere brook during 
most months in the year SO that steam 
power has now necessarily almost en- 
tirely superseded water power. 

The search for lumber with which 
to provide some of the material for 






THE GROWTH OF TORRI N GTO N 




Photograph by John N. Brooks 
IVY MOUNTAIN STREAM 
The inlet to Bantam Lake — Courtesy Torrington Evening Register 



constructing the fifty or more dwelling 
houses which have been built here an- 
nually for many years past, and the 
consumption of wood in the factories 
in the single instance of the "Brass 
Mill" being more than 18,000 cords 
yearly, have denuded the land for 
miles around and have destroyed, the 
water privileges which attracted here 
our earliest business men. Amos 
Wilson, one of the bright men of the 
early history of the town, discovered 
the advantages of this power, and in 
1 75 1 purchased the mill privileges 
near the present extensive plant of 
the "Hotchkiss Bros. Co." Soon af- 
ter, perhaps the same year, he built a 
saw mill on this site which was known 
as "Wilson's Mill." There were sev- 
eral log houses erected in this region 
along about the year 1800, but the 
first frame dwelling house was built 
by John Brooker in 1803, on the spot 
now at the intersection of South Main 
and Litchfield streets, near the foun- 
dation of the residence of Mrs. L. W. 
Coe, and the estate of Charlotte A. 
Hungerford, deceased, now owns the 



house which was subsequently remov- 
ed to the "Hungerford place." But 
the name "Mast Swamp" did not ap- 
peal to these enterprising villagers as 
an appropriate one for the new settle- 
ment, so about the year 1806 it was 




Photograph by John N. Brooks 
FIRST STRUCTURE FOR RELIGIOUS 
WORSHIP 

Building on right erected in 1820 and used as a union 
meeting house— Still standing on South Main street 



THE GROWTH OF TORRI NG TON 



1 1 1 



changed by common consent to that 
of "New Orleans Village." The rea- 
son for the selection of this name has 
baffled the spirit of investigation of 
the historians of Torrington. A cur- 
ious relic of the times when this region 
was known by that name has recently 
come to public attention in the deed 
given in 1812 by Eliphalet Eno 
to the "Inhabitants of New Orleans 
Village" of one-half an acre of land 
"for the purpose of accommodating 



move the bodies therein buried and to 
use the ground for more desirable pur- 
poses. On investigation it was found 
that the deed was void on account of 
the indefiniteness of the granl 
The heirs of the grantor took up the 
matter and for a reasonable consider- 
ation gave a legal conveyance of the 
land to said church. In his deed, 
Mr. Eno, with considerable Yankee 
shrewdness, reserved to himself, and 
his "heirs, executors, and assigns, the 




Photograph by A. B. For. I 



SOURCE OF TORRINGTON S WATER SUPPLY 
Crystal Lake reservoir 



the inhabitants of said village with a 
decent and convenient piece of ground 
for a burying yard." The land is the 
same now occupied by the church edi- 
fice and parsonage of the German 
Lutheran church on South Main 
street. The land was used for burial 
purposes until 1894, when on account 
of its neglected condition, and infre- 
quent use, efforts were made to re- 



liberty and privilege of feeding said 
piece of ground with sheep only." 

Much has been written oi the law 
lessness of which this region was the 
scene during the first ten or twelve 
years of the last century. The wild 
and reckless spirits of rlarwinton, 
Litchfield and I ioshen. made this a 
favorite place for their operations. 
Nor were the dwellers in this portion 



I I 2 



THE GROWTH OF TORR1NGTON 




LYMAN W, COE, PIONEER IN T0RR1XGT0N 
MANUFACTURING 

A leader in the town's industrial growth and prominent 
in state legislative assemblies 

of the town entirely blameless. Dur- 
ing these years, Shnbael Griswold, liv- 
ing on the eastern hills, was a trial 
Justice of the Peace. The tiles of the 
cases which came before him have re- 
cently come to light, and are in the 
possession of the writer. They offer 
some echoes of the condition of affairs 
then. Two of them are given with the 
exact orthography as specimens of the 
quaint language of that early time, be- 
cause they refer to early misdemean- 
ors committed in "Mast Swamp," or, 
as it was later called, "Xew Orleans 
Village." 

To Shubael Griswold Esq Justice 
Peace for Litchfield County — Comes 
Daniel Pelton and complaint Makes 
as well in his own name as in the name 
of the State of Connecticut that on 
the night of the 17 day of Instant Jan- 
uary at a Place Called the Mast 
Swamp he the Complant being" and 
about his Lawfull business Jeams Cop- 
per of Torrington an assault mad on 
the Body of him the Complant and 



his wife Did then and there Make beat 
wound with his hst and terefy your 
Complant all witch is against the 
Tease & Couterey to a paragraft of a 
Certain Statute Law of this State en- 
titled an act against Braking the Pease 
witch to the damage of your Complant 
the sum of six Dollars wherefore 
your Complant Prays that due Pro- 
cess may issue according to law 

Dated Torrington 18 day of Jan- 
uary 1805 

Daniel Pelton 

The warrant connected with this 
complaint is omitted as of no special 
interest. 

The other document is as follows: 

To Shnbael Griswold Esq, Justice 
Peace for the County of Litchfield 
Comes Abiathar Elmour one of the 
Grand Jurors of the Town of Tor- 
rington In said County and Gives said 
Justice to understand that at Torring- 
ton aforesaid on the Sabeday Night 
after the 2 day of Instant Februarv a; 




ELISHA TURNER, DOXOR OF $75,000 
FOR PUBLIC LIBRARY 
An early manufacturer who became a public benefactor 
in Torrington 



THE GROWTH OF T0RR1NGT0N 



ll 3 




iph by B. C. Workmaa 



NAUGATUCK RIVER NORTH OF TORRINGTON 




Photoirrmph 



RESIDENCE OF LUTHER G. TURNER 
On Migeon avenue. Torrington 



H4 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 




Photograph by A. B. Ford 



RESIDENCE OF JOHN W. JOHNSON, M.D. 
On Church street, Torrington 




Photograph by S. C. Workman 
MAIN ROAD ENTERING TORRINGTON 
FROM THE SOUTH 



number of young men from Hering- 
ton and other young men and Gaeels 
(girls) from Torringford did Con- 
vean to Geather at the house of Caleb 
Johnson in said Torrington in New 
Orleans Village An In Keeper and 
ded then and ther spend thair time in 
Drinking and in Merement untill Late 
in the night All whitch is against the 
Pease and Conterary to one Certin 
Statute Law of this state Intiteled an 
act for Keeping the Sabath or Lord's 
Day. Wherefore he Prays due Pro- 
cess may issue on the Premises. Dat- 
ed at Torrington the 10 Day of Feb- 
ruary 1806 Abiathar Elmer 

In the warrant issued on the com- 
plaint are the names of the young men 
and the young women who desecrated 
the Sabbath in "New Orleans Village" 
on the occasion complained of, but 
want of room forbids giving it here. 

But in 1 81 3 when this disfavored 
spot could only muster eight dwellings 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 



"5 




Photograph by A. B. Fc.nl 



RESIDENCE OF JAMES ALLDIS 
On Prospect street, Torrington 



and one tavern, brighter things dawn- 
ed upon it. Members of the Wolcott 
family from Litchfield had observed 
the advantages offered by the water 
privileges on the Naugatuck river. 
They purchased in that year (1813) 
the water privileges extending from 
"Wilson's Mill" southerly to the point 
where the stream is now bridged upon 
the highway. A woolen mill was 
built the same year by the Wolcotts, 
who may well be said to be the "ad- 
vance agents of prosperity" for this 
region. The woolen mill was erected 
on the river in the rear of the "Lilley 
Block" on Water street, and Governor 
Oliver Wolcott was a prominent fig- 
ure in the enterprise. 

On the day of the raising of the 
mill, a large number of townspeople 
being present, it was suggested that a 
new name be selected for this section 
of the town. It was unanimously 
agreed that the name should be Wol- 




SOLDIERS' MONUMENT AT TORRING ION 



In front of City Hall- 
Register 



-Courtesy Torrington Evening 



n6 



THE GROWTH OF TORRI NGTON 




A LEADER IN INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 

Achille F. Migeon, deceased, promoted more manufacturing enterprises in Torring- 
ton than any other citizen, and was for years prominent in the town's municipal 
development 



cottville, in grateful recognition of the 
enterprise that day started by the 
members of the Wolcott family. For 
over sixty-eight years this place was 
known and designated by that name. 

Till 1864 its growth was slow, but 
for the most part steady. The first 
school house in Wolcottville was built 
in 1814 on the land now owned by the 
W. S. Lewis Company on "Main 
street." 

The earliest building erected in the 
place for religious purposes was built 
in 1820 and is the brick building now 
standing on South Main street owned 
by Patrick J. O'Brien. 

In a book called "A Gazetteer of the 
States of Connecticut and Rhode Is- 
land, 5 " published in 1819, is the fol- 
lowing description of the village : 



"Wolcottville, a village of i& 
houses, has been built principally since 
1802 and is an active, flourishing place. 
Its growth has been chiefly owing to 
the establishment of an extensive wool- 
en factory which now is owned prin- 
cipally by His Excellency Oliver Wol- 
cott. It is one of the largest establish- 
ments of the kind in the State, em- 
ploying about forty workmen and 
manufacturing from twenty-five to* 
thirty-five yards of broadcloth daily, 
of an average value of $6 per yard." 

The village receives this notice in 
"Barber's History of Connecticut,'^ 
published in 1836: "Wolcottville, the 
principal village in the town of Tor- 
rington, is situated in a valley near 
the southern boundary of the town at 
the junction of the two branches of the- 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 



117 




ELM-SHADED MIGEON AVENUE 
One of Torrington's beautiful thoroughfares— Courtesy Torrington Evening Register 




eiiuiugrapb bj B C W orkmaa 

THE ACHILLE F. MIGEON ESTATE IN TORRINGTON 
A glimpse of the magnificent grounds and residence on Migeon avenue occupied by Mrs. Eli.-.ibeth M i|M> 



n8 



THE GROWTH OF TORRINGTON 





CITY HALL AT TORRINGTON, ERECTED IN 1899 



Photograph by A. B. Ford 



Waterbury and Naugatuck rivers, 
twenty-six miles from Hartford and 
forty from New Haven. The village 
consists of about forty dwellings, a 
handsome Congregational church, a 
three-story brick building used as a 
house of worship by various denomi- 
nations (also as an academy), four 
mercantile stores, two taverns, a post 
office and an extensive woolen factory, 
and an establishment for the manufac- 
ture of brass is now being erected. It 
is believed to be the only one of the 
kind at present in the United States." 
The people on the hills were very 
slow to recognize the growth and po- 
litical influence of the people of Wol- 
cottville, for it was not until November 
7, 1836, that it was decided to hold all 
succeeding town meetings and elec- 
tors' meetings in this village. Prior 
to that date they had been held on the 
eastern or western hills, almost ex- 
clusively in the churches. Subsequent 



to that date they were held in Wol- 
cottville ; first, in the "Presbyterian 
Meeting House" ; then in the "Brick 
Meeting House" ; afterwards in the 
"lower room or basement of the Con- 
gregational Meeting House" ; later 
from 1865 to 1899, in the "Town 
Hall," so-called, a church building 
purchased from the Methodists by the 
town, and by proper alterations fitted 
for public town gatherings. 

In 1899 the present fine town build- 
ing, with its admirable town and bor- 
ough accommodations, was completed 
and occupied. 

The circumscribed limits of this ar- 
ticle do not allow even a general refer- 
ence to the religious, educational or 
industrial movements in Wolcottville 
from 181 3 to 1863. They are of in- 
terest but of little importance com- 
pared with the operations which have 
since the latter year made this place 
famous. Perhaps the names most 



THE GROWTH OF TORRI N GTO N 



*9 



r ' "" 




Photograph by A. I?. Ford 



THE TORRINGTON LIBRARY 




Photograpb ttj a. B. Fow 

RESIDENCE OF SAMUEL A. HERMAN 
Beautiful country estate of prominent member Litchfield County bar, located near the W.ncheste. 



THE GROWTH OF TO RRING TON 



prominent in advancing the material 
interests of the place, between those 
dates, were those of Israel Coe, John 
Hungerford, George D. Wadhams, 
Francis N. Holley, and William R. 
Slade. The era of the wonderful 
prosperity of the village commences 
from the time of the advent of Lyman 
W. Coe into the town. He came here 
from Waterbury in 1863, and in that 
year organized the Coe Brass Manu- 
facturing Company. He was a man 
who was constantly planning and "do- 
ing things," and to the time of his 
death in 1893 was the most valuable 



bury Hook & Eye Company) organ- 
ized in Waterbury in 1848 and trans- 
ferred to Torrington in 1864. 

The Union Hardware Company ; or- 
ganized in 1864. 

The Excelsior Needle Company ; or- 
ganized in 1866. 

The Hendey Machine Company ; or- 
ganized in 1874. 

The Torrington Manufacturing 
Company ; organized in 1885. 

The Eagle Bicycle Manufacturing 
Company; organized in 1888. 

The Hotchkiss Brothers Company ; 
organized in 1901. 




Photograph by S. C. Workman 
THE BOULDER-STREWN FIELDS ON THE TORRINGTON HILLS 



and highly valued citizen of the town. 
Captain Uri Taylor of the first half 
of the last century, and Mr. Coe, 
Elisha Turner and Lauren Wetmore 
of the last half of the century, were 
the most liberal benefactors of the 
religious and educational interests of 
this locality. 

As another article, especially de- 
voted to the manufacturing and busi- 
ness activities of the town in detail, 
will follow this, the writer need only 
refer by name to the industries which 
have caused the growth of Torrington. 

The Coe Brass Manufacturing Com- 
pany ; organized in 1863. 

The Turner & Seymour Manufac- 
turing Company (formerly the Water- 



The Warrenton Woolen Company 
(formerly the Union Manufacturing 
Company) ; organized in 1844. 

All these corporations have a na- 
tional reputation, and many of them a 
world-wide fame, for the superiority 
of their output. They are all located 
in that section of the town now called 
Torrington. It is to them that the 
present growth and development of 
the place is due. They are the mighty 
factors in its prosperity. The other 
corporations which have contributed 
to the progress of this locality, are 
The Agard Hardware Company ; The 
Bronson Lumber & Coal Company; 
The W. S. Lewis Company ; The E. 
A. Perkins Electric Company ; The 



THE GROWTH OF TO RRING TON 



I 21 



Temple Joyce Company ; The Tor- 
rington Building Company ; The Tor- 
rington Printing Company which is- 
sues a daily and weekly newspaper. 
The Torrington Co-operative Com- 
pany; The Torrington Electric Light 
Company, capitalized at $125,000 and 
the Torrington Water Company, cap- 
italized at $200,000. 

In the year 1881 the name of the 
village was changed from Wolcott- 
ville to Torrington. This was ac- 
complished by action of the national 
authorities at Washington, who, at 
the same time, changed the name of 
the village in the western part of the 
town from Torrington to West Tor- 
rington, and was effected by changing 
the names of the post offices in the two 
villages. There had been considerable 
annoyance to our business men in the 
transmission of letters by mail to the 
smaller post office when intended for 
the larger one, and it was considered 
desirable that the largest place in town 
should bear the same name as the 
town. 

Torrington remained a village until 
1887, when by special act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly it was incorporated as 
a borough under the name of the 
^'Borough of Torrington," with limits 
substantially the same as those of the 
village of Wolcottville. 

The brilliant success of these manu- 
facturing industries cannot be as- 
cribed to good fortune or blind chance, 
but should be attributed to the inge- 
nuity, energy and perseverance of the 
men who controlled and supported 
them. They were men of marked abil- 
ity in industrial activities, of coura- 
geous hearts and broad and fertile 
brains. Space does not afford oppor- 
tunity to mention the names of the 
very many men whose capital and la- 
bor have brought prosperity to Tor- 
rington. They are too numerous to 
receive just recognition by name -in 
this sketch, but an exception can prop- 
erly be made in the person of Achille 
F. Migeon, lately deceased, who has 
been the energetic promoter of more 
manufacturing industries in this lo- 



cality than any other citizen, and who 
was financially interested at the time 
of his death, in nearly all the large 
corporations in town. 

What have been the fruits of these 
busy industries, to this place? A 
brief statement of its present condition 
will readily answer. The territory cov- 
ered by the old-time "Mast Swamp," 
now contains over 11,500 inhabitants, 
residing in comfortable and cheerful 
homes in about 1,490 dwelling houses. 
The increase in population from 1880 
to 1890 was about 82^ per cent., and 
from 1890 to 1900, about 100 per cent., 
being the largest proportionate in- 
crease in both decades of any town in 
the state. In this once despised and 
rejected section of the town, a piece 
of land on "Main street," with small 
frontage, containing about one-fortieth 
of an acre, has recently cost a shrewd 
purchaser at the rate of $200,000 per 
acre. This territory contains eighty 
stores, nine churches with property of 
the value of over $500,000, seven ho- 
tels, four fine school buildings involv- 
ing an expenditure of over $125,000, 
two national banks, a savings bank, a 
very attractive town hall, a Young 
Men's Christian Association building, 
a fire department building of costly 
design and construction, completely 
equipped with all modern appliances 
for extinguishing fires, a fire alarm 
telegraph, a library building of white 
marble constructed at an expense of 
over $75,000 (a monument to the wise 
liberality of Elisha Turner), contain- 
ing about 10,000 volumes. 

A modern system oi sewerage take- 
good care of the health of the com- 
munity, whose assessment list tor 
taxes is about $7,500,000. 

This outline of an important Con- 
necticut town and borough is too con- 
tracted and crude to afford adequate 
justice to the subject. But it at least 
gives a structure on which to arrange 
details of the growth and develop- 
ment of a people. from the hardships, 
privations and comparative barbarism 
of "Mast Swamp" to the comfort, con- 
veniences, luxuries and noon -tide civ- 
ilization of urban lite. 



&**TVfF 







THE WATER WHEEL MILL DAYS IN DECADENCE 
Old factory erected in 1835 by Erastus Hodges for manufacturing brass kettles— Vessel containing machinery for 
plant was lost at sea enroute from Europe— Where later Israel Coe produced first brass kettles in this country— Pho- 
tograph by John N. Brooks as it appeared twenty years ago at Cotton Hollow 

THE INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON. 



TRACING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCERNS THAT ARE 
TODAY THE POWER BEHIND THE PROGRESS AND 
EXPANSION OF THE TOWN-INTERESTING ARTICLE 

BY 

EDWARD BAILEY EATON 

AUTHOR OF "THE FINANCIAL HISTORY OF DANBURY," LAKEVILLE, COMMERCIAL AND EDUCA- 
TIONAL, "THE FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF WINSTED," 
AND OTHER ARTICLES IN THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE 
(Written in collaboration with Judge Gideon H. Welch) 



TH E history of a community can- 
not be thoroughly understood 
without a study of its industrial 
evolution. The most vigorous 
quality in progress is the commercial, 
the mercantile, the material. Only 
by healthful occupation can human- 
ity develop the best there is in it. 
While agricultural pursuits for gener- 
ations furnished the nation with its 
brawn and brain, the idealistic free- 
government required a practical 
means for assimilating the hundreds 
of thousands that were coming to its 
out-stretched arms, and by setting 



every man to work producing his own- 
necessities of life met the emergency. 
By the profits of his own industry 
man builds for himself, and accord- 
ing to the measure of his labor is the 
measure of his municipal advantages ; 
education, and even religion, is under 
the environment of industry. 

The history of Torrington is large- 
ly the story of industrial expansion, 
of keen business intellect, of skilled 
handiwork of men. 

The oldest of Torrington's manu- 
turing corporations is the Warrenton 
Woolen Co. (formerly the Union 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 



123 




Photograph by A. B. Ford 



A MODERN BUSINESS BLOCK IN TORRINGTON 
Agard building, erected by Charles G. Agard at corner of Main and Water streets 




HOLLEY HOMESTEAD 
Occupied by the Holley family until its demolition in 1904 as site for new post-office building 



324 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 




NEW $50,000 POST OFFICE 
Now in course of construction, corner of Water and Prospect streets— From plan drawn by H. C. Wilkinson for 
James Knox Taylor, supervising architect 



Manufacturing Company.) Under 
the latter corporate name the business 
was conducted for just half a century. 
Francis Newman Holley, son . of 
Newman and Sarah Stiles Holley and 
grandson of Luther Holley of Lake- 
ville who was engaged in the iron 
business in connection with the fam- 
ous iron mines of Salisbury, came to 
Wolcottville in 1837. In February, 
1844, Mr. Holley with John Flunger- 
ford founded the Union Manufac- 
turing Co. with a capital of $10,000, 
which was subsequently increased to 
$50,000. In 1849 Mr - Holley and 
George W. Slade became the owners 
of the company and the business of 
manufacturing fine doe skin was 
carried on with great success. 
The company now produces uniform 
and carriage cloths. In 1856 the 
entire plant was burned leaving a dis- 
couraging mass of ruins. But an- 
other mill was soon erected with im- 




A LEADER OF FIRST INDUSTRIAL PERIOD 
Francis N. Holley, prominent in progressive movements 
in Torrington during period of 1813 to 1863 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 



I 2 



proved equipment. The business con- 
tinued to be prosperous and in 
1859, Ransom Holley, brother of 
Francis, Samuel Workman, and 
Jesse B. Rose became stock own- 
ers in the business and continued 
until 1873, when Francis N. and Ran- 
som Holley retired. While Mr. Hol- 
ley was connected with the business 
John Brown of historic fame was for 
a time wool buyer for the company 
and was often entertained at the Hol- 
ley homestead. 

In 1894, the present name, The 
Warrenton Woolen Company was 
adopted and employs over 100 persons. 
The present officers are George D. 
Workman, president; Samuel C. 
Workman secretary, and John Work- 
man, treasurer. 

When the Naugatuck Railroad was 
first started in 1848 Mr. Holley, with 
other prominent men of the valley sub- 
scribed the sum of $75,000 to insure 
the success of the enterprise. In 1868 
the Wolcottville Savings Bank was 
organized, with Francis N. Holley as 
president, which position he held until 
his death in 1878. In 1865 a new 
stone edifice was erected by the Con- 



gregational Society of Wolcottville. 
Mr. Holley was greatly interested in 
its building and was very liberal in 
his contributions for that purpose. 
During his whole life he gave his 
hearty support to the maintenan* 
the church and also to every good 
cause presented to him. On the site 
of the Holley homestead, corner of 
Water and Prospect streets, is now- 
being erected the new government 
building to be used for a post office. 

On May 27th, 1846, Francis N. 
Holley married Eliza A. Hotchkiss of 
New Hartford, a direct descendant 
of General Webster, fifth Colonial 
governor of Connecticut and of Cap- 
tain Wadsworth of Charter Oak- 
fame. Mrs. Holley died in May, 
1866, leaving two sons, Edward 
Hotchkiss and Horace Hotchkiss Hol- 
ley. On December 22, 1869, Mr. Hol- 
ley married Mrs. Lucinda R. Hayden 
of Waterbury. Mr. Holley died' I >c- 
tober 5th, 1878. 

To the keen perception of Israel 
Coe may be attributed the develop- 
ment of one of the greatest indus- 
tries in this country. England, in the 
early years of the last century fur- 




PLANT OF THE WARRENTON WOOLEN COMPANY AT TORR1NOTON 



126 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 




PLANT OF COE BRASS MANUFACTURING COMPANY ABOUT 1870 



nished the United States with all the 
brass kettles that were in such com- 
mon usage in those years and Israel 
Coe perceiving the general demand 
for such an article determined to en- 
gage in the manufacture of kettles 
by the old battery process. He ac- 
cordingly purchased a mill privilege 
in what was then Wolcottville (now 
Torrington) and with Israel Holmes 
as his partner began business in 1834, 
producing the first brass kettles made 
in America. The enterprise was con- 
tinued with varying success as a co- 
partnership until May, 1841, when a 
joint stock company was formed un- 
der the name of the Wolcottville Brass 
Company, with a capital of $56,000, 
•of which Israel Coe, Anson G. Phelps 
and John Hungerford were the stock- 
holders. Israel Coe was appointed 
president and Lyman W. Coe, secre- 
tary and treasurer. John Hunger- 
ford succeeded to the presidency in 
1842 and in 1848 the Hungerford in- 
terests in the company's stock pre- 



dominated. In 1863, Lyman W. Coe, 
who had severed his connection with 
the company in 1845, purchased the 
entire capital stock and immediately 
began the reorganization of the com- 
pany, incorporating under the name 
of The Coe Brass Manufacturing 
Company. The new company, under 
the leadership of Lyman W. Coe, im- 
mediately acquired a position in the 
foremost ranks of the brass wire and 
German silver industry, and each suc- 
ceeding year has witnessed a tide of 
prosperity and progress that has rare- 
ly been attained in the industrial life 
of this country. From the modest 
buildings originally constituting the 
early plant, have sprung new struc- 
tures and additions almost yearly. To 
the Torrington industry The Coe 
Brass Manufacturing Company in 
1896 added by purchase the Ansonia 
plant of Wallace & Sons, which in it- 
self is one of the largest in the Nauga- 
tuck Valley. 

The capital stock of the Coe Brass 




M 

I ■ 

z « 

5 2 

D = 

3 - 
5 1 



w S 



128 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 




PLANT OF THE TURNER AND SEYMOUR MANUFACTURING COMPANY IN 1864 



Manufacturing Company, was, at its 
organization, made $100,000. It has 
been increased to $1,000,000. It man- 
ufactures brass and copper in various 
forms and especially seamless brass 
and copper tubes. It is said to be the 
most extensive brass mill in the coun- 
try. 

It is one of the associate companies 
of the American Brass Company and 
employs over two thousand two hun- 
dred men. 

On the death of Lyman W. Coe in 
1893, Charles F. Brooker, who had 
been secretary of the company since 
1870, succeeded to the presidency of 
the corporation which office he now 
fills. The other officers of the com- 
pany are Edward T. Coe, treasurer; 
James A. Doughty, secretary ; and E. 
J. Steele, assistant secretary. 

The Turner & Seymour Manufac- 
turing Company, originally the Wat- 
erbury Hook & Eye Company, is one 



of the oldest of the town's industries. 
The company began business in Wat- 
erbury, being incorporated in that city 
in 1848, with Elisha Turner as presi- 
dent. In 1864 the company pur- 
chased the old cotton mill property 
near the junction of Water and Main 
streets and transferred their business 
from Waterbury to Wolcottville. Af- 
ter consolidation with the Seymour 
Manufacturing Company the corpora- 
tion in 1874 became known as the 
Turner & Seymour Manufacturing 
Company, with a capital stock of 
$100,000. 

The old factory buildings as shown 
in the above illustration were destroy- 
ed by fire and the company immediate- 
ly began the erection of a new plant 
which started operation in 1894. The 
buildings are of a most substantial 
character, and are located in the south 
part of the town between South Main 
street and the Naugatuck Division of 




PLANT OF THE TURNER AND SEYMOUR MANUFACTURING COMPANY BUILT 1894. 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 



129 




FACTORY OF EXCELSIOR NEEDLE COMPANY IN 1 866 




ACHILLE F. MIGEON 
(Former president, deceased) 



the New York. New Haven and Hart- 
ford Railroad. 

The company manufactures at the 
present time upholstery hardware and 
fancy metal goods, and is maintain- 
ing an iron foundry. 

In the death of Elisha Turner. Tor- 
rington lost a patriotic and philan- 
thropic citizen, whose good works in 
the community will always be cher- 
ished by her sons and daughters. 

Mr. Luther G. Turner succeeded t<> 
the office made vacant by President 
Turner's death and he is today the 
active head of one of the most re- 
liable sound and progresisve enter- 
prises in the town. The other officers 




CHARLES ALVORD JAMES ALLDIS W. H. DAYTON 

(Former treasurer and manager, deceased) (Former superintender O O'^ter Mecnan.c^ 

MEN BEHIND WONDERFUL GROWTH OF EXCELSIOR NEEDLE COMPANY 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 



$1 



of the company are Edmund A. Mer- 
riam, treasurer, and Thomas Murray, 
secretary. 

The inventive genius of Orrin L. 
Hopson and Heman P. Brooks and 
the keen business judgment and per- 
severance of Achille F. Migeon and 
Charles Alvord is accountable for the 
inception and development of one of 
Connecticut's greatest industrial en- 
terprises. Previous to 1866 the man- 
ufacture of sewing machine needles 
had been carried on by the slow and 
uncertain milling process. The dem- 
onstration of an invention (the cold 
swaging process) by Mr. Hopson and 
Mr. Brooks in Wolcottville awakened 
the interest of a number of the towns- 
people and in 1866 one of the great- 
est and most successful business en- 
terprises of the town was started in 
the organization of the Excelsior 
Needle Company, which has enjoyed 
almost unexampled prosperity. From 
a paid-in capital stock of $15,000, with 
$10,000 in patents, it has increased, 
including its tributaries in other lo- 
calities, its capital stock from earnings 
alone to $1,000,000. It produced at 
the start only sewing machine needles. 
To these have been added from time 
to time knitting machine needles, hook 
needles, spokes and nipples. In all its 
production the company has the high- 
est reputation for superiority of ma- 
terial and workmanship. The stock 



of the company was some years ago 
purchased by capitalists and subse- 
quently this company, with its auxil- 
iary companies was capitalized with 
no additional cash paid in at $4,000.- 
000, under the general name of "The 
Torrington Company." The needle 
company still retains its corporate ex- 
istence with nominal capital stock oi 
$1,000,000, and its spoke and nipple 
department has been incorporated un- 
der the name of "The Standard Spoke 
and Nipple Company," with a capital 
stock of $1,200,000. The Needle 
Company employs 800 persons, the 
Spoke & Nipple Company, 60. 

The present officers of the company 
are John F. Alvord, president; C. B. 
Vincent, secretary ; H. C. Sibley, 
treasurer, and Sheldon B. Hickox, 
assistant treasurer. 

The history of the Hendey Machine 
Company dates back to the summer 
of 1870 when Henry J. Hendey and 
Arthur Hendey themselves constructed 
a small shop about eighteen by twen- 
ty-four feet and began the making and 
repairing of iron machinery. They 
used for motive power a small rotary 
steam engine built by one of the broth- 
ers during his spare evenings and 
completed a year or two prior to start- 
ing business. 

After several months of diligent 
labor it became necessary to employ 
two helpers, and finally in 1871 to re- 




JU&& 



PLANT OF THE HENDEY MACHINE COMPANY AT TORRING IV N 
Showing proposed addition at left necessitated by rapidly increasing business 



132 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 




Photograph by A. B. Ford 
UNION HARDWARE COMPANY AT TORRINGTON 
This concern has plans for extensive buildings that will more than double the present capacit y of the plant 



move to more commodious quarters 
in the East Branch Spoon shop. Suc- 
cess seemed so well assured that a 
number of the town's citizens suc- 
ceeded in interesting the Hendey 
Brothers in a proposition to expand 
the business and accordingly the 
Hendey Machine Company was or- 
ganized in 1874; the capital stock was 
then $16,000. It has since been in- 
creased to $300,000. The company 
manufactures a general line of ma- 



chine tools, but its specialties are its 
shapers, planers and lathes, which 
have a world wide reputation. The 
number of employes is about 430. 

The officers are Henry J. Hendey,. 
president; Charles H. Alvord, secre- 
tary; and F. F. Fuessenich, treasurer. 

The Union Hardware Company, an- 
other industry of the place, was organ- 
ized in 1864 with a capital stock of 
$10,000 which has from time to time 
been increased until it is now $150,- 




Photograph by A. B. Ford 
PLANT OF THE TORRINGTON MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 



'3.3 




PLANT OF THE EAGLE BICYCLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY AT TORRINGTON 



ooo. Ice skates and various kinds of 
"hardware are its products as well as 
many articles of merchandise formed 
from wood. It is now enjoying great 
prosperity. It employs 500 hands. 

The officers of the company are as 
follows : Thomas W. Bryant, presi- 
dent; Christian G. Hoerle, secretary; 
and Newton D. Holbrook, treasurer. 

In 1885.. the Torrington Manufac- 
turing Company was organized with 
the capital stock of $25,000, now in- 
creased to $30,000. Its products are 
upholstery nails, novelties, and all 
kinds of brass turnings. Special ma- 
chinery is also built to order and a 
general machine jobbing business is 
done. Number of names on its pay 
roll, 100, are mostly skilled mechan- 
ics. The company's officers are James 
A. Doughty, president; Robert C. 
Swayze, secretary ; and Edward T. 
Coe, treasurer. 

The demand for bicycles in 1888 
resulted in the organization of the 
Eagle Bicycle Manufacturing Com- 
pany in that year with the capital stock 
of $100,000. At first only bicycles 
were manufactured. They were of a 
high grade and enjoyed an excellent 
reputation in the market. The com- 
pany now also manufactures gasolene 
engines, screws, rivets, studs and spec- 
ialties for other manufactories. The 



number of hands employed is 175. 
The officers of the company to-day 
are John F. Alvord, president and 
general manager ; and ( ieorge E. 
Hammann, secretary and treasurer. 

The advent of Charles Hotchkiss 
into Wolcottville in 1841 marked the 
founding of a business that is to-day 
not only a potent factor in the indus- 
trial life of Torrington but an ex- 
ponent of the most skillful structural 
work in woodworking lines in the 
country. Charles Hotchkiss first 
operated a saw mill in the locality 
known as Drakeville. 

In 1857 he and his son. Edward C. 
Hotchkiss, formed a partnership un- 
der the firm name of C. Hotchkiss & 
Son, and purchased the old Wilson 
mill property from the Connecticut 
Soapstone Company, together with 
the oldest known water privilege in the 
town. Another son. Henry Hotch- 
kiss, was admitted to the firm in [867, 
and the name was changed to G 
Hotchkiss & Sons. ( )n the retirement 
of Charles I lotehkiss in the early 
eighties the firm name was changed to 
Hotchkiss Brothers and remained as 
such until 18S7. when Edward 11. 
Hotchkiss became a member, the com- 
pany assuming the name ot Hotchkiss 
Brothers & Company, 

The company was incorporated in 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORR/NGTOV 



35 




Photograph !>y A. 1'.. Ford 

HOME OF BROOKS NATIONAL BANK AND THE TORRINGTON SAVINGS BANK 

Also occupied by insurance agency of Brooks and McNeil— Third floor was first theatre in Torrington, later a 
skating rink, and now Knights of Pythias hall— The building is familiarly known a? the Granite Block 

May, 1891, as The Hotchkiss Broth- 
ers Company with a capital of $60,- 
000, and manufactures window sashes, 
blinds, doors and other portions of 
buildings. Its work is of the highest 
excellence. It employs about 125 men. 
The officers are Heniy E. Hotchkiss, 
president ; Edwin S. Hawley, secreta- 
ry ; and Edward H. Hotchkiss, treas- 
urer. 

The Brooks National Bank of Tor- 
rington was organized in 1899, suc ~ 
ceeding Brooks Brothers, bankers. 
The officers are Isaac W. Brooks, 
president; Charles L. McNeil, vice- 
president ; John N. Brooks, cashier ; 
Harold E. Munson, assistant cashier. 
The capital stock is $100,000, with sur- 
plus and undivided profits, $51,377.47. 

The bank is located on Main street, 
in the Granite Block which it owns 
and which has recentlv been remod- 




eled. The bankinj 



room is equipped 



PIONEER rORRINGTON BANKER 

John W, Brooks, deceased, who in 187a sMttrd a hank ot 

discount and deposit with his brother, Isaac W, Brot*ki 



«3 6 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 




PIONEER TORRINGTON BANKER 

Isaa; W. Brooks, president of Brooks National Bank, sec- 
retary and treasurer of Torrington Savings Bank 



with modern vaults, with safe depos- 
it boxes, and fixtures of the most ap- 
proved style, with every convenience. 
The directors are Isaac W. Brooks, 
Charles L. McNeil, Charles F. Brook- 
er, George B. Alvord, O. R. Fyler, 
John N. Brooks and L. G. Turner. 

The Torrington Savings Bank oc- 
cupies rooms on the first floor of the 
Granite Block on Main street, which 
have recently been handsomely refur- 
nished. It was chartered in 1868, and 
its deposits at this time amount to $1,- 
368,525.57, with a substantial surplus, 
all of which is invested in the most 
conservative loans and securities. 

The officers are : Charles F. Brook- 
er, president; Charles L. McNeil, vice- 
president ; Isaac W. Brooks, secretary 
and treasurer. The trustees are Isaac 
W. Brooks, Charles F. Brooker, 
Charles L. McNeil, Fdward T. Coe, 
John N. Brooks, George B. Alvord, 
Luther G. Turner. 

The insurance agency of Brooks & 
McNeil was established in 1872. They 
represent the oldest and strongest 
companies in the insurance business. 



Such companies as Aetna of Hartford, 
Home of New York, Hartford of 
Hartford, Continental of New York, 
Liverpool & London & Globe, Ins. Co. 
of N. America, Royal of England, 
Phoenix of Hartford, Fire Association 
of Philadelphia, National of Hartford, 
Pennsylvania, North British & Mer- 
cantile, Germania of New York, Con- 
necticut of Hartford, Hanover of New 
York, Niagara of New York, London 
& Lancashire Co., Norwich Union, 
Orient of Hartford, Aetna Indemnity 
Co., Fidelity & Deposit Co., Fidelity & 
Casualty Co., Hartford Steam Boiler, 
Lloyds Plate Glass, Travelers of Hart- 
ford, and others, whose assets aggre- 
gate more than $221,000,000. It is the 
oldest agency in the borough and is 
located at 84 Main street. The mem- 
bers of the firm are Isaac W. Brooks 
and Charles L. McNeil, who have 
been associated together for more 
than 30 years. They have an up-to- 
date office and are prepared to write 
all kinds of insurance, such as fire, 
life, accident, tornado, plate glass,. 




ORGANIZER FIRST NATIONAL BANK 
Hosea Mann, cashier of Torrington National Bank, of 
which he was an incorporator in 1899 




TORRINGTON NATIONAL BANK BUILDING 



steam boiler, employer's liability, sure- 
ty and fidelity bonds, sprinkler leak- 
age, and burglary. 

They also do quite an extensive busi- 
ness in steamship tickets, representing 
the following trans-Atlantic and coast 
line companies : American, Cunard, 
White Star, Anchor, North-German 
Lloyds, Hamburg- American, French, 
Red Star, Prince, Holland-American, 
Clyde, and others. 

Hosea Mann, a Vermont banker, 
who had been inspector of finance and 
State bank examiner of Vermont, 
came to Torrington in 1899, and made 
the first successful attempt in Tor- 
rington to organize a national bank ; 
the result of his efforts being the in- 
corporation of the Torrington Na- 
tional bank, October 28, 1899. A de- 
sirable lot was purchased and work 
commenced at once upon a bank build- 



ing. Meantime a temporary home was 
secured and the bank opened for busi- 
ness December 12, 1899. The growth 
of the bank has been constant and 
very satisfactory to its stockholders. 
It commenced paying dividends April 
1 901, at the rate of 4 per cent, per 
annum which in April. [903, was in- 
creased to 5 per cent. It has alread) 
paid $18,000 on dividends and accu- 
mulated surplus and undivided profits 
of over $24,000. It has $100,000 cap- 
ital and about $400,000 deposits. 

George D. Workman is president : 
Henry J. llendey. vice-president: 
Hosea Mann, cashier. F. F. Fuessen- 
ich, George L. Lilley, John F. Alvord, 
E. H. Hotchkiss together with the 
Other officers mentioned, constitute 
the board o\ seven directors. John 11. 
Seaton is teller and Frank M. Bald- 
win, bookkeeper. 



138 



INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF TORRINGTON 




CONLEY S INN AT TORRINGTON 
Frank Conley, proprietor 




THE FARNHAM HOUSE AT TURK1NGTON 
Charles Reyneke, proprietor, well l.nown by the traveling public, having been connected with the Heublein Hotel, 
Hartford, nine years as chef, and five years with the Aliyn House, Hartford 




THE SUMMER HOME OF ARTIST FOSTER IN CORNWALL HOLLOW, CONNECTICUT 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 

BEN FOSTER, A PAINTER OF NATURE, WHO WHILE 
A NATIVE OF MAINE, RECEIVES MUCH OF HIS 
INSPIRATION FROM THE CONNECTICUT HI LIS 



AUTHOR OF 



BY 

ALICE SAWTELLE RANDALL 

OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 

"FIDELIA BRIDGES IN HER STUDIO," IN RECENT ISSUH OF 
THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE 



NOT long ago a woman whose 
adopted home is in Florence 
and who, with her husband, 
had been visiting various 
American colleges and cities in the 
interests of art criticism and culture, 
was asked whether she found on 
the part of intelligent Italians any 
adequate comprehension of our 
country and its people. 

"Not in the least," was her reply. 
"On the contrary, I find, for the 
most part, not only a surprising 



ignorance of the United States, but 
also a marked indifference to it. 
If the Italian gentleman bus what 
may be called a we 11- formulated 
idea as to the qualities that make 
up the American citizen, he would 
emphasize first, last, and always, his 
dominating commercialism, which 
causes him to hold the almighty 
dollar so near his eye as scare 

the intellectual light that eraan; 
from the sun god." 

"What! Going to America? 1 her 




BEN FOSTER 

A painter of New England woods and fields 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



141 



Italian friends exclaimed. "And 
on such an errand! What possible 
sympathy with art and art-ideals 
can you expect to find among the 
Americans?" 

However just such an estimate 
as this may have been in the earlier, 
nation-building stage of our ex- 
istence, when our main energies 
were necessarily bent upon theestab- 
lishment of a government upon 
these shores and the development of 
those industries which should main- 
tain it, and however applicable such 
a judgment may be to-day to the 
great mass of our busy, bustling, 
breathless citizens, nevertheless, is 
it not time that the evolution of an 
earnest art-spirit among us be rec- 
ognized as a potent influence in the 
American life of to-day? Especially 
has it been so since the Chicago 
Exposition in 1903, when the na- 
tion's art-consciousness may be said 
to have awakened. 

Quite naturally and necessarily 
have our American artists in the 



past turned to the old world for 
their chief inspiration; for there 
are the old masters and that pic- 
turesqueness which it requires cen- 
turies to produce. Moreover, there 
is the subtle atmosphere which the 
artist craves. We have, therefore, 
been slow in building up a distinc- 
tively American school of painting, 
and too often, perhaps, have our 
artists followed after foreign schools 
and painted only foreign scenes. 

Apropos of this, may be cited a 
certain incident of the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1900: the Commissioner 
of Art for the French Government, 
to whom had been entrusted the 
delicate task of selecting from the 
exhibits a number of pictures to be 
purchased and hung permanently in 
the Luxembourg, was one day pass- 
ing through the gallery where was 
shown the work of our American 
artists. It is said that he hardly 
glanced at the many bits of Euro- 
pean scenery and life there dis- 
played. Finally, however, his at- 




AN INTERPRETATION OF MEDITATIVE NATURE CHARACTERISTIC OF I UK A R 

Above is a reproduction of a recent cai.vas by Ben Foster 



142 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 




AWAY FROM THE DIN OF TOIL 

A restful corner safe from commercial struggle, where 
Artist Foster lives his art 

tentioti was arrested and held by a 
picture called "Lulled by the Mur- 
muring Stream." It portrayed a 
scene at night in a little New Eng- 
land village. "There!" exclaimed 
Monsieur with delight. "That 
man has painted something ' he 
knows intimately well. It is worthy 
of Cazin !" The artist was Mr. Ben 
Foster and the village his native 
place — North Anson, Maine. The 
picture was duly purchased by the 
French Government for the pur- 
pose mentioned — an honor received 
by only one other artist living in 
America — Mr. Winslow Homer. 

Though born in Maine, Mr. 
Foster spends a large part of his 
time at his summer-place at Corn- 
wall Hollow, Connecticut, and is, 
therefore, an adopted son of this 
state. Each year the romantic hill 
country lures him early and holds 
him late, and the inspiration he 
there receives is embodied in his 
pictures, many of which depict the 
scenery about his farm. 

Like those of many another artist, 
Mr. Foster's earlier years were 
marked by struggle. Thrown 
upon his own resources in youth, 
he sought the great metropolis and 
there, until past thirty, earned his 
livelihood in the commerial world. 
But he was not satisfied: his artist 
soul groaned within him; he longed 
to study and paint — not in scrappy 



hours saved from business, but first, 
last, and always, as the main pur- 
suit of life. And gradually the 
opportunity came. 

From the start, Mr. Foster has 
taken his art seriously and inde- 
pendently. For mere popularity he 
has cared not at all. Painting to 
please the passing fancy of the pub- 
lic may mean success for the mo- 
ment; but, in the long run, he be- 
lieves, compromise is deadening in 
its effects. Be content to work in 
obscurity for long years if need be; 
devotion to one's ideal as he sees it 
will at last be crowned with real 
success. This has been Mr. Foster's 
experience and is, therefore, his 
well-founded opinion. 

Mr. Foster, in his earlier life, 
studied under New York and Paris 
masters; but his great teacher has 
been Nature. Of his life abroad he 
says little except to confess how 
woefully homesick he was and how 
he longed to get back to his own; 
and "his own," as any one familiar 
with his work must know, is the 
woods and fields and hills of New 
England. 

But the aspects of nature are 
changing: the sky may smile to-day 
and frown to-morrow; the forest 
trees, now the cool retreat of happy 
birds, may within the hour sway 
and groan beneath the lash of the 
angry storm. And as some painters 
prefer the severer aspects of nature, 
so others, like Mr. Foster, seem to 
delight in the interpretation of her 
quiet, meditative — often tender — 
moods. 

The picture already alluded to as 
hanging in the Luxembourg is typi- 
cal of our artist's work: the activi- 
ties of the day are over; the last 
foot-fall has died on the pavement; 
the lights are extinguished and the 
village sleeps beneath the trees in 
the moonlight, "lulled by the mur- 
muring stream" — or, as the French 
consistently translate it, Berce par 
le flot murmur ant. There is in it all 
a most sensitive rendering of rest 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



'43 



after toil — relaxation after effort; 
and one feels that the stars and the 
stream are keeping watch. 

Another canvas, which Mr. Foster 
calls "The Whippoorwill Road," is 
also most characteristic. It is twi- 
light ; a strip of hill road skirts a 
thickly-wooded knoll; the evening 
vapors impart an atmosphere of 
mystery and seclusion; no sound of 
human voice disturbs the haunts of 
the bird. The beholder feels that 
even to look is to intrude; he can 
only repeat under his breath those 
lines from Wordsworth's "Cuckoo:" 

To seek thee did I often rove 
Through woods and on the green ; 
And thou, wert still a hope, a love, 
Still longed for, never seen. 

This picture, like his "Morning 
Mists," and others, shows Mr. 
Foster's delicate power of observa- 
tion, which preserves the aloofness 
of nature undisturbed by his own 
presence. Always, too, his can- 
vases are lighted with the ideal; 
infused with imagination, they 
waken the imagination of the be- 
holder; there is always the poetic 
suggestion beyond and above all 
considerations of technique and 
execution. Possibly this quality 
comes from the fact that Mr. Fos- 
ter's pictures are often worked out 
and finished from memory, in his 
studio, so that there has been time 



for the sublimation of the ideal 
from the real, or probably it is there 
because Mr. Foster is in the recesses 
of his own nature a poet, who finds 
his medium of expression in the 
brush rather than in the pen. The 
names which he chooses for his pic- 
tures would indicate this. To those 
already mentioned may be added the 
lines from Omar, which accom- 
panied a picture given as a wedding 
gift to an old-time friend: 

Yon rising moon that looks for us again— 
How oft hereafter will she wax and wane; 
How oft hereafter rising look for us 
Through this same garden-and for one in 

vain ! 

For many years Mr. Foster's pic- 
tures have been conspicuous at the 
exhibits of the Society of American 
Artists, and in 1901 he was awarded 
the Webb prize for the best land- 
scape. In the fall of 1900, he re- 
ceived the silver medal and the 
prize of a thousand dollars at the 
Carnegie Institute of Pittsburg for a 
canvas called "Misty Moonlight." 
One of his best pictures is at the 
Corcoran Art Gallery and another 
at the Brooklyn Institute. Mr. 
Foster is an associate of the Na- 
tional Academy and has often 
served on the jury of selection — all 
of which would go to show that he 
is appreciated at home as well as 
abroad. 



ART FOR ART'S SAKE IS HEARTLESS, AND SOON GROWS ARTLESS- 
ART FOR THE PUBLIC MARKET IS NOT ART AT ALL, BUT COMMERCE- 
ART FOR THE PEOPLE'S SERVICE, FOR THE DIFFUSION OF "JOY IN 
WIDEST COMMONALITY SPREAD," IS A NOBLE, VITAL, PERMANENT E 

MENT OF HUMAN LIFE 

— Says Henry Van . 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS 



THE STORY OF OLD TI, A CONNECTICUT SLAVE IN REVOLU- 
TIONARY TIMES WITH INTERESTING REFLECTIONS ON LIFE 

IN THE EARLY REPUBLIC CONTINUANCE OF FIRESIDE STORIES 



BY 



JUDGE MARTIN H. SMITH 

OF SUFFIELD, CONNECTICUT 



I HAVE frequently mentioned 
Old "Ti" in my reminiscences 
of a long life in Suffield, Con- 
necticut, and I believe you will 
be further interested in the dutiful 
labors of a negro during the slavery 
days in Connecticut. In telling of 
him I will picture to you to the 
best of my ability the village life 
in the early part of the last cen- 
tury. 

There is not the least doubt in 
the world but Titus was a genuine 
negro. To use the language of the 
farm, he was of pure imported 
stock. His parents came over from 
Africa as involuntary immigrants, 
in a Dutch ship, about 1760. They 
were bright young curly heads 
and drifted, in the course of trade, 
to Suffield. The father belonged to 
a brutal half-breed, who disposed 
of him to Captain Elihu Kent, 
afterwards a distinguished officer 
in the Continental Army. The 
mother was brought here by a 
besotted trader who treated her so 
badly that Dr. Gay bought her of 
sheer pity. 

They had several children, but 
all died in infancy except Titus. 
He was born about 1770. His 
parents had never wholly recovered 
from the terrible hardships and 
horrors of the slave-ship, than 
which human greed has furnished 
no other instrument so cruel and 
heartless; owned, as it was, by 



reprobates and manned by fiends. 
The treachery of trusted friends, 
the stealing of children, and wanton 
murder, have at all times been exe- 
crated. But this, combined them 
all and carried the survivors 
through misery and suffering and 
brutality to hopeless slavery. Added 
to this, the severe climate of New 
England completely broke them 
down, and both died of consump- 
tion before Titus was five years old. 
He was a puny little fellow and 
did not promise well for this world, 
that is certain. But he was well 
cared for and, after quite a strug- 
gle, grew to be a strong boy. The 
schools in those days were only kept 
some three months in the winter, 
and whatever advantages given, he 
shared with the whites equally. 
There was no particular difference 
in his treatment and that of other 
boys, certainly none at home. All 
had to work and work hard, for it 
was no light matter to subdue the 
virgin soil, be it ever so fertile, in 
such a climate. 

The house in which b<^ was born 
is yet standing, just north of the 
Second Baptist Church. It was 
built in 1743, and at the time was 
one of the finest residences in the 
town, if not the very finest. The 
front door step was exactly on the 
line of the street which, at this 
point, was laid out thirty roes wide. 
The Dcmense stretched off toward 



146 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS 



the river on the east, a goodly tract 
of land. 

The boys in those days had little 
opportunity for recreation, and as 
for amusement, in anything like the 
present sense, none at all. They 
might get up a half-hour's game of 
ball, or slide down hill at noon, 
when school was in session. But 
the chores kept them busy until 
school in the morning, and after 
school until it was more than dark, 
before the last horse was bedded 
down. In fact, the school began in 
winter shortly after sunrise, and 
except for a brief nooning, did not 
close much before sun-down. With 
all that, nothing was said in those 
days about physical culture or over- 
worked intellects. And this disci- 
pline built up a stalwart race 
that shaped the destiny of our 
country. 

At night the younger children 
studied the New England Primer 
until they knew every picture, 
word, syllable, letter and character 
by heart. One way and another it 
had an immense influence on their 
characters. Who that had com- 
mitted to memory the alphabet, 
beginning with "A — in Adam's fall 
we sinned all," and continuing 
down to "Z — Zacheus, he did climb 
a tree our Lord to see," could go 
far astray in theology? Who that 
had seen the picture of John Rogers 
burning at the stake while "his wife 
with nine small children, and one 
at thy breast," were looking on, 
could ever incline to the Scarlet 
W^man? The older children studied 
Daballs Arithmetic, or some other, 
and when successful in working the 
"sums" were allowed, as a reward 
and for recreation, the exciting 
game of fox and goose. 

Mr. Emerson has left us as his 
best heritage an eloquent and 
charming dissertation on the laws 
of compensation. And what a com- 
pensation for the hardships of the 
day those long winter evenings in a 
New England farmhouse were: 



The great fire-place in the kitchen 
piled with logs, blazing and crack- 
ling, sending out light and heat in 
great showers; the crane always 
hung and ready for the kettles — for 
in those days no dyspepsia-building 
cook-stoves ever profaned the 
hearth — the settle — the pantry near 
by — how they all live in memory: 
On one side the grandfather or 
grandmother, seldom both, sat in 
the high-backed rocking chair and 
dozed. The father and mother 
occupied the other. In front, some 
distance from the fire, the larger 
children occupied the settle, while 
between them and the fire were the 
smaller children on stools, or on 
the floor with the cat and dog. All 
were busy, the men writing or read- 
ing, the women darning or knitting, 
the children conning their lessons, 
while on the mantel stood the indis- 
pensable pitcher of cider. On the 
table was a great platter heaped 
with apples, and a dish filled with 
hickory nuts which the best boy 
might amuse himself in cracking. 
They were often passed around, 
and if not often enough any one 
could help himself. With an occas- 
ional pan of doughnuts they made 
up the evening fare. And what 
was better, there was not a man, 
woman or child there, who had not 
a stomach to digest them. 

At nine o'clock the children began 
to get drowsy, or ought to, and then 
the good man rose and read a psalm, 
generally of praise, and all bowed 
in reverence before the Great 
Father. The youngsters were dis- 
missed to bed and the elders fin- 
ished the evening with gossip and 
talk which they fancied the young 
folks could not comprehend or at 
least had no business to. When a 
neighboring family happened in for 
an evening, what a jolly time all 
had. It was a bright spot in 
memory. Many a man would travel 
half across a continent to-day to 
spend such an evening and with 
such company. 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS 



47 



Dr. Gay was a learned man, as 
was his son after him, and very- 
hospitable. Often his brother cler- 
gymen came and stayed over night 
and perhaps longer. Then there 
were notable discussions of science 
and literature and theology. Art 
was lightly touched on, for it was 
not indigenous to Suffield soil. It 
was a great thing for a boy to have 
such associations, and especially for 
Titus, only one degree removed 
from Africa. Later in life these 
scenes came back to him, as they 
come back to all happy enough to 
pass through them, and made him 
a better man. 

The times were full of incident. 
A nation was being born. Suffield 
bore its full share in the war for 
liberty. The women and children 
carried with them their own as well 
as the burden of the men, for the 
scarcity of laborers threw upon 
them most of the work out of doors 
as well as in. The eight years of 
the war achieved the glorious inde- 
pendence of the country, but post- 
poned the redemption of the soil. 
With returning peace new life was 
infused in every department of 
labor. Progress was resumed at 
the point it was left off. Men felt 
that this was their country now. 
And though the politicians bickered 
as always, the people at large had 
faith in the stability of affairs. 

Among the earliest memories that 
Titus loved to relate was the coming 
home of the soldiers and the great 
celebration. When these old New 
Englanders started out on a jubila- 
tion, it was bound to be a success. 
Tradition has handed down an 
account of how many beeves were 
killed, how many gallons of rum 
were furnished, how many pigs 
were roasted, how may bowls of 
punch were drank, how many sheep 
were eaten, how many kegs of flip 
washed them down. For our 
Yankee fathers were not so tem- 
perate either in eating or drinking 
as their descendants. There was 



the reading of the Declaration of 
Independence, the prayer, the ora- 
tion which did not belittle the 
prowess of the Suffield soldiers. 
Only nine years had passed since 
Captain Elihu Kent and Captain 
Daniel Austin led their companies 
of a hundred and ten men to the 
music of the Lexington alarm. Of 
that band very few were living, 
though their memory was as incense 
pervading the great assembly, "as 
when in a vast cathedral the censers 
are swung and the savor of frank- 
incense, and myrrh, and thyme fill 
the air " 

Nor did he ever tire of telling of 
Washington's visit to Suffield. He 
seemed to feel as if it would not 
have been a success but for his 
efforts and his master's. His 
master was one of the principal 
officers of the day, and made the 
welcoming address; while Titus 
waited on the general. It needs no 
embellishment to make it appear a 
great occasion, for it really was. It 
was a gala day for Suffield. The 
principal exercises were to have 
been held in the Orthodox church, 
which then stood at the intersec- 
tion of the West Suffield road. But 
so large a crowd assembled it was 
agreed to have them under the great 
elm. This tree yet stands opposite 
the south end of the park, a noble 
tree, though of late years one of its 
largest limbs has split off. A com- 
mittee of all the principal citizens 
had gone to Windsor to meet the 
general, many of whom had served 
directly under him during the war. 
The moment they came in sight 
the firing of cannon notified the 
people. Then thirteen as pretty 
maidens as Suffield could boast 
started down the road to meet the 
cavalcade. The general is repre- 
sented as traveling in an open car- 
riage, accompanied only by his 
private secretary and one servant. 
He spent a part of two days here 
and expressed himself delighted 
with his reception. He addressed 



148 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS 



the citizens and complimented 
Suffield on the valor of its soldiers 
and the evidences of prosperity all 
around. It is certain if he had ran 
for the presidency a third time the 
Suffield people would have voted 
for him unanimously. He spent 
the night at Archer's tavern, the 
best of the dozen inns in the town, 
and report says there were high 
doings, certainly a dance which the 
general opened, and there was more 
flip than a less occasion would 
justify. On the morrow quite a 
number of the citizens escorted him 
on his journey as far as Spring- 
field. 

Titus was never sick — that is, 
seriously — at least while he was in 
his teens. Once he managed to get 
laid up a few weeks by getting his 
leg broken. There was a "raising, ' * 
and boy-like, he ventured too care- 
lessly and had a fall that was a 
lesson to him — that is, if anything 
is a lesson to a sixteen-year-old 
boy. A "raising" always meant a 
half-day or a day off, with plenty 
of doughnuts and cider. A large 
crowd of neighbors could always be 
relied on for help on such occasions. 
In fact, there were in every com- 
munity a half-dozen or more profes- 
sonal "raisers" who never failed to 
assist, and to get half seas over or 
more. That fashion has gone out 
in our newer and more artistic 
way of doing things. But it was a 
neighborly thing to do, and one of 
the customs that promoted good 
cheer and good will. After the 
raising came a variety of games, 
such as wrestling, quoits, ball, any- 
thing that displayed physical skill 
or strength. The champion of one 
district often traveled miles to a 
raising to try his strength with 
other noted wrestlers. 

Raisings, weddings, funerals, 
anything that drew the people 
together, assumed an importance 
we can hardly apprehend now. 
And why should they not? There 
were no theaters in those days with 



their simulation of life; no circus 
with elephant, or monkey, or clown ; 
no football or prize fight. There 
were no newspapers to speak of. 
There were no books except the few 
religious works the parson had, and 
the half-dozen law books of the 
lawyer, and the doctor's "Materia 
Medica. " The other exceptions 
were very rare. There were only 
three holidays — one for thanks, one 
for deprecation, one for patriotism. 
What a grand day was Thanksgiv- 
ing until Christmas despoiled it! 
A day of real thanks and satisfac- 
tion; a day that gathered the whole 
family together in love as no other 
day does it now — more's the pity. 
Fast Day, the one day of self- 
abnegation, was a holiday for the 
boys, for all that. They managed 
to have a little something more 
than roast potatoes for breakfast or 
a crust of bread for supper. To 
the old people, it was utterly sad. 
To the young it was blended with 
covert fun. The Fourth of July! 
The day that inculcated patriotism 
enough to last a year; until well- 
meaning folk put Memorial Day 
within a month of it, and so insured 
two failures. Ever since the state 
has been trying to revive the patri- 
otic feeling by raising flags over 
the school houses, and decreeing 
legal holidays in honor of its most 
distinguished heroes. 

They were thrown back upon 
very every-day things for conversa- 
tion. The apple-paring bees, the 
quiltings, huskings, these were what 
lightened life. If a man wanted 
anything of a neighbor, he would 
go to his house, seldom otherwise. 
The woman made no calls. It might 
be that once in six months or a 
year she would spend the day with 
some intimate friend. But calls had 
no place in her code. They had not 
yet been imported from France. 
Just fancv a matron of those days 
walking a mile to make a call, when 
she was sure the neighbor was out, 
and leaving her card. 



REMINISCENCES OE OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS 



149 



Her recreations took their cue 
from the seasons. In the spring it 
was setting hens and cutting greens. 
In the summer it was looking after 
the chickens and the few flowers 
permitted to cumber the ground on 
account of their utility. The flowers 
must not be too bright, as that 
savored of vanity. In the fall it 
was gathering thorowort, catnip, 
sage, bone-set, dill, fennel — all 
good in case of sickness, or to keep 
one awake in church. New Eng- 
land was busy then. It has always 
been and is now. And so has been 
successful in business. Perhaps 
that may not be the very highest 
kind of success. Possibly a little 
more attention to the voice would 
have made it less nasal. Very 
likely a little more social rubbing 
against one another might have 
reduced their self-consciousness 
and limbered the elbows that were 
so painfully unbending. A little 
more time for reflection might have 
found for them a more genial God. 
But it can be said of them, as the 
Christ — feeling the premonition of 
his supreme hour upon him — said 
of the woman: "She hath done 
what she could." They did what 
they could to found a mighty em- 
pire, and so accomplished what was 
dearest to them — they laid up treas- 
ures in Heaven. 

At sixteen a boy was supposed to 
know enough to quit school — that 
is, if he was ever to know enough. 
And whether he did or not, he 
quit. So with Titus. He knew a 
little arithmetic. He had heard of 
geography, but not of grammar, for 
which he ought to have been thank- 
ful, for it would have cramped him 
all his life, as it has most folk. 
He could scrawl a little and called 
it writing. So much he knew. 
And he quit. He had not distin- 
guished himself at school except for 
his good nature. In fact, he never 
did distinguish himself much any- 
where or at any time. He was a 
very commonplace character, as 



best suits our purpose in illustrating 
the last days of slavery in the State 
of Connecticut. He was a simple- 
minded, honest, faithful fellow. He 
had no one else in the wide world 
to love but the doctor and his 
family. And he set to work in 
earnest to help. He, too, did "what 
he could." And the doctor needed 
all his help. Who ever heard of a 
New England divine that did not, 
excepting, of course, those who get 
rich by marriage or accident? And 
every one begins to suspect them of 
loving the loaves and fishes more 
than souls. There was great im- 
provement in the farm the years fol- 
lowing, and Titus' strong arm did 
most of the work. Everything 
around the manse looked trim and 
well kept. 

When about nineteen Titus be- 
came entangled in a love affair from 
which he never recovered. There 
was a husking — corn shucking, they 
call it in old Virginia — at Major 
John Pynchon's. All the white 
folks were invited, and most of 
them went. Of course the colored 
people were there to wait on the 
table and to attend to the odd 
chores. The good doctor for once 
permitted Titus to go, although as 
a rule he did not approve of servants 
going to such frolics. But Zack, 
Judge Loomis' body servant (whom, 
by the way, he freed shortly after) 
was going, and he was a trusty boy 
for Titus to go with. The negroes 
had few opportunities to meet, as 
their masters had a notion it made 
them giddy and unsteady. Titus 
had seldom seen a colored girl, 
except when, as driver, he accom- 
panied his master in his calls on his 
parishioners, and that was not a 
good time to form new acquaint- 
ances. But on this moonlit Oc- 
tober night he was destined to 
form some that led him a merry 
dance. 

The minute the boys came into the 
great kitchen, Aunt Lize, the old 
cook, pounced on them. She was 



^5° 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS 



fat, sleek and jolly, as became a 
colored cook. 

"Yi, yi! yere comes Zack an' 
Ti fur ter help. Thar's nuff* ter du, 
suah. Done yer git'n ther way, 
nur go ter talking with ther gells 
tell I interduse yer; an' I'll do dat 
jes ez soon's I git dese hans out'n 
de do." 

And introduce them she did. 
There was Bet Norton and Trix 
Austin, and a half dozen others at 
work setting the tables and trotting 
here and there. But Phillis 
Hanchett was the comliest wench 
in all the neighborhood. It was 
said that she knew it and was a 
little inclined to flirt, after the cus- 
tom of her pale-faced sisters. But 
there was not much truth in that. 
It all came of her good nature. 
And many another and whiter girl 
has been called a flirt for no other 
reason than a desire to please and 
to be helpful. A girl or boy 
with abounding spirits, admired and 
admiring, and flirting is as natural 
as breathing. But lovers rarely 
analyze it that way. Nor do theo- 
logians. Titus was introduced very 
formally in this way: 

"Ti, dis is Phill. Min' out now. 
Dis aint no time fur foolishness. 
Git ter wuk right off. Dar's er 
heap ter du. " 

Both would have blushed, but not 
being white enough, they grinned. 
Here the white folks have the ad- 
vantage. They can blush and grin, 
too. Now he had his hands full. 
It was Ti here and Ti there. But 
it was a very pleasant service and 
had all the charm of novelty to 
him. 

It is not so many years since the 
good old custom of corn-husk ings 
went out, and it is a pity it went 
out at all. A more healthful, ex- 
hilarating and all-around satisfac- 
tory entertainment is not in vogue. 
The command to "assemble often 
together," is good philosophy, as 
well as good ethics. And this 
brought the neighbors together. 



Those too old to work stopped in 
the house and told how it used to 
be when they were boys. It meant 
to the middle aged a help to a 
neighbor, which they expected 
would be returned. To those under 
that indefinite age it meant unmiti- 
gated frolic. 

The corn had been topped in the 
fields at the ears before the frost, 
and stored away for winter fodder. 
The ears, ripened by the frost, had 
been picked one by one and piled 
up on the great barn floor. The 
barn floor, with its double doors at 
each end as wide as itself, flanked 
on one side by the bay, a great hay 
mow rising from the sills to the 
rafters, on the other side by the 
cow stable, seven feet high, and 
its manger in front, on top of which 
was another mow of hay reaching 
to the roof. Over the floor on poles 
or rails resting on the great beam 
were the oat and rye straw at one 
end and the corn blades at the 
other, between which was an open 
space of a couple of feet through 
which a man could crawl from the 
top of the ladder and throw down 
the hay. What a place that hay 
mow was to dream in a summer 
shower! What a place that barn 
floor was for threshing oats, wheat, 
and boys! 

And now good judges had divided 
the great pile into two equal parts. 
Captains were chosen from their 
power to work and get work out 
of others. The "stick" was thrown 
by one and caught by the other, 
then measured on their hands for 
choice. All the company were 
chosen on business principles, ex- 
cept each was sure to have on his 
side his "best girl," whether she 
could husk corn or not. At the 
word, all jumped into work. It 
was a contest worthy the attention 
of Homer's galaxy of gods. Not a 
word was spoken at first, but as the 
fingers slowed up the tongues re- 
laxed a little, though always with a 
view to the work. The only break 



REMINISCENCES OE OLD NEGRO SLA VER Y DAYS 151 



allowed was when a pretty girl dis- 
covered a red ear of corn. Then for 
the space of one minute and no 
more there was such hubbub and 
such antics as would not be tol- 
erated to-day by the "four hun- 
dred;" though it is said they some- 
times do more objectionable things. 
The minute the last ear of corn was 
husked and the customary explana- 
tions why the other side did not 
win, were made, and the usual 
hurrah given, there was a great 
rush for the house and the supper 
table. 

They say that in the hurry and 
excitement the major forgot to have 
the blessing asked. But never was 
supper a greater success. Whole 
pans of doughnuts disappeared as if 
by magic, pumpkin pies without 
number, unlimited quantities of 
fried chicken, cold ham, and the 
various substantial of the season; 
all copiously washed down with flyer 
apple cider. When the hunger of 
the white folks was satisfied, 
then was the time for the darkies. 
Hitherto they had only nibbled, 
now they set in in earnest. Stand- 
ing around the kitchen, on the back 
porch, in the hall, around the door, 
they ate and laughed and talked all 
at the same time. It was an enter- 
tainment to watch the ivories, the 
white eye balls, and the red lips. 

Ti and Phill seemed to gravitate 
to each other, And why should 
they not? Was not Titus Dr. Gay's 
boy? And Phillis Captain Hanchet's 
girl? Aristocracy was a great point 
among the colored folks as well as 
the whites and of about equal value. 

"Phill, I'm glad youse here. Its 
real jolly ter see how de white folks 
dus things, ter see 'em work fit ter 
kill derselves, an' den eat jess ez 
hard ez day can, an' drink mo' 
sider 'n half dozen darkies can 
bring out'n der stiller. They go 
'bout havin' fun mighty seris, don't 
they?" 

"They duz, that's a fac', Ti. 
I duz'n t know when I've had so 



pleasant an ebening as dis. I wibh 
dar's mo' cawn huskins. " 

"So do I, ef I could get ter go." 

"Can't yer get Massa Gay ter 
have one? You'd thar be certain." 

"I dunno. I'll ask him an' see. 
Phill, who wus that man 't fill so 
bad cos der blessing was'nt 
asked?" 

"Oh! That's Elder Winslow. 
He's 'postle ter the Indyuns in 
Agawam. Aint he monstr'us sv/eet 
on ther Cap'ns daughter? He's 
wus'n Pompey an' Trix." 

" 'Pears t' me he's actin' mighty 
sensible. I should like ter try the 
same fashion with a girl I knows." 

"Oh! g'long, Ti! You's talkin' 
nonsense, an' I didn't 'spect that 
from Dr. Gay's boy." 

None the less, Titus did talk 
quite a deal of nonsense, which did 
not seem wholly disagreeable to 
Phillis. After the supper things 
were cleared away and the rooms 
tidied up a little, all sorts of games 
were in order. The dining-room 
and kitchen were given up to the 
servants. The white people had 
the rest of the house. The elders 
talked politics and theology, with 
now and then a condiment of mild 
gossip. The young people danced 
most of the time and played many 
games that to say the least of them 
were "hilarious," and practiced 
more or less the sublime art of 
making love. The negroes emu- 
lated the sports of the young folks, 
for seldom one of them gets too 
old to frolic. There was more 
abandon, more real mirth among 
them than the others, but there was 
the same underlying current. 
Asrubel Hastyngsfell as desperately 
in love with Densy Carroll as Titus 
did with Phill or Pompey with Trix. 
It is a game confined to no race or 
color or previous condition. 

The evening seemed short enough 
to the actors, as such evenings 
always do, though it was past the 
time when "graves yawn and ghosts 
walk." There was great commo- 



152 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS 



tion at the breaking up, as is to be 
expected on all such occasions. 
It is a sort of pairing-off time, or 
rather, the pairing-off exemplifies 
itself at that point. Titus wanted 
to walk home with Phill, and she 
wanted him to. It was only a little 
distance — say three miles. But she 
came with Pompey and Trix, and it 
took a deal of diplomacy to arrange 
a modus vivendi^ as they call it now- 
a-days. For Pompey himself was 
about half in love with Phill, or 
rather was hesitating between her 
and Trix. They say that he who 
hesitates is lost, and he was cer- 
tainly terribly mixed up. But the 
same spirit that "laughs at lock- 
smiths" prevailed, as it is wont to 
do. Titus had the sensation of feel- 
ing the weight of Phill's hand on his 
arm, and the privilege of carrying 
her apron and basket. They came 
to Squire Hanchet's safe and sound, 
though it took them a good spell to 
get there. They came near losing 
their way, familiar as it was. They 
were startled several times by 
screech owls, and two or three 
times heard something amazingly 
like a wild cat. Once they thought 
they saw an Indian prowling 
around. Strange, but these things 
rather added to their enjoyment. 
How a fellow does like to show his 
manhood on such occasions by pro- 
tecting the girl, and how she does 
like to be protected. There was 
not much talk on the way home; 
there seldom is. But Titus man- 
aged to say some remarkably silly 
things, which Phill laid away in her 
heart and told him to "hush." 

Titus slept very little that night, 
and when he did it was to dream of 
an angel, but always with a black 
face. The next morning the doctor 
said: 

"Titus, what time did you get 
home last night?" 

The meeting broke up 'bout 
twelve, sah, an* I didn't stop on 
der way. They kep' me steppin' 
sure, an* I was done tired out." 



"Did you have a pleasant time?" 

"Yer knows, Massa', I don't car 
much 'bout dat kine of er meeting. 
Dar's too much nonsense." 

"I am ver)^ glad, Titus, to find 
you always so serious and thought- 
ful for a colored person. It argues 
well for your future life." 

"Tank yer, Massa." 

"You may bring around the 
chaise and get ready to drive me 
over to Squire Hanchet's." 

Of course Titus' conscience was 
very tender that morning. He felt 
sure his master had heard some- 
thing not altogether to his advan- 
tage, concerning the last night. But 
neither in going or returning or 
afterwards did the doctor say a 
word upon the subject uppermost in 
Titus' mind. This was one source of 
unrest for him. Another was that 
although he stayed more than an 
hour at the squire's, he did not 
catch a glimpse of Phill. And yet 
he was certain she knew he was 
there. He thought of little else on 
the way home, or for the next week, 
for that matter. How to see her or 
at least how to hear from her, was 
the question. 

He was certain his master would 
not allow him to leave the place 
and equally sure no colored person 
would come around whom he could 
trust to carry word to her. It wa§ 
no unusual fix for a lover to be in. 
Multitudes before and hosts since 
have been in precisely the same 
unhappy condition. But it was a 
new experience for him and, as he 
told Phill afterwards, "monstrous 
aggervatin'." He began to think 
every one that talked to him knew 
all 4 about that night. He felt he 
had a placard over his heart which 
said "This darkey is in love. " His 
kind mistress did think something 
was the matter with him and asked 
him very often if he was feeling 
well. So he was sure she knew all 
about it and was trying to get him 
to confess. The northern negroes 
were not so fortunate as their 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS 153 



southern brethren in the matter of 
communication. They had no 
grape-vine telegraph. So the 
chances of hearing from Phil were 
doubly uncertain. 

Before long he fancied his master 
was very suspicious of him. The 
fact was, the good old doctor was 
much worried about Titus. He 
greatly feared the boy was sick. 
And the poor fellow was sick. Sick 
of one of the meanest diseases on 
record — a disease which once ap- 
parently cured, is liable to break 
out at any time and with the most 
conflicting symptoms. It is a purely 
mental, or perhaps it would be 
more correct to say emotional, dis- 
order. Yet it raises the very old 
"Nick" with the liver, the stomach 
and the epigastrics generally. Sea 
sickness is not to be compared to it, 
for the "mal de mer" exhausts 
itself when the source of supplies is 
exhausted, while the imagination is 
an inexhaustible purveyor to this. 
Nearly the only consolation about 
it (if it is a consolation) is that it 
seldom kills. Of course there are 
people who have been said to have 



died of love sickness, but always on 
a post-mortem examination some- 
thing else has been found to account 
for the taking off. Then again, this 
disorder, as if it were not enough 
for a sinful mortal, is wont to asso- 
ciate with itself the most contempti- 
ble of all mental states — an exag- 
gerated and morbid self-conscious- 
ness. Now this is not peculiar to 
lovers, but greatly increases their 
troubles. It attacks sophomores in 
college virulently and newly-grad- 
uated seniors. It sorely afflicts 
bashful and diffident professional 
men, especially teachers. Who 
ever heard of a singer or a poet 
that felt that he was appreciated as 
he ought to be? Nay, even the 
President's private secretary has 
been known to feel that if both 
were properly apprehended, their 
places would be changed. 

It is of the life of 44 Ti" and his 
experiences in the little town of 
Suffield that I intend to tell at some 
length in papers to follow, inter- 
weaving as much as my memory 
serves me of the customs and man- 
ners of the old days in Connecticut. 



THERE IS BUT ONE MASTER TODAY, AND THAT IS THE SUPREME 
MASTER OF THE UNIVERSE -SLAVERY EXISTS ONLY AS WE ENSLAVE 
OURSELVES TO HABIT AND CUSTOM AND ARTIFICIALITY — NOW LET 
US LEARN TO BE OURSELVES — LET US BE NATURAL, DOING GOOD 
FOR THE LOVE OF THE DOING 



THE LIFE OF A PROMINENT PURITAN PASTOR 



OUTLINE OF THE DUTIES AND SERVICES OF 
REV. SAMUEL STONE, 1627-1663 PAPER 



BY 



ELIZABETH TODD NASH 

OF MADISON, CONNECTICUT 



The author gives these references for those who may be interested in making a thorough study from the outlines 
she has suggested: Dr. Talcott's Genealogical Records say that Rev. Samuel Stone of Hertford, England, had six 
sons— Gregory, born 1500 (of Cambridge); Isaac, William (of Guilford), John of Guilford, Rev. Simon of Cambridge, 
England, born 1598; Rev. Samuel Stone of Hartford, Connecticut, born 1602. (1) Toung's "Massachusetts," p. 518; 
(2) Magnalia, Vol. I, p. 393; (3) "Life of Thomas Hooker" by Walker, p. 63; (4) Winthrop's "New England, Vol. I, 
pp. 129-130; (5) Winthrop, p. 130; (6) Winthrop's Journal, Vol. I, pp. 135-136; (7) in Thomas Hooker, pp. 69-70; 
from "Church Governmentand Church Covenant Discussed" by Mather, pp. 74-765(8) Wonder- Working Providence, p. 
58; (9) Stuart's "Hartford in Olden Time," p. 203: (10) Colonial Records, Vol. I, p. 388; (11) "Hartford in Olden Time," 
p. 216; (12) Ditto, p. 11; (13) Mrs. Sigourney's "Examples of Life and Death,'' pp. 194-202; (14) "Hartford," etc., pp. 
298-299; (15) Thomas Hooker, pp. 149-50; (16) Colonial Records, Vol. I, p. 89; (17) Colonial Records, 388; (18) "History 
of Colony of New Haven" by Atwater; (19) Colonial Records, p. 388; (20) Biographical Sketches, p. 522; (21) Nash 
Family, p. 270. Other references can be found in Winthrop's "New England," Vol. I, pp. 108, 109, 111, 142-235; 
Peters' "History of Connecticut," p. 21-136; Trumbull's "Eliot's and Allen's Dictionaries;" Holmes' "History of 
Cambridge;" I Historical Coll., VII; II Historical Coll., VIII, p. 134; Plymouth Memorialist; Magnalia; Trumbull, 
Vol. I, p. 311— Editor 



THE name of the Rev. Samuel 
Stone is well known to the 
antiquarian, the student of 
colonial history and the theo- 
logian, but to the general reader 
hardly at all; yet there is probably 
no other man (Hooker, even, not 
being excepted) who did more for 
the early church and the Connecti- 
cut Colony than Mr. Stone, and his 
services to the colony are most 
highly spoken of in the early colon- 
ial records. 

Let us glean briefly from these 
records and later histories the facts 
of his life in Hartford and the result 
thereof. 

Mr. Stone was born in Hertford, 
England, and baptized at All 
Saints' Church there July 30, 1602; 
educated, at least in part, at Hale's 
Grammar School, Hertford, and 
entered Emmanuel College April 
19, 1620. Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, was a Puritan college, estab- 
lished in 1584 by Sir Walter Mild- 
may, a prominent statesman and 
councellor in the service of Queen 



Elizabeth, and the following shows 
the rank the college took: 

" During the Commonwealth no 
less than eleven masters of other 
colleges in Cambridge were grad- 
uates of Emmanuel, all more or less - 
distinct representatives of Puritan 
views. The avowed design of Sir 
Walter Mildway in establishing a 
new college was to train up a 'godly 
ministry' . . . and, tried by the 
tests of its avowed intention, 
Emmanuel was certainly a success, 
as the names of Hooker, Stone, 
William Bradshaw, Ralph Cud- 
worth, John Richardson, John Har- 
vard, William Eyre, Jeremiah Bur- 
roughs, Thomas Shepard, Nathaniel 
Rogers, Stephen Marshall, Anthony, 
Burgess, William Bridge, Anthonyi 
Tuckney, Bishop Hall, among many] 
others nearly as equally distin- 
guished, show plainly. Samuel Stone 
took his degree of B.A. in 1624 and 
his M.A. in 1627. 

In June, 1627, he was made curate 
of All Saints' parish at Stisted in 
Essex, two miles from Braintree, 









THE LIFE OF A PROMINENT PURITAN PASTOR 



*SS 



where the records, until September, 
1630, appear to be in his writing-. 

In 1630 Mr. Stone went as Puri- 
tan lecturer to the large town of 
Towcester, in Northampton, by the 
commendation of Thomas Shepard, 
who had been offered the place 
but could not accept it, and Shepard 
records x that Mr. Stone went to 
Towcester to lecture "when the 
Lord was with him, and thus I saw 
the Lord's mercy following me, to 
make me a poor instrument of send- 
ing the Gospel to the place of my 
nativity. ' ' 

"It was during the occupancy of 
the Towcester lectureship that Mr. 
Stone was invited by " the judicious 
Christians that were coming to New 
England with Mr. Hooker" to be 
4 'an assistant unto Mr. Hooker with 
something of a disciple also." 2 

Sometime in 1633, therefore, Mr. 
Hooker crossed over from Holland 
to England and joined his pros- 
pective colleague in the New Eng- 
land ministry. 3 Matteer gives a 
quaint account of Mr. Stone's rescue 
of Mr. Hooker, at that time, from 
his pursuers in the Magnolia, show- 
ing Mr. Stone to have been, as he 
always had the reputation of being, 
4 'a man of ready wit." 

In 1633 Rev. John Cotton, Rev. 
Thomas Hooker and Rev. Samuel 
Stone, Mr. Haynes, afterwards Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts and Connec- 
ticut, "a gentleman of great estate" 
(Atherton Hough) and many other 
men of good estates, 4 "two hundred 
passengers in all, left England on 
the 'Griffin.' " 

The voyage was of eight weeks' 
duration — "The vessel reached Bos- 
ton September 4, 1633, and Mr. 
Hooker and Mr. Stone went pres- 
ently to Newton, where they were 
to be entertained, and Mr. Cotton 
stayed at Boston." 5 

October 11, 1633, Mr. Winthrop 
says "a fast at Newtown, where 
Mr. Hooker was chosen pastor and 
Mr. Stone teacher, in such manner 
as before in Boston." 6 He had 



fully described the settling of 
pastor and teacher in their places 
in "the event of John Cotton in 
Boston the day before." 

"Pastor and Teacher" — the dis- 
tinction between these two officers 
in the primitive New England 
church was supposed to be based 
upon Scripture, as for example, on 
Ephesians iv. 11, and to be oracti- 
cally important. This distinction is 
perhaps as well stated as anywhere 
in an "Answer" of certain "Rever- 
end Brethren" in New England, 
sent in 1639 to inquiries addressed 
to them in 1637 by "many Puritan 
ministers" in Old England; the 
twenty second of these inquiries 
was this: 

"What Essentiall difference put 
you between the Office of Pastor 
and Teacher and doe you observe 
the same difference inviobly?" 

To which this reply was given : 

"And for the Teachers and Pas- 
tors the difference between them 
lyes in this, that one is principally 
to attend upon points of knowledge 
and Doctrine, though not without 
application; the other to points of 
Practice though not without Doc- 
trine." Both were preachers but 
the pastor's function as a preacher 
was to have special reference to the 
experimental life and behavior; the 
teacher's rather to dogrna and 
faith. Both had oversight of the 
flock, but the pastor was supposed 
to be the shepherd and feeder, the 
teacher, the guide and warder. Both 
were to be vigilant against error; 
but the pastor chiefly in matters of 
practice, the teacher in matters of 
belief, 7 

Both cave their whole time to the 
work of the ministry and were sup- 
ported by the common funds of the 
congregation. Later as these 
offices were seen to be inevitably 
the same, they became merged into 
one, but then pastor and teacher 
were deemed indispensable. "And 
so the 'grave, godly and judicious 
Hooker . . . and the Retoricall 



156 



THE LIFE OF A PROMINENT PURITAN PASTOR 



Mr. Stone' entered upon the work 
of the two offices side by side," 8 
and held them until Mr. Hooker's 
death July 7, 1647, when Mr. Stone 
took both offices until his death. 

Within six months of the arrival 
of the "Griffin's " company, the 
inhabitants of Newtown complained 
of want of room, and desired leave 
of the court (May, 1634) to look out 
either for removal or enlargement. 
In September this question came 
up again, causing much discussion. 
Winthrop gives an interesting ac- 
count of the court and debate, 
which lasted nearly the fourteen 
days of the court. Matters were 
finally adjusted, the enlargement 
granted, Newtown embracing the 
towns now known as Brookline, 
Brighton, Newton and Arlington. 
Later the discussion was renewed, 
and it was decided to remove to 
Connecticut. Some of the colony 
left in September, 1635, and the 
31st of May 1636 saw all the rest 
on their way to Hartford. 

Hartford was claimed by three 
different parties — the Dutch, the 
Plymouth Colony and the Indians. 
The Dutch had a fort at the mouth 
of the "Little River." The Ply- 
mouth colonists had a trading-post 
in Windsor, and the Indians were 
there. The Dutch claims were 
ignored intentionally and deliber- 
ately. The "controversie" with 
the Plymouth Colony soon ended 
and agents of the Newtown com- 
pany were appointed. 

Rev. Samuel Stone and Elder 
William Goodwin, being chosen to 
purchase the ground from the In- 
dians, the place was called Hartford 
in honor of Mr. Stone's birthplace 
and old home. 

May 1, 1637, a "Gen r all Corte att 
Harteford" was held and the first 
recorded act of the new assembly 
was to declare war against the 
Pequots. 

Captain John Mason of Windsor 
commanded the little army of ninety 
men, and "Mr. Stone the Teacher 



of the Hartford Church went with 
the men as their chaplain." May 
26th the Pequot fort, near New 
London, was attacked, and severaL 
hundred Indians were killed by 
sword, bullet and fire in about an 
hour's time, and in celebrating the 
victory, Captain Mason says: "It 
may not be amiss here also to re- 
member Mr. Stone (the famous 
Teacher of the Church of Hartford) 
who was sent to preach and pray 
with those who went out in those 
engagements against the Pequots. 
He lent his best assistance and 
counsel in the management of those 
Designs, and the night in which the 
engagement was (in the morning of 
it) I say that night he was with the 
Lord alone, wrestling with him by 
Faith and Prayer, and surely his 
Prayers prevailed for a blessing; 
and in the very time when our 
Israel was engaging with the blood- 
thirsty Pequots, he was in the top 
of the mount and so held up his 
Hand that Israel prevailed." 

The General Court of Hartford 
afterward gave "to Mrs. Stone and 
her son, Samuel Stone, in lieu of a 
former grant to the husband and 
father, of a farm for 'his good ser- 
vice to the country both in the 
Pequot War and since,' five hundred 
acres of upland and fifty or sixty of 
meadow land." 9 

The "Colonial Record" says: 
"The renowned John Mason was 
Captain of the army, and Rev. 
Samuel Stone scarcely less known 
to fame for his battles in a different 
field of strife, was its Chaplain." 10 

And this tribute to his faithful- 
ness is paid: "Mr. Stone it was 
who, attending the soldiers as chap- 
lain, kept their courage ever high 
and holy through pious mindful- 
ness— who went to pray with them 
as they sailed, as they marched, in 
fatigue, in pain, and during- the 
perils of a mortal struggle." 11 

The same author gives this brief 
synopsis of his character: "Samuel 
Stone — a theological Socrates — a 



THE LIFE OF A PROMINENT PURITAN PASTOR 



*57 



subtle reasoner and great dis- 
putant — ingenious, witty, didactic — 
remarkable for his frequent fastings 
and exact Sabbaths — 'a man of 
principles, and in the management 
of those principles,' says Mather, 
'both a load-stone and a Flint- 
Stone.' •; 12 

Mr. Stone was evidently of a very 
happy temperament, as all the his- 
tories mention his cheerfulness 
under all circumstances. Mrs. 
Sigourney says that during the 
darkness that rested upon the people 
the first months after they settled 
in Hartford, from cold, lack of 
proper food, poor dwellings and 
"terror of hostile Indians," he was 
4 'as a perpetual sunbeam." Natur- 
ally possessed of great firmness and 
cheerfulness, he endeavored to 
breathe his own spirit into the 
desponding. In preaching, in- 
struction from house to house, and 
visits to the afflicted, he was un- 
wearied. "His very countenance 
and manner had a consoling influ- 
ence upon the sorrowful." His 
cheerfulness and happiness was 
part of his religion, as he thought 
"many that knew not religion 
might be led to love it if they saw 
it bringing forth the fruits of daily 
happiness." ] 3 

With the modern idea of the 
stern dignified, unbending Puritan 
Fathers, it is delightful to find one 
of their leaders who was so "amia- 
ble, frank, of easy manners, of 
winning address, and noted particu- 
larly for his pleasantry and his wit. 
It was a keen jester indeed that he 
could not vanquish in repartee. 
His society was sought by all, and 
especially by men of ingenious 
minds, some of whom visited him 
for the purpose of having doubts 
satisfactorily resolved ; some for the 
purpose simply of garnering up the 
rich stores of his conversation, and 
some to provoke and enjoy his wit. 

"He was a kind husband, a fond 
father, a pure patriot and one of 
the sincerest of Christians — so up- 



right, so public spirited, so full of 
heart and full of mind, as amply to 
deserve Mather's eulogy of him as 
'a precious gem laid deep in the 
foundations of New England'." 14 

"The pleasantness of demeanor, 
and conversation which he culti- 
vated never interfered with the 
duties of the most strict and self- 
denying piety. He believed in 
fasting and prayer; was a strict 
Sabbath observer, commencing 
early Saturday evening his prepara- 
tion for it by contemplation and 
prayer. He then called his family 
together and repeated his sermon 
for the following day. This was 
for the benefit of his family and 
also to get a thorough knowledge 
of his discourse and enable him by 
alteration and addition, to render 
it more lucid, pungent or practi- 
cal." He seldom used written ser- 
mons. "As a preacher he was doc- 
trinal and argumentative. His style 
was nervous and he was often elo- 
quent." In applying his subject, he 
was brief but pungent and remarka- 
ble for "notably digesting in his 
prayers the doctrines of his dis- 
course." He was also a "great 
student of theology, and skilled in 
sacred philology; he was an acute 
and accurate disputant, ready upon 
all occasions, in the august presence 
of the General Court, as he once 
proposed, or elsewhere, to 'reason 
syllogistically, face to face, with any 
champion whom chance or design 
might throw in his way'." 

Of his manuscripts, which he left 
to his intimate friend, Rev. John 
Higginson of Salem, Massachusetts, 
with instructions to select and print 
those he thought suitable for the 
press, few seem to have been pub- 
lished. His "Catechism;" his able 
and elaborate treatise entitled "A 
Body of Divinity," of which there is 
a copy in manuscript in the library 
of the Connecticut Historical Socie- 
ty: his "Discourse About the Logi- 
cal Notion of a Congregational 
Church," and his "Confutation of 



158 



THE LIFE OF A PROMINENT PURITAN PASTOR 



the Antinomians," are still extant. 
He also published a volume relat- 
ing to the Congregational Church, 
in London in 1652. His letter an- 
nouncing Rev. Mr. Hooker's death 
is in the fourth volume of the 
Massachusetts Historical Collec- 
tions, Chapter VIII, pages 544-546, 
and also quoted in full in "Life of 
Thomas Hooker," by Walker. 15 

In public affairs he was very- 
prominent, as "great confidence was 
reposed in his judgment both by the 
Town of Hartford and by the Gen- 
eral Court, and so we often find him 
serving upon important committees 
and in arbitration." He conferred 
with Sowheag,the powerful Sachem, 
in regard to the difficulties at 
Wethersfield. 

The colonial records mention Mr. 
Stone as one of the framers of the 
Constitution of Connecticut, the 
"Mother of the Constitution of 
America." 16 17 They also record 
his being appointed by the court t4 to 
amend and perfect the petition 
to Charles II for a charter for 
Connecticut, and his going to Eng- 
land with Governor Winthrop to 
procure the old Charter " 18 Mr. 
Allyn, Mr. Markham, Mr. Stone, 
Mr. Hooker, Mr. Whitney and the 
Secretary were associated with 
Governor Winthrop when the char- 
ter arrived, and the people from 
the neighboring colony came, beg- 
ging to be admitted. "A commit- 
tee was sent to New Haven to treat 
with the government there for an 
amicable settlement. Matthew 
Allyn, Samuel Wyllys Stone, the 
Chaplain of the Pequot Expedition, 
and Thomas Hooker, were the gen- 
tlemen selected for the important 
and delicate embassy." 19 

In October, 1639, he was one of the 
persons designated by the General 
Court to collect and present to the 
Assembly "those passages of God's 
providence which have been re- 



markable since the first undertak- 
ing these plantations." 

"He was one of the most brilliant 
and accomplished divines of the 
New World, and was alike distin- 
guished for ability as a preacher 
and controversalist, his pleasing 
manner and his wit and eminent 
social qualities — he was leader both 
in church and state." 20 

He carried this fun, wit and 
cheerfulness all through a distress- 
ing illness, knowing death only 
could release him. His death was 
on July 20, 1663, and he left a 
widow, Elizabeth Stone (his second 
wife), three daughters — ( i)Rebekah, 
who married Timothy Nash in 1657 ; 

(2) Mar)-, who married Joseph Fitele; 

(3) Sarah, who married Thomas But- 
ler — by his first wife ; and a son and 
daughter — Samuel and Elizabeth — 
by his second wife. 21 His estate 
amounted to five hundred and six- 
ty-three pounds worth of property — 
a large estate for those days. To 
his son chiefly he gave his library, 
valued at one hundred and seventy 
pounds, together with half his 
"housing and land." To his wife 
and four daughters, portions of his 
remaining estate. 

His tombstone still stands, a plain 
slab of red freestone supported by 
pillars, in the old Center Church 
burying ground at Hartford, with 
this inscription : 

M r Samuel Stone 
Deceased Y e 61 year of his age JVLY 20 1663 

"New En gland's glory and her Radient 

Crowne, 
Was he who now in softest bed of downe, 
Till glorious resurrection morne appeare, 
Doth safely: sweetly sleep in Jesus here. 
In natures solid art, and reasoaing well, 
'Tis knowne, beyond compare, he did excell: 
Errors corrupt, by sinuous dispute, 
He did oppugne, and clearly them con- 
fute; 
Above all things he Christ his Lord pre- 
ferred — 
Hartford, thy richest jewel's here interred.' 



A NEW YEAR'S GREETING 

By ABIRAM CHAMBERLAIN 

Governo7- of Connecticut 

I CAN remember, not so many years ago, when 
New Year's Day and its round of calls was 
perhaps the greatest event of the season 
socially. The custom has gradually given way 
to other ideas, and now the New Year's call means but 
little. I regret its passing, for it was one of the 
finest of the old-time customs, and did much to make 
people more neighborly. We do not mind the pass- 
ing of old habits and customs that reflected little 
credit upon our forefathers, but this calling on the 
first of the year was not in that class and it is a pity 
to see it go with the rest. 

When I was a boy we were wont to look for- 
ward to New Year's Dav with a great deal of antici- 
pation. We planned those calls, some of them, long 
in advance, and the realization equalled the anticipa- 
tion. Everywhere there was open house. You were 
welcome wherever you chose to go. The people 
would receive you with a fine spirit of hospitality, 
which expressed itself in a more substantial way with 
refreshment for the inner man. I can see myself 
now in youth, as I went from house to house, and 
also the townspeople as they came thronging through 
my father's home. 



This did much, as I have said, to make people 
neighborly ; to get them more intimately acquainted 
with one another and to cement friendships which 
perhaps had their start in these same calls. There 
was romance there, too, which kept Dan Cupid busy 
on the new year. The hospitality of the householder 
was rarely abused, and his courtesy was generally 
reciprocated in kind. It meant that good fellowship, 
hospitality and neighborly feeling were uppermost, 
and those who made the round of calls, as well as 
those who received, were always repaid. 

Of course it is the idea of the age to advance 
and not to retrograde, yet sometimes we feel that in 
this rush of business life, the finer qualities are often 
forced to the rear. We do not have time to devote 
a day to calls, for the diffusion of the Christmas and 
New Year's cheer that formerly meant so much, and 
we are none the better for it. 

I would like very much to see this old custom 
revived, and have it a social feature just as it used 
to be. I think that there is still plenty of sentiment 
left among the American people, and a slight effort 
would soon effect a restoration of a very pretty 
custom. 




THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC 
LIBRARY IN CONNECTICUT 



AND THE WORK OF THE CONNECTICUT PUBLIC 
LIBRARY COMMITTEE 



BY 



CAROLINE M. HEWINS 



SECRETARY OF THE CONNECTICUT PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMITTEE 



M 



ASSACHUSETTS passed a 
law in 1851 authorizing any- 
city or town of the common- 
wealth to establish and 
maintain a public library, and to 
appropriate a sum not exceeding 
one dollar for each of its ratable 
polls. It also provided for an 
annual appropriation of a sum not 
exceeding twenty-five cents for each 
poll. In consequence of this law 
and its amendments, one of which 
stated that any city or town might 
appropriate any sum for a library 
that it saw fit, in the year 1890, one 
hundred and seventy- five out of the 
three hundred and fifty-one towns 
of the state had free public libra- 
ries owned and controlled by the 
town, and seventy-one other free 
libraries under other management, 
leaving two town libraries which 
charged fees, and one hundred and 
three without libraries. In order 
to encourage these towns to estab- 
lish libraries, the Legislature of 



1890 passed an act authorizing the 
Governor to appoint a board of five 
library commissioners with power 
to expend a sum not exceeding one 
hundred dollars for books for any 
town voting to establish a free pub- 
lic library and provide for the care, 
custody and distribution of the 
books. The act also stated that 
no member of the board should 
receive compensation, but that a 
sum not exceeding five hundred 
dollars might be expended for cleri- 
cal assistance and other necessary 
aids. In consequence of the estab- 
lishment of this commission, there 
is now no town in Massachusetts 
without a free library, or in one or 
two cases the use of one in an ad- 
joining town. 

The American Library Associa- 
tion, founded in Philadelphia in 
1876 at the Centennial Exposition, 
had become a large and influential 
body in 1890, when among the sub- 
jects discussed at the annual meet- 



162 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 




READING ROOM KENT MEMORIAL LIBRARY — SUFFIELD 



ing was the establishment of a 
library club or association in every 
state. The Connecticut librarians 
at this meeting - resolved to form an 
association such as then existed in 
New York, New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts, and the Connecticut 
Library Association was organized 
in New Haven the next winter. 
At the first meeting after this, the 
President, Professor Addison Van- 
Name of the Yale University Libra- 
ry, said: "In 1869, Connecticut 
adopted a law which Massachusetts 
had already discarded. Three- 
fourths of the libraries in this state 
are supported by private means," 
and suggested that as Massachusetts 
had established a library commis- 
sion, Connecticut would do well to 
follow in her footsteps. Largely 
through the efforts of the Associa- 
tion, a bill providing for such a 



commisssion was brought before the 
Legislature at its next session, in 
the winter and spring of 1893, and 
passed. 

It was different in several ways 
from the Massachusetts law. In 
order that no question of political 
influence should ever arise, the ap- 
pointing power was placed in the 
hands, not of the Governor, but of 
the Board of Education. The word 
"committee" was preferred to 
"commission," on account of the 
large number of commissions al- 
ready in existence in Connecticut. 
The state was willing to meet what- 
ever a town would give the first 
year up to two hundred dollars. 
No one was to be ineligible by 
reason of sex as a member of the 
committee or a board of library 
directors. The Massachusetts Act 
of 1888 concerning library trustees 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



163 




164 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 




THE GEORGE MAXWELL MEMORIAL LIBRARY AT ROCKVILLE 
(Population 7,287) 



had made this same provision, and 
two members of the commission of 
that state have always been women. 
The same amount as in Massachu- 
setts — five hundred dollars a year — 
was allotted for clerical and travel- 
ing expenses. 

The five members of the commit- 
tee appointed by the Board of Edu- 
cation in September, 1893, were 
Professor Addison VanName of 
Yale University; Rev. Storrs O. 
Seymour of Litchfield, Charles D. 
Hine, Secretary of the State Board 
of Education; Nathan L. Bishop of 
Norwich, and Caroline M. Hewins 
of Hartford. Professor VanName 
declined to accept his appointment, 
and his place was filled for several 
years by Charles E. Graves of New 
Haven, and later by Judge Edwin 
B. Gager of Derby. 

Soon after the first meeting of 
the committee, a circular was sent 



to every town in the state, explain- 
ing the new law and asking for town 
meetings to consider the advan- 
tages of free town libraries. 

Three towns answered almost im- 
mediately to the circular. These 
were Suffteld, Seymour and Weth- 
ersfield, two of them full of old 
houses with traditions of scholar- 
ship, the other a modern manufac- 
turing town. Two had already had 
subscription libraries, and in con- 
nection with one of them the com- 
mittee met and successfully over- 
came one of the most common ob- 
jections to a town library — namely, 
that it would be in town politics. 
In Wethersfield, the rules govern- 
ing the library were so carefully 
drawn up that they have served as 
a model for many other towns. It 
was provided that the directors 
should be authorized to arrange 
with the Wethersfield Library Asso 



i66 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 




TAYLOR MEMORIAL LIBRARY AT MILFORD 
(Population 3,783) 



ciation for the placing of its books in 
the public library, and to agree to 
assume the care and custody of said 
books so long as they should be per- 
mitted to use them, in the same 
manner as the books of the public 
library. The Wethersfield Library 
Association voted to retain its or- 
ganization and to lend its library to 
the town, subject to recall. Three 
of the directors elected yearly by 
the town are also directors of the 
Wethersfield Library Association. 

In two years after the work of the 
committee began, twenty-five towns 
were under its supervision. Besides 
the danger that libraries would be 
in town politics, one objection to 
establishing them was that some 
parts of a town would be cut off 
from them on account of distance. 
The advice of the Massachusetts 
Library Commission was taken on 
this point, and it was recommended 
to all towns to send out twenty-five 
or fifty books at a time to outlying: 
school districts or post offices. This 



was suggested in the following 
pamphlet: 

What A Free Library Does For A 
Country Town. 

1. It keeps boys at home in the evening by 

giving them well-written stories of 
adventure. 

2. It gives teachers and pupils interesting 

books to aid their school work in history 
and geography, and makes better citizens 
of them by enlarging their knowledge 
of their country and its growth. 

3. It provides books on the care of children 

and animals, cookery and housekeeping, 
building and gardening, and teaches 
young readers how to make simple 
dynamos, telephones and other ma- 
chines. 

4. It helps clubs that are studying history, 

litarature or life in other countries, and 
throws light upon Sunday-school lessons. 

5. It furnishes books of selections for read- 

ing aloud, suggestions for entertain- 
ments and home amusements, and hints 
on correct speech and good manners. 

6. It teaches the names and habits of the 

plants, birds and insects of the neighbor- 
hood, and the differences in soil and 
rocks. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



167 




i68 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 




PUBLIC LIBRARY AT DERBY, CONNECTICUT 
(Population 7,930) 



7. It tells the story of the town from its 

settlement, and keeps a record of all im- 
portant events in its history. 

8. It offers pleasant and wholesome stories 

to readers of all ages. 

Has your town a Free Library ? If not, 
see that one is called for at your next town 
meeting. If your town votes to expend $200 
or less for it this year, and promises it 
future increase and maintenance, the State 
will give it books equal in value to the 
amount voted this year. That is, if you 
vote only $25, the State will give you $25 
worth of books. The promise of future in- 
crease should state that the town will give 
every year not less than a certain sum. If 
you cannot afford to hire a room and pay a 
librarian, there is probably a vacant room in 
some house in the central part of the town, 
the use of which the owner can be induced 
to give as a contribution to the Free Library, 
and two or three young women can easily 
be persuaded to take charge of the books in 
turn without pay. 

There are two objections to a free library 
in almost every town. One is the existence 
of several villages, every one of which fears 
it will be less benefitted by a free library 
than its neighbors. The other is that 



Library Associations supported by subscrip- 
tions are afraid to give themselves up to 
town control. 

Both of these obstacles have already been 
successfully overcome in free libraries in 
this State, as any member of the Committee 
on whom you find it most convenient to call 
will show you. 

It gives us much pleasure to hear from 
or meet anyone who is interested in a free 
library, and we are ready to go to any town 
in the State where there is a desire to estab- 
lish one. 

Yours sincerely, 
Charles D. Hine, Hartford, Chairman, 
Caroline M. Hewins, Hartford, Secretary, 
Storrs O. Seymour, Litchfield, 
N. L. Bishop, Norwich, 
Charles E. Graves, New Haven. 

Connecticut Public Library Committee. 

So many towns wrote to the com- 
mittee for information, or failed in 
making the necessary returns, that 
a circular, longer and more explicit 
than the first, was sent to the towns, 
with forms for warning, votes and 
by-laws. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



i 69 




170 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 




THIS LIBRARY IS NOT UNDER THE COMMITTEE BUT WAS FREE BEFORE 1893 

(Population of Willimantic 8,937) 



A library needs new books every 
year, and in order to encourage as 
large an appropriation of money as 
possible by towns, the Legislature of 
1895 voted that every library estab- 
lished under the law of 1893 or its 
successor should receive an annual 
grant of books not exceeding one 
hundred dollars in value, and less if 
the town appropriation should be 
less. The towns are encouraged to 
send lists of books which they would 
like to have, the committee reserv- 
ing the privilege of rejecting any 
that are not up to the standard of 
a body appointed by the Board of 
Education, or too expensive for a 
small library. It is rarely that a 
book like "The Narrative and Criti- 
cal History of America" or "Apple- 
ton's Cyclopaedia of Mechanics" is 
allowed to be bought. There are a 
few libraries in the large towns 
already well equipped with books, 
which are permitted to spend their 
yearly hundred dollars in this way, 
but for a town library which has 



not more than a hundred dollars a 
year, it is better to buy a hundred 
volumes of new books; perhaps fifty 
novels, twenty-five children's books 
and the other twenty-five the latest 
and best biographies, books of 
essays and popular science, travel 
and non-polemic theology. 

The committee has the advantage 
of the lowest market prices for 
books both in and out of the state. 
The directors of the libraries make 
up a yearly list of books which it 
seems to them desirable to have, 
and the members of the committee 
reserve the right to reject any or 
all. The books are often selected 
from notices in secular or religious 
newspapers, and at one of the neigh- 
borhood meetings a talk was given 
by a member of the committee on 
the untrustworthiness of such re- 
views. In order to help the smaller 
libraries, in addition to a carefully 
chosen list of books for the begin- 
ning, books like "Ivanhoe, " "Uncle 



Tom's Cabin. 



David Copper* 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



171 



j£s3g:\ 




< 

- 
C 

- 

SO 

i. 



- 



- 
' _ 

> z 

* 

< J 



172 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 




EAST HAMPTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 
(In town of Chatham— Population 2,271) 




EAST HAMPTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 
(Interior) 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



'73 




174 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 
W 




OLD LIBRARY AT COLUMBIA, CONNECTICUT 
This building has not been used for two years and present library is much larger. Gift of Saxton B. Little 

(Population 655) 



field," "Jane Eyre/' ''Longfellow's 
Poems," "Two Years Before the 
Mast," "Little Women,-' "Robin- 
son Crusoe" and "Alice in Wonder- 
land," yearly lists have been pub- 
lished, partly based upon the books 
recommended by the State Library 
of New York and the Library Com- 
missioners of Wisconsin and other 
states, and partly on the new books 
which are the greatest favorites in 
a city library buying five or six 
thousand carefully chosen volumes 
annually. Within the last year the 
committee has printed monthly 
lists which are of use not only to 
the small country libraries under its 
supervision, but also to cities and 
large towns like New Britain, 
Derby, Meriden and Suffield. 

In choosing or rejecting books, 
the committee tries not to forget 
that it is under the Board of Educa- 
tion, and that the libraries which it 
supervises are therefore part of the 



educational system of the state; 
that the books for which it spends 
the state's money must be, as far as 
possible, of permanent value, and 
that new novels and books for 
children must be the best of the 
current year. At the same time 
the committee is willing to accept 
the popular judgment in favor of a 
book which is really good, like 
Owen Wister's "Virginian." 

When a town, stimulated by the 
example of its neighbors, begins to 
ask questions and send for circulars, 
one of the members of the commit- 
tee, oftenest the chairman, on ac- 
count of his frequent travels through 
the state and his large acquaintance, 
is asked to make an address on the 
advantages of a free library. Some- 
times others of the committee try 
their powers of persuasion. One of 
them tells of going to one town at 
two different times, two years apart, 
to find that in consequence of a 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



'75 




, 7 6 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 




PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



177 



town quarrel the audience consisted 
of three persons, one of whom was 
the janitor of the hall where the 
meeting was held. That town has 
never been captured. At another 
time two of the committee went, in 
a bitter cold and windy night, just 
after a snow-storm, to a little hill- 
town where, on account of the bad 
weather, only sixteen persons were 
present at a meeting instead of the 
seventy-five who were expected. 
These sixteen, however, happened 
to be of the right sort, and at the 
next town meeting a town library 
received a majority vote. 

The small libraries pay their 
librarians little or nothing. In 
Union the salary is twelve dollars a 
year, and this includes fuel for two 
afternoons a week during the six 
cold months of the Connecticut hill 
country. In this town, the library 
is in a dwelling house, and as the 
population is scattered, the librarian 
and his daughter are quite willing 
to give out books after church on 
Sundays or whenever they happen 
to be at home on week-days in 
addition to the two days pre- 
scribed. In more than one town, 
especially since free rural delivery 
has saved farmers their weekly or 
semi-weekly trip to the post office, 
the most convenient time for ex- 
changing is Sunday noon, and the 
girls carry their books to church 
with them, just as Abigail Adams 
and her friends used to do when 
they lent their own little libraries 
to each other in colonial times. 
" With seventy-four towns, every 
one of which presents a yearly re- 
port, and a yearly list of books to 
be bought with the state grant, the 
committee has enough to do. The 
book-buying alone for all these 
libraries, which receive from the 
state anywhere from ten to one 
hundred dollars' worth of books 
annually after the first year, is no 
small task. Libraries all over the 
state, not onty those established 
under the law of 1893, have a right 



to ask "advice and assistance" cf 
the committee. It is often, "How 
shall we classify and catalogue our 
library?" or, "With twenty dollars 
enclosed, please buy books for the 
Squirrel Hill District School." 

Some of the larger towns and 
cities have librarians who have re- 
ceived training in the library schools 
in Albany, Brooklyn or Philadel- 
phia, and some of the librarians in 
smaller towns and villages have had 
a summer course at Albany, Amherst 
or Chautauqua. There still remain, 
however, many libraries in charge of 
persons without technical training. 

It is of course impossible to re- 
quire of entirely untrained and un- 
salaried librarians the knowledge of 
library technique that will enable 
them to classify and catalogue their 
books by any known system. The 
circulars and reports of the commit- 
tee have contained some very sim- 
ple hints for the smallest libraries, 
but after ten or twelve yearly addi- 
tions of a hundred volumes a small 
collection of books grows unwieldy, 
and, unless what is contained in it is 
in some way visible to the public, 
becomes useless. 

The libraries are as various as the 
towns. There is one in East 
Haddam that had been free for 
several years before it came un- 
der the law. Two or three sub- 
scription libraries had fallen into 
disuse when a young man, just at 
the end of his university studies in 
this country and Germany and with 
a year's leisure on his hands, set 
himself the task of building up a 
free library in his native town and 
promised to provide for its main- 
tenance for three yen.rs. Books and 
money came from old residents of 
the town, and in a short time the 
library had five thousand volumes 
in a pleasant sunny room that had 
once been a country store. At the 
end of the three years the town 
adopted the library, and soon voted 
to comply with the conditions in the 
law of 1893. 



i 7 8 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



Some of the libraries ask for ten 
or twelve duplicate copies of half a 
dozen books for use in the district 
schools, to be kept three months in 
each district. Burlington, which 
does excellent work of this kind, 
has the most primitive library 
appliances. The library is in the 
gallery of a bare, unattractive town 
hall, and the books are in closed 
cases. It is open only an hour a 
week, from half-past seven till half- 
past eight in the evening, and at 
this time men and women in the 
neighborhood go in, eager to read 
and discuss the last new and pop- 
ular book. 

It is impossible to make an attrac- 
tive library out of a hall that is used 
for town or grange meetings and 
left in disorder, or where the books 
are behind wooden doors in cases so 
high that the librarian has to climb 
up on a ladder with much danger to 
life and limb. 

Twenty-three states now have 
public library commissions, and 
most of them send traveling libra- 
ries to towns which have none of 
their own. Connecticut has been a 
little slow in this part of library ex- 
tension for want of money. The 
Colonial Dames, at the suggestion 
of one of their most public-spirited 
members, have for several years 
furnished money for buying school 
libraries on subjects connected with 
colonial history, and also circu- 
late portfolios of pictures through 
the committee. The committee 
has put in circulation twelve travel- 
ing libraries and eight portfolios, 
and has others in process. Speci- 
mens of all these libraries and port- 
folios were in the St. Louis Exposi- 
tion. 

The Audubon Society has also 
sent books and colored bird-charts 
to schools and libraries. Through 
Mr. Charles H. Leeds of Stamford, 
twenty traveling libraries have been 
for some years sent to towns or 
schools applying for them. A little 
record-book goes with each of these 



libraries, and teachers are asked to 
express their own or their pupils' 
opinion of the books lent by the 
state. 

There is only one Carnegie library 
in Connecticut, and that, because 
it is not for the whole city, cannot 
offer itself to the state. The town 
pride inherent in New Englanders 
has made Connecticut towns prefer 
to build their own libraries or look 
to their former townsmen for them. 

The towns which have voted to 
establish and maintain free libraries 
since September, 1893, are, in order 
of date : 

1893 — Huntington, Milford, Sey- 
mour, Wethersfield (4). 

1894 — Suffield, Durham, East 
Haddam, Newington, Putnam, Scot- 
land, Plainville, Union (8). 

1895 — Portland, New Canaan, 
Chester, North Canaan, Prospect, 
Somers, Vernon, Westbrook, Ply- 
mouth, Glastonbury, Hampton, An- 
dover, Middlefield (13). 

1896 — East Hartford, Ansonia, 
Enfield, Stratford, Burlington, El- 
lington, Lebanon, Middlebury, Rox- 
bury, Windsor, Eastford, Saybrook, 
Columbia (13). 

1897 — New Fairfield, Woodbury, 
West Hartford (3). 

1898 — Chatham, Manchester, 
Meriden, South Windsor, Thomas- 
ton (5). 

1899— Hebron, Winchester, Tol- 
land, Bethlehem, Wallingford (5). 

1900 — Brooklyn, Madison, Morris, 
Southington (4). 

1 90 1 — Granby, Killingly, New 
Britain, Chaplin, Derby, Berlin, 
Goshen (7). 

1902 — Thompson, Bloomfield, Da- 
rien, Farmington, North Haven, 
Salisbury (6). 

1903-4 — Bridgewater, Bristol, 
Cheshire, Colchester, Old Saybrook, 
Southbury (6). 

Total, seventy-four. 

In 1893, Connecticut had thirteen 
free town libraries, three free 
borough libraries, twenty-two free 
libraries supported but not con- 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



*79 



trolled by towns, fifty-seven towns 
having subscription libraries and 
seventy-one with no libraries at all. 

Between October, 1893, and Oc- 
tober, 1904, seventy-four towns and 
cities have voted to establish and 
maintain free libraries, thirty-two 
towns have free libraries given by 
private individuals, the number of 
towns having subscription libraries 
is reduced to twenty-three, and the 
number without libraries to forty- 
one. 

There is hardly a town in the 
central part of the state which has 
not a free town library. A study of 
the map in the last report of the 
Board of Education shows how the 
library infection spreads from one 
town to another, "like measles in a 
country school," as was once said. 
You can go across the state from 
Somers to Westbrook without enter- 
ing a town which has not a free 
library established under the law. 
From Suffield to Madison the only 
town without a library is Sims- 
bury, which is amply provided with 
books and building by a private 
gift. In the southeastern corner is 
a group of free libraries with build- 
ings, also endowed. Plainfield, 
Norwich, Griswold, Preston, Led- 
yard, Norwich, Groton, Stonington, 
New London, have buildings and 
books free to all comers, but are not 
under state supervision. 

The increase of libraries means a 
corresponding increase in the work 
of circulating them. At first the 
yearly appropriation of five hun- 
dred and afterwards of seven hun- 
dred and fifty dollars covered the 
traveling expenses of the committee 
and the work in the office of the 
chairman and secretary, but as the 
number of libraries grew, it was 
impossible to keep up the clerical 
work without a paid official em- 
ployed all the time. In order to 
meet this additional expense and 
for the increase of traveling libra- 
ries, the Legislature of 1903 voted 
an annual appropriation of two 



thousand dollars, and an official 
visitor and inspector, who had pre- 
viously been for a part of the time 
in the office of the Board of Educa- 
tion, was appointed. This appro- 
priation was due, in great part, to 
the efforts of the Connecticut Libra- 
ry Association, which appointed an 
efficient committee to cooperate 
with the Connecticut Public Library 
Committee. 

Mrs. Belle Holcomb Johnson, 
after a year's course in the Library 
School of Pratt Institute, was libra- 
rian of the Marshall Field Memorial 
Library in Conway, Massachusetts, 
and has besides her knowledge of 
library technique an equally useful 
and valuable knowledge of New 
England country and town life. 
She acts as adviser to small libra- 
ries, spends a few days in them, and 
by clear, common-sense explana- 
tions, helps the librarians through 
many difficulties. The librarians 
soon feel that she is their friend 
and are ready to accept her sugges- 
tions. 

The Connecticut Library Associa- 
tion has three meetings a year, but 
the librarians of the small town 
libraries, who are paid little or 
nothing, are not often seen at them. 
In order to help them, neighbor- 
hood meetings have been held. At 
one or two of these meetings a 
lesson in mending and repairing 
was given, which was most popular 
and successful. At others, simple 
cataloguing and book-buying have 
been leading topics. All these meet- 
ings have made the librarians bet- 
ter acquainted with each other and 
with the committee. 

It is often difficult for a town to 
raise money enough to pay a trained 
cataloguer twelve or even ten dol- 
lars a week. It is then that the 
visitor and inspector goes to make a 
friendly stay of a few days, and 
shows the librarian how to arrange 
her books and index them on cards 
in such a way that she may be able 
to give her readers without delay 



i8o 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



just what they are looking for. More 
than this the committee cannot 
undertake to do. If the visitor 
gives every library its exact share 
of time, she can devote between 
four and five days a year to eve^ 
one, but in that case who is to buy 
books and manage the thousand 
details of office work? 

Letters often come like this: "I 

do not understand why and 

and were rejected from 

our list. There is surely nothing 
immoral in them, and they are 

highly recommended by the " 

(a well-known religious paper). 

The reply is in substance: 

44 was rejected for this reason: 

A lady who was making a list of 
books for use in a society connected 
with her church read the notice to 
which you refer and asked us to 
buy the book for her. I read it and 
thought that as the plot was over- 
drawn and sensational and the lan- 
guage full of the lowest street 
slang, she would not care for it, 
but I had promised, and gave it to 
her. In a short time she returned 
it, saying that it was not what 
she expected, and that it would not 

answer her purpose at all. is 

out of print, and is bound only 

in white and gold as a holiday gift 
book, and is entirely unfit for libra- 
ry use. ' ' 

A week spent in visiting libraries 
is worth a month of letter- writing. 
The librarians find out that the 
committee can and will help them 
and appreciates their efforts to in- 
terest their readers, like displaying 
pictures of the birds which children 
report having seen, or illustrated 
bulletins about authors studied in 
reading circles. 

In a country library there is no 
catalogue so valuable as the right 
kind of librarian, who knows her 
books and her people, and takes the 
same kind of pride in her books as 
if they were her children. One of 
the librarians apologized for keep- 
ing visitor and committee member 



waiting one day with, 4t If I had 
come down at first, I should have 
had to come like Pleasant Rider- 
hood," and that was enough to 
show that she knew and loved her 
Dickens, and the chances were that 
the young folks of her village loved 
him, too. (Since this was written, 
this librarian, Miss Eloise M. Mason, 
of Morris, has died. In another vil- 
lage where we went that day the 
librarian is a woman of culture and 
of great charm, who has a club of 
girls in connection with the library, 
and makes them get the best from it. 

With Hartford as a starting point, 
one day we were whirled by third 
rail to New Britain, where the New 
Britain Institute, with newspaper 
reading-room on the ground floor, 
magazine reading room, reference 
room with all appliances, children's 
room and well-lighted stack on the 
next floor, and Woman's Club room, 
Historical Society's room and gal- 
lery above, is doing excellent work. 
Then we went on to Bristol, where 
the library is at present crowded 
into a Gothic cottage, but will some 
time be able to display its treas- 
ures — for it has them — in a better 
building. Our next point was Plain- 
ville, where the library is just 
emerging from one crowded and 
unattractive room in the town hall, 
and throwing open another to its 
readers. Beyond is Southington's 
beautiful little library, with refer- 
ence room and reading room. Next 
comes Meriden's Curtis Library, 
up-to-date in every respect, attrac- 
tive in architecture, with a children's 
room, but with too little space at 
the back for enlargement. Walling- 
ford has a fine new building, which 
is due to the Women's Club of the 
town. It is in many respects a 
model town library, with conversa- 
tion room, hall for club meetings, 
and well-lighted book and reference 
rooms, but has no especial provision 
for children. 

Another day took us to Columbia, 
where the dedication of the Saxton 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



■ B. Little Library, last year, was 
remarkable for the age of the 
speakers. The late Judge Loomis 
of Hartford, eighty-two years old, 
spoke first, and was followed by the 
Rev. Mr. Avery, a former resident 
of the town, aged eighty-six. After 
this, a well-preserved man of appar- 
ently seventy, who had earlier in 
the day been giving the librarian 
advice as to book-classification, was 
introduced as Saxton B. Little, the 
donor of the small building just 
replaced by Mr. Joseph Hutchins' 
gift to the town, and in the course 
of a clear and connected half-hour 
speech, entirely without notes, 
spoke of himself as ninety years old ! 

I From the pleasant building facing 
Columbia Green, we drove on to 
Lebanon, where the old Jonathan 
Trumbull war office is now the 
Public Library, and to Hebron, 
where a library quite large enough 
for the needs of the town for years 
to come was built not long ago for 
a thousand dollars. In Andover, a 
building once used as a school house 
is now the home of the library, and 
the ticket-seller in the station spoke 
with enthusiasm of what it had been 
to him — "a collection of nearly two 
thousand volumes," he said. "But 
I do wish they had Shakespeare's 
works." 

Somers, which lies at the foot of 
a hill so high that it is a landmark 
for miles around, is on an electric 
line, and has a pretty library build- 
ing, somewhat cramped as to stack 
room, but with a fine collection of 
mineral and Indian relics, the gift 
of a former townsman. Enfield, at 
the beginning of the line, has no 
building yet, but uses a room in the 
town hall that is enough for 
present needs, though it could in- 
crease its usefulness with a building 
large enough for reading, reference 
and children's rooms, all of which 
are of great importance in a manu- 
facturing village like Thompson- 
ville, where the library is. 

Early one August morning we 



181 



left the train in the beautiful Pom- 
peraug Valley and took stage 
through the old and well-kept 
village of Southbury, which has 
since then established a library, to 
"ancient Woodbury," an ideal 
New England town, miles away 
from railroads and electric cars, a 
town full of fine old houses and his- 
torical relics. The library there is 
in a large, pleasant room in the old 
academy building, given to the 
town, with a fund of §5,000, by Mr. 
and Mrs. Edward S. Boyd. Be- 
yond is Bethlehem, up in the Litch- 
field County hills, with a nourishing 
library in the town hall, concealed 
behind wooden doors. Morris, the 
next town, that seems as if it were 
on the roof of the world, has a 
library room, neat, pleasant and 
well-kept, in a building belonging 
to the Congregational Church. On 
the way down from the hills again 
we had a glimpse of the Watertown 
Library, endowed and in a fine 
building, and the Bronson Library 
in Waterbury, also well endowed, 
in a large building, simple and dig- 
nified, with good accommodations 
for reference work and children. 
These two are not under the com- 
mittee, but in the language of a 
little girl, "All the library ladies 
know each other," and the libra- 
rians are interested members of the 
Connecticut Library Association. 

A Windham County drive in the 
rain took us first to old Windham. A 
little Grecian temple that was once 
a bank is now a library, but not 
under town control. Beyond the 
historic frog-pond is the road to 
Scotland, where in the second story 
of a school house is a cheerful, 
sunny library, still animated by the 
spirit of the good minister to whom 
it owes much of its success, and 
encouraged by the teacher of the 
school below, who has taught her 
pupils to know and love books. 

The Hampton library is unfor- 
tunate in being placed in a grange 
hall, which receives little care, and 



182 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



where the books are hidden from 
view by wooden doors on high 
shelves only to be reached by break- 
neck steps. The Chaplin library, 
through the exertions of a reading 
circle, is on the high road to owning 
a pleasant house, freshly painted 
and papered, with a piano for enter- 
tainments and a room where the 
librarian sells ice-cream to swell the 
library funds. On the way home 
we visited the two Willimantic libra- 
ries, one supported by the city, the 
other by the Willimantic Linen 
Company, and both ante-dating the 
law of 1893. 

Eastford, whose little hexagonal 
library on the village green used 
to be a lawyer's office, is seven miles 
from a railroad, a town where 
people have time to read and the 
books look as if they were enjoyed. 

Up in the hills ten miles beyond 
Eastford, and ten from the nearest 
railway or country store, is the town 
of Union, with thirty-five square 
miles, four hundred inhabitants, 
and very small library appropria- 
tion. There is no town in the state 
where the library is more appre- 
ciated than this. It supplements 
the schools, and its good work is 
largely due to the intelligent efforts 
of one man. 

Thompson has a new stone build- 
ing, and a librarian who has worked 
out by herself all that is necessary 
for her to know of cataloguing and 
classification. The Putnam Library, 
although not yet the possessor of a 
building, has lately moved into a 
large and well-lighted room in the 
court-house, and has received as a 
gift the furniture and periodicals of 
a reading room opened by Mrs, John 
Addison Porter of Pomfret. In 
Danielson, the whole town of Kill- 
ingly has access to a fifteen-thous- 
and-dollar building — a legacy from 
Edwin H. Bugbee, whose private 
library is in the reference room. 
The old historic town of Brooklyn 
uses a room in the town hall for 
its library. 



Several of the towns about Hart- 
ford are in the same condition. The 
South Windsor and West Hartford 
libraries have rooms in churches, 
Wethersfield and Glastonbury pleas- 
ant but crowded rooms in school 
houses, and Newington a part of 
the town hall. East Hartford and 
Berlin have good library buildings. 
Berlin, indeed, has two — one in the 
"street," where a Pegasus painted 
on the wall leads children into the 
world of wonder and fancy, and 
another, a pretty stone building, on 
the edge of Kensington. 

One of the finest library buildings 
in Hartford County is the Kent 
Memorial Library in Suffield, hous- 
ing a good collection of books 
which began as a subscription 
library, and largely through the 
exertions of the women of Suffield, 
was adopted by the town and kept 
for several years in a room which 
had been a country store. Bloom- 
field has a good room in the build- 
ing erected for town purposes two 
or three years ago by a bequest 
from Levi L. Prosser, but Windsor 
is still in the school-house stage. 
Granby has had for ten or twelve 
years the Frederick H. Cossitt 
Library, a pleasant building with a 
room in the basement for social 
purposes, but Mr. Cossitt's bequest 
for books was badly invested after 
his death, and is now unproductive. 
Manchester's library room was once 
a country store, but Vernon, just 
beyond, after ten years in two 
cramped little rooms, has at last the 
George Maxwell Memorial Library, 
costing $150,000, and one of the 
finest and most perfectly equipped 
buildings in the state. Ellington's 
memorial library, another beautiful 
building on a smaller scale, was 
given by the Hall family, cost 
$50,000, and has reference room, 
children's room and the beginning 
of an art gallery. Two of the rooms 
in Tolland's old and historic court- 
house are now used for the public 
library, and are cheerful and 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



183 



sunny. Tolland is one of the towns 
which would never have had a 
library but for the exertions of an 
association of women. 

Near the Connecticut River are 
Portland, which has a good library 
room in a public building; Chat- 
ham, which built, a few years ago, 
a good little library for less than 
four hundred dollars through the 
efforts of Mrs. Ernest G. Cone; 
Middlefield, where the Levi E. Coe 
Library is a social center, and Dur- 
ham, whose library for years was in 
the second story of an old school 
building, but is now well housed. 

Near the Naugatuck Valley is a 
group of handsome memorial libra- 
ries — the Taylor Memorial Library 
in Milford; the Stratford Public 
Library, given by Birdseye Blake- 
man; the Plumb Memorial Library 
in Shelton, for the Town of Hunt- 
ington ; the Ansonia Public Library, 
given by Miss Caroline Phelps 
Stokes, and the Derby Public 
Library, a memorial to a boy, Har- 
court Wood, on whose birthday 
children bring flowers to decorate 
the rooms, especially the room fitted 
up attractively for their own use. 
Seymour has a library building in 
prospect, and the librarians of the 
towns in this part of the state have a 
neighborhood club which meets at 
short intervals. Beacon Falls and 
Cheshire have no buildings yet. 
The Prospect Library, which before 
the town adopted it was success- 
fully managed on a very small in- 
come by the wife of a minister, has 
had a gift which has enabled it to 
house its books suitably. Thomas- 
ton has the Laura M. Andrews 
Memorial, but Plymouth is still with- 
out a library building. In Winsted, 
the Beardsley Library, which for 
years was in the second story of a 
public building, has now a home of 
its own. Three towns which have ac- 
cepted the state grant in the last three 
years, two of them very recently, 
Goshen, Bridgewater and South- 
bury, are still without buildings. 



In the northwest corner of the 
state, besides the Norfolk Library, 
rich in tapestries and photographs, 
which Miss Isabella Eldridge sup- 
ports, and several others which also 
are not under town government, 
are the Douglas Library in North 
Canaan and the Scoville Memorial 
Library in Salisbury, a true social 
center for the town, with assembly 
hall, stage, Steinway piano, com- 
pletely furnished kitchen and dining 
room, besides book room and read- 
ing room. One unusual relic, set 
in a mantel piece, is a large carved 
fragment of stone from Salisbury 
Cathedral, and the chime in the 
tower, which rings out a Parsifal 
motif, gives the building a distinc- 
tive character. One of the other 
western towns — New Canaan — has a 
building, but Darien and New Fair- 
field have not yet homes of their 
own. 

North Haven had a good building 
before it was under the care of the 
committee. Chester and Saybrook 
are still in rooms. Old Saybrook 
has lately accepted the Acton 
Library, which had had a building 
for years and whose history, written 
by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Hart, has 
lately been published as one of the 
committee's pamphlets. Madison 
has the Scranton Memorial Library, 
which is an ornament to the old 
town. Westbrook has a fine new 
library, but Middlebury and Rox- 
bury have no buildings. Colchester 
has a memorial library not yet fin- 
ished, the gift of Dr. Edward B. 
Craigin of New York. 

On the Sound shore are several 
towns that have libraries which are 
not under town management, but 
are amply endowed and housed in 
buildings of great beauty. The 
James Blackstone Memorial Library 
in Branford is remarkable not only 
as the most costly library building 
in Connecticut, but also because the 
man who gave it endowed it with 
enough money for administration, 
books and care. It is very unusual 



1 84 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CONNECTICUT 



for the giver of a memorial library 
to be far-seeing enough to remem- 
ber that a library cannot be useful 
without a yearly income, and many 
a town finds its library merely an 
expensive mausoleum, always in 
need of repairs and without new 
books or an efficient librarian. If 
a man who has fifty thousand dollars 
to give to a town library will spend 
five thousand for a building, simple 
and in good taste, but without mar- 
ble pillars or gilt capitals, and will 
use the rest for a fund for books 
and salaries for librarian and jani- 
tor, or if he has a hundred thousand 
and will put a part of it into a 
building with' a hall, stage, kitchen 
and perhaps a gymnasium, in addi- 
tion to the library, and give the rest 
as a permanent fund, he will help 
his town far more than if he erects 
a Grecian temple or a mediaeval 
castle and turns it over to the select- 
men without funds for lighting, 
heating and repairs. 

A Horary building, well endowed, 



is the best gift that can be made to 
a town, but let any one who has 
such a gift in mind take warning 
by the experience of one library, 
whose income is only nine hundred 
dollars for all expenses, where the 
grounds, floors and elaborate orna- 
ment of the building require a great 
deal of care, and where, in conse- 
quence, there is very little money for 
books, and the librarian, who keeps 
the library open six or seven hours 
a day, and does janitor's work for 
the same length of time, is paid 
only a hundred and fifty dollars a 
year. 

In the office of the committee, on 
the fifth floor of the Capitol, are 
plans and photographs of town 
libraries, large and small, and any 
one who expects to erect a library 
building is at liberty to use them. 
Some of the best small libraries 
which have been given to country 
towns in the last few years have 
been planned after careful study of 
the committee's collection. 



EVERY READER WHO HOLDS A BOOK IN HIS HAND IS 
FREE OF THE INMOST MINDS OF MEN PAST AND PRES- 
ENT—THEIR LIVES BOTH WITHIN AND WITHOUT THE 
PALE OF THEIR UTTERED THOUGHTS ARE UNVEILED TO 
HIM— HE NEEDS NO INTRODUCTION TO THE GREATEST- 
HE MAY, IF HE BE SO MINDED, SCRIBBLE "DOGGEREL" 
ON HIS SHELLEY ... OR KICK LORD BYRON . . . INTO A 
CORNER— HE HEARS BURKE PERORATE, AND JOHNSON 
DOGMATIZE, AND SCOTT TELL HIS BORDER TALES, AND 
WORDSWORTH MUSE ON THE HILLSIDE, WITHOUT THE 
LEAVE OF ANY MAN, OR THE PAYMENT OF ANY TOLL 

— Says Frederick Harrison 



LONG JOURNEY ON 

I N i 788 



HORSE-BACK 



THROUGH THE WILDERNESS FROM LEBANON TO ALBANY AND 

RETURN AND OBSERVATIONS ALONG THE WAY A QUAINT 

PICTURE OF THE TIMES FROM A DIARY TRANSCRIBED 



BY 



JESSY TRUMBULL McCLELLAN 

OF WOODSTOCK, CONNECTICUT 



M 



Y grandfather, John McClel- 
lan, was for many years a 
representative, in Hart- 
ford, of the town of Wood- 
stock, and in the decade following 
the Revolutionary War practiced 
law in this state. He was grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1785, 
and at the time of his death in 1858 
was the oldest living graduate. 
Among his effects he left a consid- 
erable amount of written matter, 
including many letters, papers and 
various documents which came from 
Lebanon through my grandmother, 
Faith Williams. My grandfather's 
sister married John Lovett of Al- 
bany, at one time United States 
Senator from New York. 

In looking over my grandfather's 
manuscripts I find one a hundred 
and seventeen years old. It tells 
of his "Long journey to Albany" 
in the year 1788. Believing that its 
preservation may be of some his- 
torical value and that it will at 
least be an interesting story of 
travel in the Revolutionary days, 
it is reproduced herewith : 

Journal of John McClellan of 
Woodstock, Connecticut 
May the 6th, i?88— This morning 
I set out for Albany in company 
with Capt. William Lyon; proceed- 
ing to Sterbridge, a Rough Town 
well stocked with Pine Trees. Stage 
at Craft's Tavern near by a new, 



elegant meeting House, from thence 
to Brimfield, a tolerable Road, and 
many fine Houses. Soil looked 
Sandy but very fertile. Dined at 
Aaron Charles upon fryed Bacon 
and Eggs, 3 o'clock dinner spoilt 
by tainted Eggs; house stands in 
Brimfield the north side of the 
Road upon a high bank — Red — 
Reckoning /i/— From thence pro- 
ceeded on to Palmer, stopped at 
Tavern Graves 8 or 9 miles stage. 

A fine Road, Country looked good 
for Grain, Sandy Soil, fine pastures, 
etc. — Grog — 12^ — from Grave 5. 
came on to Springfield 14 miles. 
Fine Road; Pine Woods most all 
the way. put up at Parsons' 
Tavern. In the Evening called at 
Col. Worthingtons. Saw a number 
of young Ladies, Mr. Hooker a 
Mr. Dwights and a somebody else — 
but a moment with them Went to 
the Office with Col. paid him ^3-5-4- 
Coming in to Town, the Magnificent 
Military Stores presented them- 
selves. The rest of the Town I ex- 
pect to view in the Morning, as it 
was nearly dark toNight. I went 
to bed below with Capt. Lyon. 
Slept upon Dirty Sheets. \ past 
Nine. Some tired and fatigued. 

Wednesday, yth May — Springfield 
seems to be a pretty Village, beau- 
tified by a Canal running all along 
the street. Set away from there ^ 
after 6. got a Spur mended at Jacob 
Sergeants Shop. 12'. Reckoning 



i86 



LONG JOURNEY ON HORSEBACK IN 1788 



2/07. From Springfield in Company 
with Mr. Lyon proceeded to North 
Hampton the East side of the 
River, passed the River at Hauk- 
anum Ferry, past thro. Chebebee, 
Town of South Hadley — a good 
road but the principal part of the 
way was thro Pines. Chechebee 
Bridge something curious five miles 
from Springfield. The Meadows or 
fields along the River are undivided 
by fences, particularly at North 
Hampton, is one lot which con- 
tains some thousand of acres, 
where the People raise* their Grain, 
Corn, and Hogs, and saves, a vast 
deal, in not being obliged to have 
fences. How diff't are their 
Children O Briver that, they can all 
work on their own land, upon one 
field, in sight of one another with- 
out being enclosed by a fence, from 
The Morose — fenced in folks. 

North Hampton, is an irregular 
Paid out town, Many Elegant 
Houses, a Place of Business, good 
Land, Court House, Halfstore Town 
County of Hampshire. 

At 3 o'clock P. M. set out from 
there, after having spent an hour 
or two with Class-mates, Wright 
and Lyman, my friend Josh. Lyman 
of Pomroy. 

Barbeck^. Paper i-^-. Tavern 1/3-J- 
from thence came on to Williams- 
burg, a pretty good Road, chiefly 
through Woods. And much sur- 
prised to find it so new, so near N. 
Hampton, about 7 or 8 miles, made 
no stop till we came to Goshen 7 
miles farther 14 from N, Hampton 
about west. A New town famous 
for Large Hemlocks. Here the peo- 
ple make their own Sugar. Fine 
Town for Pastures, Cattle, etc., but 
very rough. Put up at a private 
house Son of Mrs. May from Wood- 
stock, treated very generously with 
their fare. Saw a Collection of 
People upon a Conferance as they 
called it. 

Young Mr. Hallack, a Collegian 
of my acquaintance in the morning. 

The 8th, Thursday — From Mays' 



came on about a mile. Mr. Lyon 
had business at two houses, both 
sides the road. I went to the one 
he was to go to last and found a 
widow Nammore, the same that 
lived on the Payson farm. She had 
there a very good farm — from there 
came on to Mr. Ward in Comming- 
ton. Left with his wife the Note 
Mrs. Holmes gave me against John 
Eaton of New Providence. From 
there came on to Partridgefield 
through Worthington which is the 
first Town in Berkshire County, 
made no stop till at a Tavern kept 
by Mr. Sayland in Partridgefield. 
From Goshen to Saylands it was an 
exceeding bad Road, Hemlocks ex- 
tremely large all the way. Muddy 
and swampy and quite a new 
Country. Dined at Saylands paid 
there 4 — came on to Pittsfield 13 
miles. Rough, Mountainous tract 
of Land a mile or two from Say- 
lands, is Col. Leffingwells Land 
South of the Road. Red House, 
stop'd down the Mountain 4 or 5 
miles from Pittsfield, it is a tolerable 
Road and good land stop'd a few 
minutes at Woods Tavern, then 
saw and got acquainted with Mr. 
Gold. 

Pittsfield is a pleasant Country 
Town, some Elegant Houses. From 
Goshen to Pittsfield the Houses are 
chiefly Made of Logs or Logg- 
Houses. Hemlocks continued very 
large all most to Pittsfield. At 5 
P. M. came on from Pittsfield, to 
New Lebanon, pretty good Road 
except over the Mountain called 
Hancock nearly at the foot of which 
is the line between the States of 
Massachusetts and New York, be- 
tween New Lebanon and Pittsfield 
in a town or strip of Land called 
Hancock. The land pretty good 
from Pittsfield to New Lebanon. 
Put up at the Place called Pool, 
famous for the New Lebanon 
Springs, arrived about dusk and put 
up at Mugges Tavern. The Spring 
I expect to see in the Morning. 

Friday, pth of May, 1788— This 



LONG JOURNEY ON HORSEBACK IN i 7 88 



187 



morning went to the Spring which, 
nearly at the top of a high hill, 
runs out of the ground to the South, 
looks very clear and quite warm. I 
drinked some, and went in, found 
no very great difference from any 
water that I ever went into. Break- 
fasted at Mugges Tavern, paid 2/^. 
from there came on about 15 miles, 
found that Capt. Mannings daugh- 
ter lives 5 miles from the Pool. 
A Place called New Store Land 
seemed pretty good. Pine trees 4, 
5, miles from the Pool. Then found 
teak and other trees. The Road 
was muddy owing to the great 
Rains here lately, but leavel and 
looked like a good Road for a Car- 
riage. Got there about \ after 
eleven, staid \ of an hour paid 13d. 
From there came on to Albany 
about 15 miles in the Rain all the 
way. Roads very muddy — got wet — 
Crossed the River and came into the 
City about 2 o'clock. The Oddness 
of the old Dutch houses was very 
striking, etc. They are of a very 
odd structure to a modern eye, but 
a few windows, and those small. 
There are however a great number 
of modern built houses in Albany 
and some of which very elegant. 

After I came to Albany went to a 
Tavern which for its disagreeable 
look I quitted for another, after 
looking a great while came to the 
City Tavern and had a Dinner in 
My Box — the first time I ever run 
to a hole. They are places built up 
in the Tavern 6 or 7 feet high with 
curtains, to put before the entry of 
them, where a person may be re- 
tired in a full house. After Dinner, 
went to Majr. Sills' house and he 
was called, from there went to Mr. 
Glens' and drinked Tea with Sill 
and wife, Glen and his wife. All 
agreeable People. Tarried with 
Majr. Sill all night; in the morning 
bid Capt. Lyon Adieu and set off 
for Fort Miller, a pleasant ride to 
New City, crossed a ferry before I 
got there and called a moment to 
B. Thurbers, and a moment at S. 



Cogswells, passed on from there to 
John Corbin's Tavern in Still 
Water and there found Lovett and 
Nancy. 

Dined and returned again to a 
Mr. Peables's, about 3 Miles from 
half-Moon Point and staid all Night, 
a very Neat and Tidy house. 

Sunday Morning — breakfasted late 
and came to half Moon Point, dined 
with a Doct'r Rogers, a likely Man — 
from there came on to Albany 
again, arrived about 6 o'clock, put 
up at Maj. Sills, Monday spent run- 
ning about Town. Drinked Tea at 
Mr. Glens and in the Evening went 
to a Rope Dancers Entertainment. 
As I expect to pass through New 
City and that Country again I will 
wait to have a better idea of it be- 
forel undertake to describe it. 

Tuesday, May 21 — This morning 
set out with Nancy and Mr. Lovett 
from Albany, passed the Ferry 
called Vanderheyden Ferry — came 
on to New City a Village which 
stands upon the East side of the 
North River. A place which in 
time may be capitol but not an- 
swerable to my expectations. I 
dined at S. Cogswells, Lovett and 
Nancy at a Col. Ransalears of this 
place. After which came on to 
Half Moon Ferry, upper Ferry, two 
miles from New City. The half 
Moon Point is a point of Land 
which the Mohawk River, or rather 
one of the four Spouts of that River 
and the North River form. Several 
small houses are upon it. From 
the Ferry came on to Mr. Peables, 
made a little stop for a Shower, 
from there came on to Ensigns' 
Tavern, a Stage of near 20 miles, 
bated the Horses with a little Hay, 
about dark set out again, stopt 
again at Marneals about 8 miles, a 
Most beautiful Road all the way 
but because of the long Raines of 
late are muddy. Crossed the River 
at MarNeals Ferry. Boat dipt 
water, went to high up, got some 
sceart. The ferry is about 3 Miles 
from the house of Mr. Lovett. Ar- 



i88 



LONG JOURNEY ON HORSEBACK IN 1788 



rived about \ after 10 o'clock, it 
stands about -j- Mile from the North 
River upon an ascent from the 
River but after you ascend the pitch 
it is a Plain, etc. The house is built 
upon a large construction a plain 
of which I may have a Plan. 

From this time to the 21st of June 
I remained at Fort Miller. Took a 
ride to Fort Ann. saw nothing very 
remarkable excepting some old 
Pickets, formerly set up for the de- 
fense of Our Men in the French 
War. 

The distance from Fort Miller is 
20 Miles through Fort Edward three 
miles. In fort Edward saw some 
old forts and Places of memory on 
account of Battles. To fort Edward 
the Road runs beside the River a 
Northerly Course. 

Baldens is the house of Entertain- 
ment, two miles from Baldens viz 
at Col Bott the North River turns 
from a North Course to the West, 
or rather it comes from the West 
and turns to the South at Bots 
which I think is in Kingsbury. 
From Bots to St Mihr the Road 
turus according to my best Recol- 
lection N. E. by E. 

The country looks new, but there 
is a great number of 'Log Houses, 
and a good road. I went in com- 
pany with Mr. Lovett, put up at 
George Mays, from Albany, a man 
worth $16,000 treated hospitably, 
he has two Daughters, not upon 
the extreme of Beauty, or accom- 
plishments. I also took a jaunt to 
Lake George. The Road to which 
place also runs through Ft. Edward 
and Kingsbury. The lake lies N. 
E. from Fort Edward. The head 
of the Lake the Place where I went 
is at the South End. This lake 
there appears to run North nd 
South. Went in Company with 
some Dutch Ladies and Nancy in a 
Waggon spent a Day there in fish- 
ng. dined at a Mr. Jays. A Polly 
Smith from Ireland, lives there, an 
accomplished lady. on our way 
home met Brother William in 



Fort Edward, he continued from 
that time with me at Fort Miller a 
fortnight. 

Saturday the i/f June — Esq. Honey- 
wood came from White Creek and 
spent 4 Days with us. The Neigh- 
borhood at Fort M. consist of 5 or 6 
good families. Mr. Runwoody who 
manages Col. Duers Business as to 
farming is quite an agreeable oblig- 
ing man. Mr. Peebles the Mer- 
chant adds much to Ft. Miller, and 
upon the whole spent my time very 
agreeably. 

My Horse soon after I arrived at 
Fort M. ran away and got 14 Miles, 
direct way home though he came 
not that Road, and it is remarkable 
that a Horse and a hog only under- 
stand Longothude I found it after 
a Day or two in a Place called Cam- 
bridge. 

The 21st of June, on Saturday, I 
set out from Fort Miller in Com- 
pany with Brother William came on 
to Mr. Peebles to Dinner after 
Dinner came over to New City 
made a little stop, from there came 
on to Thisbers and there parted 
with Brother William. I came on 
alone to Albany, put up at Leweses 
called at Mr. Sills, found Deckin- 
son. In the evening went to hear 
a poor Creature deliver a Lecture 
upon Electricity at Dennisons' 
Tavern. The weather not being 
suitable for any experiments of that 
kind, he delivered a little upon the 
notion of Properties of Light at the 
close of which he showed an experi- 
ment as he called that "nobody 
could look straight when he would 
have then look crooked, and shewed 
the common experi't of putting 
water in a Bower and putting an 
Object in, after which he delivered 
something upon Moral Philosophy 
altogether upon Seduction. To 
elucidate it read some ridiculous 
old Ballads and Poetry. Saw a few 
Gentlemen there, among the Rest 
the Patroon to whom I was intro- 
duced. Lodged at Majr Sills. The 
22nd went to the Presb'n meeting 



LONG JOURNEY ON HORSEBACK IN i 7 S8 



8 9 



in the forenoon. P. M. to the Eng- 
lish Church, there heard a good 
preacher and Writer. Saw some 
Albany Ladies in the Evening 
which were pretty and sociable. 
Mr. Sill went to Bethlehem Sunday 
evening, brought his wife from 
there in the forenoon of Monday. 

23d — Spent the day forenoon with 
Dickinson and two sons of Govr. 
Wolcott. P. M. set out with Dick- 
inson to Schenectady in a Carriage 
arrived there at six o'clock, it is an 
old Dutch Place about 16 miles 
from Albany, lies upon the Mohawk 
River, it once enjoyed all the Furr- 
Trade, it consists of nearly 300 
houses. The Place now is very 
dull and looks as if it was upon 
decay, they are nearly all Dutch 
People and the houses are built 
upon this Construction. Its dulness 
as to business makes it look un- 
pleasant which would be different 
otherwise. There are some few 
houses built according to the 
modern style and pleasant, put up 
at Widow Clincks Tavern. 

Tuesday the 24th day — In the morn- 
ing returned to Albany with Mr. 
Dickinson. The Road is good. 
From Albat. to Sche'y running in a 
N. W. course, dined with Majr Sill, 
though in the forenoon saw the 
Freemasons walk in procession and 
a number of gentlemen whom I 
knew. After Dinner I came from 
Albany to Bethlehem to Col 
Nicolls, which is about 6 or 8 
miles from Albany, upon the west 
side of the River, there took my 



horse and came on to the City of 
Hudson arrived at 9 o'Clock. The 
Road is pretty good. The land 
from about 12 miles below Albany 
to Hudson looked extremely good 
for Pasturing and Plowing. Hud- 
son is a place remarkable for its 
quick progress and rise, it consists 
of a number of fine houses and 
stands upon the East side of North 
River about 30 miles from Albany 
and is pleasant, from there came 
to Clareiah, a good country town 
four miles from hudscn, saw there, 
Goodrich and Rensalaer, came 
from there to Sheffield a thirty 
mile stage. The Road pretty good 
and the land also, put up at Hickok 
Tavern to which place Capt Nevens 
came the same evening. Sheffield 
appears to be a good Township of 
Land, it is in the Massachusetts 
State. 

Thursday 26th came from Sheffield 
on to the edge of Norfolk to Peer's 
Tavern which lies in Connecticut 
and looked like Connect, good 
farms — stop'd along two or three 
and arrived in the evening at Hart- 
ford put up at Bull's with Nevens. 
The Road the chief of the way 
from Sheffield is not very good but 
fine farms. 

Friday, 27th — In the Morning set 
out from Hartford, to with Capt 
Nevens, parted with him where the 
Road turns off for Norwich, made a 
stop at Coventry at Williams Tavern 
and another at Ashford, got home 
about six o'clock after this long 
voyage. 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT 

Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 



This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries should be as 
precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his personal attention to questions 
free of charge. Extended investigations will be made by him for a reasonable compensation. Persons having old 
family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are requested to communicate with him with 
reference to printing them. Readers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the editor in answering queries, many 
of which can only be answered by recourse to original records. Querists are requested to write clearly all names of 
persons and places so that they cannot be misunderstood. Queries will be inserted in the order in which they are 
received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE, Hartford, 
marked Genealogical Department. Give full name and post office address — Editor 




No. i. Leete. Governor William 
Leete of Guilford, born 1612-13, 
died April 16, 1683, son of John 
Leete of Dodington, Hunting- 
donshire, and his wife, Anna 
Shute, daughter of Robert, 
grandson of Thomas Leete of 
Ockington, Cambridgeshire, 
England, and his wife, Maria, 
daughter of Edward Slade of 
Rushton, Northamptonshire. 

Argent on a fess gules be- 
tween two rolls of matches 
sable kindled proper, a martlet 
or 

Crest — On a ducal coronet 
an antique lamp or kindled 
proper. 

Evidence — " Visitation of 
Huntingdonshire, 1689" ; 
"Family of Leete," London 
1881. 



LEETE 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



191 




TALCOTT 



No. 2. Talcott. John Talcott of 
Hartford, born in Braintree, 
County of Essex, son of John 
and Anne (Skinner) Talcott, 
and grandson of John Talcott 
of Colchester, County of Essex, 
living there 1558, died in 1606, 
who was son of John Talcott of 
Warwickshire. 

The Herald's visitation of 
Essex in 1558 gives the pedi- 
gree and arms of this family. 
See Harleian manuscripts, 1137, 
page 148; also Talcott pedi- 
gree, 7-21. 

John Talcott, the emigrant, 
was a minor when his father 
died in 1604, and not of age in 
1606, when he is mentioned in 
the will of his grandfather, 
who left him ^40, to be paid 
when he reached the age of 
twenty-one. 

Arms — Argent on a pale sable 
three roses of the field. 

Crest— A demi griffin erased 
argent, gorged with a collar. 
Sable charged with three roses 
of the first. 



QUESTIONS 

98. Warner. Who were the ances- 
tors of Thomas Warner? His 
mother's maiden name was 
Hale. She claimed descent 
from Sir Mathew Hale. He 
married Rhoda Hopkins (about 
1750), in Mansfield, Conn., and 
later moved to Otsego County, 
New York. I. C. 

99. Treat. Was Captain Bethuel 
Treat, who married Anne 
Camp, the father of Mary 
Treat, who married James 
Wooster of Middlebury and 
of Susannah Treat, who mar- 
ried Aaron Lewis of South - 
bury? Was Captain Bethel 
Treat a descendant of Governor 
Robert Treat? 

Mrs. R. T. L. 

100. (a) Warren. Where can I ob- 
tain a full record of the children 
of Abraham Warren, son of 
William Warren of Hartford? 

Was one of them named 
Temperance? 

(b) Bushnell. I should like to 
learn the full name of the wife 
of Ephraim Bushnell, born in 
Saybrook, Conn., February 14, 
1675, a son of William and Re- 
becca Bushnell of Saybrook. 

(c) Dudley. Also the Christian 
name of Miss Dudley, who mar- 
ried James Bushnell in 1736, a 
son of Ephraim Bushnell, 
above. 

(d) Andrews, Who were the 
parents and ancestors of Rebec- 
ca Andrews of Hartford, Conn., 
who married Thomas, eldest 
son of Alexander and Chloe 
Wait) Bushnell, born in Lyme, 
Conn., January 11, 1762? She 
is not mentioned in the "An- 
drews Memorial." Mrs. C. I. I. 

101. Bailey. Wanted, genealogy of 
Joshua Bailey, who married 
Ann Foote, daughter of 
Nathaniel Foote of Colchester, 
West" Chester Society, April 6. 



192 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



1758, and died September 1, 
1809. She died at East Hamp- 
ton, Conn., December 5, 1772. 
Children — Amos, Joshua, Rho- 
da, Nathaniel and Asa, Na- 
thaniel married Rachel Sears, 
daughter of Elkanah of Chat- 
ham, East Hampton Society. 
They lived and died at same 
place. W. H. R. 

102. Hull. Andrew Hull, Sr., of 
Cheshire, (who died 1774,) aI *d 
his wife, Lowly Cook Hull, had 
eleven children as follows: 
Damaris (died young) ; Lowly, 
born 1753; Hannah, born 1754; 
Damaris, born 1755; Andrew 
(General), born 1758, married 
Elizabeth Ann Atwater; Sarah; 
Ursula, born 1761, married 
Jason Hotchkiss; Mary; Esther; 
Susan; Louisa, married Dr. 
Hall. There are seven of these 
daughters of this once promi- 
nent family of Cheshire of 
whom I can find no record after 
thorough search. Wanted, the 
complete marriage record of 
this family of Andrew Hull, 
Sr., with names of men mar- 
ried, dates, etc. A. J. N. 

103. (a) Ransom. "Joseph Ransom, 
born in Saybrook January 10, 
1683. Wanted, name of wife 
and her parentage. His father 
was Matthew Ransom, who mar- 
ried at Saybrook, March 7, 
1682-3, Hannah Jones. What 
was his and her parentage? 

(b) Jones. Thomas Jones of Col- 
chester, died October 27, 1729, 
married Mary Potter. What 
was her parentage? 

(c) Treadway. James Tread way 
of Watertown, born 1677, died 
at Colchester, May 26, 1728, 
married, 1708, Sarah Mull. 
Her parentage wanted. 

(d) Webb. Samuel Webb of Stam- 
ford, born March 30, 1662, died 
October 7, 1729, son of Richard, 

married Hannah . What 

was her name? 



(e) Badcock. Zebulon Badcock 
Coventry, married Mary. Oi 
of their daughters, Zeruial 
married Captain Abel Patch< 
July 29, 1773, at Sharoi 
Wanted, parentage of Zebulc 
Babcock and name of wife. 
F. F. F. 

104. Goodwin. Would like so 
information regarding James 
Goodwin, who died the 27th oi 
September, 1807, aged fifty-two, 
and of Mary Goodwin, who 
died the 10th of June, 1808, 
aged twenty-two. A. R. S. 

105. Lawrence. Daniel Norton, born 
at New Marlborough, Mass., 
1790, married Laura Lawrence 
at Canaan, Conn., i860. Her 
sister married the Rev. Hiram 
Eddy of Canaan. Wanted, hej 
ancestry with Revolutionary 
service, if any? C. B. N. 

106. (a) Abell-Hyde. I would like to 
establish relationship between 
Robert Abell, who died in 
Rehoboth June 20, 1663, anl 
Caleb Abell, who came, with 
two brothers, to Norwich in 
1668, and married Margaret 
Post, granddaughter of William 
Hyde, in July, 1669. The Hyde 
genealogy, page 2, says nothing 
is known of William Hydes,' 
but that he probably died in 
Hartford or Saybrook, and 
there is no mention of a second 
marriage. In the vital records 
of Rehoboth, page 3, is the 
marriage of Joanna Abell to 
William Hide of New Norwich 
June 4, 1667. This would ap- 
pear to support my impression 
that there is a close relation- 
ship between the Rehoboth and 
the Norwich Abells. 

(b) Hale-Heald. The Keep gen« 
ealogy, page 222, makes Deacon 
Thomas Hale, who died in En- 
field, Conn., April 22, 1725, the 
son of John Heald of Concord. 
Can any one give me any au- 
thority for this statement? 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



93 



(c) Fowler. Has any proof been 
discovered of the relationship 
between Ambrose Fowler of 
Windsor and William Fowler, 
the magistrate of New Haven? 
C. E. B. 

107. Terrill. F. T. would like the 
ancestry of Charles Terrill, 
born in Bethlehem, Litchfield 
County, 181 2, and died in New 
York State 1869. Would also 
like to communicate with any 
relative, if living. 

108. Goldsberry. Wanted, informa- 
tion about the Goldsberry (or 
Coldsborough) family, ances- 
tors of Delay Fletcher Golds- 
berry of Chillicothe, Ohio. 

Mrs. J. B. G, 

109. Can any one give the family 
name and ancestry of the wife 
in the following marriages? 

(a) Bliss. Thomas Bliss, Jr., born 
in England, died April 15, 1688, 

married Elizabeth October 

30, 1644, at Saybrook, Conn. 

(b) Buell. William Buell, born in 
England about 1610, married 

Mary November 18, 1640, 

probably at Windsor, Conn. 

(c) B elding. John Belding, born 
in England 1631, died 1677, 

married Lydia April 24, 

1657, probabl) r at Wethersfield. 

(d) Cornwall — Sergeant William 
Cornwall, born in England, died 
in Middletown February 21, 

1678 married (second) Mary 

about 1639, probably in Rox- 
bury or Hartford. 

(e) Deming. Ebenezer Deming, 
born 1650, died May 2, 1705, 

married Sarah July 16, 

1677, probably at Wethersfield. 

(f) Goodwin. Deacon John Good- 
win, baptized May 19, 1672, 
died February 6, 1757, married 

(first) Sarah about 1698, 

probably in Hartford. She died 
May. 1735. 

(g) Graves. Deacon George 
Graves, born about 1605, died 



September. 1673, married Sarah 
. His will (Hartford Pro- 
bate Records. Vol. I, page 204) 
shows that she survived him 
and that she was a second wife. 
They were probably married in 
Hartford. 

(h) Hale. William Hale, born in 
Enfield, February 18, 1687, 

married Mary , probably in 

Enfield about 1710. 

(i) White. Captain Nathaniel 
White, born about 1^29, died 
August 27, 1 71 1, at Middletown, 

married Elizabeth in 1651, 

probably at Hartford. She died 
in 1690, aged sixty-five. 

C. E. B. 

no. (a) Dodge -Tennant. Jemima 
Dodge, baptized in Second 
Church in New London July 31, 
1732; was daughter of John 
Dodge 3 [Israel 2 , Tristram 1 ]. 
Did she marry, about 1758, 
Samuel Tennant, (third) of Col- 
chester? Who were the parents 
of Samuel Tennant? 

(b) Freelove Sweet died in Deer- 
field, Mass., October 1, 1806, 
aged sixty. She was the daugh- 
ter of Joseph and Freelove 
— — - Sweet of Colchester. Who 
were the parents of Joseph 
Sweet and what was the maiden 
name of his wife? 

(c) Dodge. Israel, John, William, 
Samuel and Thomas Dodge, 
adults, baptized in New Lon- 
don, Second Church, 1722, were 
sons of Israel Dodge 2 (Tris- 
tram 1 ) Samuel was married at 
Colchester January, 1734, to 
Sarah Chapman. Would like 
marriage of William Dodge and 
children of both William and 
Samuel Dodge, born either in 
New London or Colchester. 

(d) Cranda/l- Johnson. Catherine 
Crandall, born 1740 in Connec- 
ticut, married, about 1760-70, 
John Johnson. They had child- 
ren, Joseph, born 1781, and 
William, born 1783, in Preston, 



194 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



Conn. Would like the ancestry 
of Catherine Crandall, place of 
her birth, date of her marriage 
to John Johnson, and children 
born previous to 1781. 

M. A. M. 
in. Wood. Wanted, the ancestry 
of Sarah Wood, who married 
Matthew Ballamy (marriage re- 
corded at Wallingford) Septem- 
ber 26, 1705, and died March 8, 
1721. L. 

ANSWERS 
To No. 70 (g). Clark-Gold. In reply 
to the question, "When was De- 
borah, daughter of Major Na- 
than Gold, born and whendid she 
die?" I cannot give an answer; 
but she was his daughter by 
Martha, widow of Edmund Har- 
vey of Fairfield, and married 
George Clark of Milford,Conn., 
before her father's death, and 
is mentioned in his will dated 
March 3, 1693. (History of 
Fairfield, Vol. I, page 37°)- 
E. H. S. 
She was the mother of all 
the Clark children, because the 
husband of his second wife did 
not die until after they were 
born. — Ed. 

To No. 72. Needham. Mrs. Edna 
(Needham) Dickinson was born 
March, 1841, in Massachusetts. 
Shortly after her birth she was 
taken by her parents to Coven- 
try, Tolland County, Conn., 
where she was reared and edu- 
cated. She died in Wethers- 
field, Henry County, 111., 
March, 1868, and was the 
mother of three children, name- 
ly, Jesse D. and Oliver W. 
Dickinson of Grinnell Iowa, and 
George A, Dickinson of Ke- 
wanee, 111. Perhaps by writing 
to one of the above addresses, 
H. C. N. might be able to learn 
something of this branch of the 
Needham family. 

Mrs. C. I. I. 



To No. 77(e). Palmer. The name of 
the father of Samuel Palmer, 
who married Lydia Silsby in 
1737, was Samuel. His mother's 
name was Hepzibah Abbe, 
daughter of Samuel Abbe, who 
was descended from John Abbe, 
who settled in Salem Mass. 
Samuel Palmer was born Jan- 
uary 4, 1683, in Rehoboth, 
Mass., and married Hepsibah 
Abbe April 8, 1707. E. M. H. 

I think this Samuel was the 
son of Samuel (and Elizabeth 
Kingsbury, 1 681), son of Joseph, 
son of Walter, (first) Samuel 
and Elizabeth (Kingsbury) 
came to Scotland, Conn., from 
Rehoboth, Mass. C. D. S. 

To No. 85 (a) Brigham-Robertson. 
Daniel Robertson, Jr., son of 
Daniel Robertson and Lydia, 
his wife, born in Coventry, 
Conn., December 21, 1721, mar- 
ried (first) Hannah Hinsdale, 
who died January 20. 1755, no 
issue; married (second), Susan- 
nah Robertson of Newbury, 
Mass., November 21, 1755, 
children: Theodosia, born 
1758; Susannah, born 1759; 
Hannah, born, 1760; Daniel, 
born 1761, died 1775; Amelia, 
born September 23, 1763, mar- 
ried Cephas Brigham; Daniel 
and Betty, born July 22, 1775. 
: Cephas Brigham and Amelia 
Robertson, married May 14, 
1786; children: Uriah, Daniel 
. Robertson, Edwin, Lucia,Sally, 
Maria, Julia, Emily (married 
Arba H. Brown), Anne, Sebra, 
Lucy (perhaps). 

Emily, daughter of Daniel R. 
Brigham, married Arba H. 
Brown of Manchester, Conn. 
She died while upon a visit to 
her daughter in Hartford (Mrs. 
L. J. Robertson), January 19, 
1901. 

(Data from Coventry Town 
Records and from the mouth of 
Mrs. Arba H. Brown.) 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



*95 



Daniel Robertson of Coven- 
try in "Lexington Alarm List" 
(see "Connecticut Men in the 
Revolution"). A. R. 

To No. 86. (c) Royce. On church 
record kept by Mr. Bradstreet 
of members (New London). 
Robert Royce (1670). Robert 
Royce died 1676. This name 
is the same as Rice; this man is 
presumed to be the Robert Rice 
entered freeman in Massachus- 
etts, 1634, and one of those dis- 
armed in Boston 1637 for ad- 
herence to the party of Wheel- 
wright and Hutchinson. When 
he left Boston is not known; at 
Stratford, 1650-56; came to 
New London 1657; town grant- 
ed him the original Post-lot on 
Post Hill ; by trade a shoe- 
maker; was constable 1660, 
etc. Children of Robert Royce 

and Elizabeth , recorded in 

Boston: Joshua, Nathaniel; at 
New London, five sons and 
three daughters. Jonathan 
Royce married Deborah Caulk- 
ins and removed to Norwich, 
of which town he was one of 
the proprietors. Robert Royce's 
widow died at New London in 
1688. The old property lies 
west of the old burying ground 
(at New London), now known 
as the Mum ford lot. 

A. C. W. 



To No. 86 (h) Abigail Cole, who 
married, May 28, 1728, Benja- 
min Moss 3 [John 2 , John 1 J, was 
daughter of Joseph and Abigail 
(Royce) Cole. She was born 
July 13. 1699. (Morse Gene- 
alogy.) M. A. M. 

To No. 88. Cone. If "I. C," who 
inquires about Elijah Cone, 
etc., will consult Mr. William 
Whitney Cone, Brandsville, 
Howell County, Missouri, he 
will find the desired informa- 
tion. Mr. Cone has just pub- 
lished a Cone genealogy. 

E. M. H. 

To No. 91. Linsley-Pond. Samuel 
Pond of Windsor, Conn., who 
died March 14, 1654, married 
Sarah Ware November 18, 1642. 
She married (second), the first 
John Linsley of Branford, July 
9, 1655. She was Linsley's 
second wife. Can F. C. give 
the names of her children by 
her second husband? 

J. M. L. ; also S. M. P. 

To No. 97 (b) (4) Thomas Perrin 
first bought land in Hebron 
March 1 and March 16, 17 18-19, 
when he is described as "of 
Lebanon" next August 24, 1719, 
and was then "of Hebron." 
Thomas, Jr., born 171 3, must 
have been born in Lebanon. 
F. C. B. 



Correction: — In Dr. Trumbull's article in previous issue in regard to Litchfield County 
by some unfortunate transposition of names, the career of Nathaniel Smith is imputed to 
Nathan Smith and that of Nathan to Nathaniel. Nathan Smith was not a judge and not a 
delegate to the Hartford Convention. Nathaniel Smith was a delegate to the Hartford 
Convention, and when in Congress was a leading supporter of the Jay Treaty and lie spoke 
directly after Mr. Ames in closing the discussion, and his remarks wore hugely in reply to 
those of Albert Gallatin and Wiliiam C. Preston. Truman Smith was not a judge of the 
Court of Claims, but was a judge in New York of the Mixed Court for the suppression of 
the slave trade under the treaty with Great Britain. So far as his own correspond* 
goes, he did not decline a position in the Cabinet of President Taylor because he preferred 
the Senate, but because he had strongly advocated the creation of the new Department of 
the Interior and was popularly believed to have so conducted the Taylor campaign as to 
secure the election of the General to the presidency, and he felt that the acceptance of the 
appointment would have the look of a reward for those two things. Mr. Thomas K 
of Ohio took the place which was offered to Mr. Truman Smith. 

Sincerely yours, 
92 William Street, New York. Ceph \s Brainkrd. 



196 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



THE PERKINS FAMILY OF 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

By Donald Lines Jacobus of 
New Haven. 

1. Edward 1 Perkins early settled 
at New Haven, where he married 
Elizabeth Butcher, March 20, 1649. 

Children: 

2. i. John 2 , b. Aug.18, 1651. 
ii. Mehitabel, b. Sept. 21, 

1652. 

3. iii. Jonathan, b. Nov. 12, 

1653. 

4. iv. David, b. Oct. 3, 1656. 

2. John 2 Perkins (Edward 1 ) of 
New Haven, where he married May 
16, 1677, but the name of his wife is 
not recorded. In 1703 he married 
Rebecca, daughter of John Thomp- 
son of East Haven, and widow of 
Daniel Thomas. In 1727 a conser- 
vator was appointed forjohn Perkins 
and his wife Rebecca. 

Children (all by first wife) : 

5. i. John 3 , b. June 3, 1678. 

6. ii. Stephen, b. Apr. 7,1680. 

7. iii. Peter, b. May 18, 1682. 
iv. James, b. Aug. 23, 1684.; 

probably died young. 

8. v. Elisha. 

9. vi. Mary, b. Oct. 9, 1689, 

m. Abraham Tomlin- 
son of Derby. 

10. vii. Nathan. 

11. viii. Aaron. 

3. Jonathan 2 Perkins (Edward 1 ) 
of New Haven, married June 14, 
1682, Mary, daughter of Anthony 
Elcock. She was born July 21, 
1661, and died November 9, 1718. 

Children : 

12. i. Seth 3 , b. Sept. 4, 1685. 
ii. Anne, b. Nov. 5, 1690, 

m., June 25, 17-11, 
Ebenezer Hitchcock, 
iii. Jonathan, b. May 6, 

1694. 
iv. Sarah, b. Dec. 6, 1696. 
v. Thomas, b. Aug. 11, 
1699. 



vi. Elinor, b. Mar. 7, 1702; 
m., Dec. 15, 1726, 
Abraham Dickerman. 

4. David 2 Perkins (Edward 1 ) of 
New Haven, married June 8, 1682, 
but the name of his wife is not 
recorded. He married (second), 
June 19, 1729, Sarah Bradley, and 
died October 27, 1732. 

Children (all by first wife) : 

i. David 3 , b. May 14, 

1683, d. Nov. 25, 1685. 

ii. Elizabeth, b. Jan. 23, 

1685, d. Nov. 27, 1686. 

iii. Rebecca, b.Jan. 9,1687, 

d. Mar. 9, 1693. 

13. iv. Daniel, b. Apr. 4, 1689, 

v. Experience, b. Jan. 31. 

1691, d. Apr. 24, 1691. 

14. vi. Mehitabel, b. Oct. 29, 

1692, m., May 23, 1717, 
William Punchard. 

vii. Rebecca, b. Nov. 28, 
1694, m., Caleb 
Thomas, son of John 
and Lydia (Parker) 
Thomas; they had one 
son, James* Thomas, 

viii. Samuel, b.May 16,1698, 
d. young, 
ix. Experience, b. Dec. 5, 
1699, m. May 28, 1724, 
David Gilbert. 

5. John 3 Perkins (John 2 , Ed- 
ward 1 ) of New Haven, married 
(first) May 15, 1701, Sarah Warner, 
who died March 11, 1706, and John 
married (second) February 3, 1708, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Hay- 
ward of Enfield, Conn. He died 
about 1752, when his estate was di- 
vided. 

Children (by first wife) : 

i. Phineas 4 , b. Feb. 25, 
1702, d. Oct., 1705. 

15. ii. Roger, b. Mar. 25,1704. 
iii. Sarah, b. Nov. 27, 1705, 

m. John Crawfoot of 
Derby, Conn. 
Children (by second wife) : 

iv. Miriam, b. Nov. 2,1708, 
m. Feb. 5, 1736, Joy 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



197 



Bishop of NorthHaven. 
He was b. May 28, 
1711, son of James and 
Abigail ( Bennet ) 
Bishop. 

16. v. John, b. June 21, 1710. 
vi. Anne, b. Nov. 12, 171 1; 

she died unmarried in 
Wallingford, Conn., 
1774; her estate she 
willed to her sisters 
and nieces, 
vii. Elizabeth, b. Aug. 12, 
1 7 13, m. Samuel Mer- 
riam of Wallingford, 
Conn, 
viii. Lois, b. May 1, 17 15, 
m. Nov. 8, 1739, 
Joseph Dickerman. 

17. ix. Azariah, b. Apr. 2, 
1718. 

18. x. Phineas, b. Feb. 7, 1720. 
xi. Eunice, b. Mar. 5, 1722, 

m. her cousin, Elisha 
Perkins (No. 24). 

19. xii. Benjamin, b. Oct. 26, 
1724. 

xiii. Ruth, b. May 30, 1726, 
m. Apr. 4, 1 75 1, John 
Lounsbury. 

6. Stephen 3 Perkins (John 2 , Ed- 
ward 1 ) of New Haven married 
August 27, 1700, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Elizabeth (Hip- 
kins) Ford. In 1755 the expense for 
the maintenance of Stephen Per- 
kins and his wife, Anna, was divid- 
ed between their children. 

Children : 

20. i. Joseph 4 , b. Sept. 18, 

1701. 

ii. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 10, 
1703, m. Feb. 27, 1729, 
James Bishop; he was 
born Oct. 4, 1700, son 
of James and Abigail 
(Bennet) Bishop. 

iii. Lydia, b. Nov. 24, 1705, 
m. Dec. 23, 1725, Will- 
iam Wilmot of Oxford. 

iv. Thankful, b. Apr. 17, 

1708. 
v. Sybil. 



vi. Mary, b. Mar. 31, 17 12, 
in. May 13, 1736, Dan- 
iel Ford. 

21. vii. Stephen, b. June 14, 

1716. 
viii. Anna, m. June 3, 1752, 
Thomas Berry of 
Woodbury, 
ix. Tabitha, m. Eldad Cur- 
tis of Wallingford. 

7. Peter 3 Perkins (John 2 , Ed- 
ward 1 ) of New Haven, married 
Hannah, daughter of Samuel and 
Elizabeth (Hipkins) Ford. He 
died Feb. 14, 1739. 

Children : 

i. Samuel 4 , b. July 4, 

1706, d. Apr. 15, 1762. 

ii. Hannah, b. July 22, 

1708, m. July 5, 1733, 

Isaac Sperry. 

22. iii. Dinah, b. Aug. 3, 17 10, 

m. Jan. 6, 1742, Daniel 
Sanford. 
iv. Mabel, b. Sept. 21, 
1712, m. June 17, 1742, 
Samuel Johnson, Jr. 

23. v. Peter, b. June 19, 17 14. 
vi. Ichabod, b. Feb. 26, 

1716, m. Oct. 9, 1741, 
Sarah Ford; d. Jan. 15, 
1742. 

8. Elisha 3 Perkins (John 2 , Ed- 
ward 1 ) of whom I know nothing 
except that he had the following 
sons: 

Children : 

24. i. Elisha 4 . 

25. ii. John. 

9. Mary 3 Perkins (John-, Ed- 
ward 1 ) married Abraham Tomlin- 
son of Derby, Conn. All of his 
children were by her. After her 
death he married, for his second 
wife, Lois, widow of Samuel 
Wheeler, July 4, 1728. He died in 

1739- 

Children: 

i. Jonah 4 Tomlinson, b. 

Apr. 6, 17 1 2, m. Nov. 

26, 1734, Mary Moss, 
ii. Agur Tomlinson, b. 

Nov. 10, 1 7 13. 



198 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



iii. Abraham Tomlinson, 
b. Sept. 2, 1715. 

iv. Ichabod Tomlinson, 

d. 1792 unmarried, 
v. Martha Tomlinson, b. 
Sept. 22, 1719, married 

(1st) Judd; m. 

(2d) November 20, 
1753, John Canfield of 
Derby. She survived 
her second husband, 
who died in 1774. 

vi. Mary Tomlinson, b. 
Dec. 18, 1721, d. 
young. 

10. Nathan 3 Perkins (John 2 , Ed- 
ward 1 ) of New Haven, married 
May 23, 1 7 18, Abigail Hill. She 
inherited land from her mother, 
Abigail Hill; and Daniel Hill of 
Durham, Conn., deeded land from 
his mother, Abigail Hill, to Nathan 
and Abigail Perkins, and to Susanna 
Hill. Nathan died in 1748. 

Children: 

i. Nathan 4 , b. Feb. 23, 
1719, d. Dec. 24, 1722. 
26. ii. Joel, b. Jan. 21, 1721. 
iii. Abigail, b. Dec. 8, 1723, 
m. Nov. 13, 1746, David 
Sperry. 
iv. Susanna," b. May 13, 
1726, m. Thomas John- 
son. 
v. Mehitabel, b. Oct. 30, 
1728, probably d. 
young, 
vi. Hannah, b. Nov. 14, 

1731, m. David Burr, 
vii. Nathan, b. Apr. 28, 
1734, probably d. 
young. 

11. Aaron 3 Perkins (John 2 , Ed- 
ward 1 ) of New Haven, married 
(first) October 2, 17 19, Silence, 
daughter of Samuel and Hannah 
(Johnson) Humiston, who was 
born February 7, 1691. He mar- 
ried(second), December 18, 1723, 
Mary Ailing. He died between 
January and March, 1763, leaving 
his estate to his wife, Mary, and to 
his daughters. Mary ot Amity (now 



Woodbridge), Conn., left her estate 
in 1784 to her daughter, Mary, wife 
of Nicholas Russell of Cheshire, 
and to the heirs of her daughter, 
Martha Brooks. 
Children : 

i. Aaron 4 , b. May 6, 1725, 

evidently d. young, 
ii. Rachel, b, Mar. 3, 1727, 

living in 1748. 
iii. Martha, m. Sept. 15, 

1748, Moses Brooks, 
iv. Mary, m. July 26, 1757, 
Nicholas Russell, Jr. 

12. Seth 3 Perkins (Jonathan 2 , Ed- 
ward 1 ) of New Haven, married Feb- 
ruary 28, 1717, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John and Sarah (Cooper) 
Munson. He died in 1733, and she 
married (second) June 7, 1733, 
Nicholas Russell, Sr. 

Children: 

27. i. Thomas 4 , b. Dec. 20, 

1717. 
ii. Amy (twin), b. Sept. 3, 
1726, m. Jan. 12, 1744, 
Joseph Peck, 
iii. Eleanor (twin), b. Sept. 
3, 1726, m. Dec. 16, 
1748, Solomon Hotch- 
kiss. 

13. Daniel 3 Perkins (David 2 . Ed- 
ward 1 ) of New Haven, married May 
5, 1714, Martha Elcock. He died 
in 1760, and she died in 1767. 

Children: 

i. Mary 4 , b. June 12, 1715, 
m. Nov. 25, 1740, Sam- 
uel Hitchcock. 

28. ii. Samuel, b.Jan. 20,1717. 
iii. Daniel, b. Apr. 8, 1719, 

m. Sept. 7, 1743, Eliza- 
beth Miles, and had: 
Elizabeth^ , b. Aug. 10, 
1744; Jabez, b. May 17 
1746. 

29. iv. Amos, b. Jan. 19. 1721. 

30. v. David, b. about 1724. 
vi. Martha, b. Oct. 20, 

1728. 
vii. Mercy, b. Jan. 30, 1730, 
m. Nov. 16, 1758, Oba- 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



199 



diah Hotchkiss, son of 
Daniel and Susanna 
(Bradley) Hotchkiss. 
viii. Jabez, b. Feb. 18, 1733. 

14. Mehitabel 3 Perkins (David 2 , 
Edward 1 ) married May 23, T717, 
Captain William Punchard of New 
Haven. He had married (first) 
April 21, 1703, Hannah Brown, by 
whom he had: William, born 
August 1, 1704, died young; Abi- 
gail, born July 20, 1708, married 
February 2, 1727, Daniel Bradley; 
Hannah, born October 2, 1711, mar- 
ried March 23, 1738, Hezekiah 
Beecher. Captain William Punchard 
died December 16, 1748; Mehitabel 
survived him until 1751. 
Children: 

i. Sarah 4 Punchard, b. 

Feb. 19, 1718, m. (1st) 

Feb. 27, 1740, Joseph 

Todd; m. (2d) Charles 

Sabin, and died in 1764 

without issue, 
ii. William Punchard, b. 

Oct. 29, 1719, m. Feb. 

12, 1747, Mary Gor- 

ham. 
iii. Mary Punchard, b. Mar. 

23, 1722, m. Mar. 12, 

1747, Timothy Gorham. 

Child : Mehitabel, b. 

Dec. 21, 1747, m. Nov. 
10, 1771, Barnabas 

Mulford, d. Apr. 1835, 

aged 89 years, 
iv. Mehitabel Punchard, b. 

Oct. 4, 1726, d. young. 

15. Roger 4 Perkins (John 3 , John 2 , 
Edward 1 ) of Derby, Conn., mar- 
ried (first), according to Orcutt's 

History of Derby, Ann ■. He 

married (second) Mary , and 

died in 1751. Mary survived him 
until 1789, when her "son-in-law" 
(step-son), Ithiel Perkins was ap- 
pointed administrator of her estate. 
Ithiel was a son by the first wife; 
Sarah and Eunice children of the 
second wife ; which was mother of 
the other children is unknown to us. 



Children: 

31. i. Ithiel, b. Jan. 10, 1734. 
ii. Mary. 

iii. Anna, d. 1753. 
iv. Damaris, b. before 

1743- 
v. Ann. 

vi. Sarah, b. Oct. 7, 1748. 
vii. Eunice, b. June 22,1749. 

16. John 4 Perkins (John :i , John-, 
Edward 1 ) of New Haven, who is 
not easily distinguished from his 
cousin John, son of Elisha Perkins 
(No. 25). During his father's life- 
time, this John appears to have 
been called Junior, and his cousin, 
John 3d; after his father's death, 
he is called simply John Perkins, 
while his cousin took the title of 
Junior, It is probably this John 
who appears in Wallingford, Conn., 
in 1761. It is known that he had 
eight children alive in 1783, so there 
are at least two whose names are 
unknown to us. He married (first) 
May 17, 1739, Ruth, daughter of 
James and Abigail (Bennet) Bishop. 
She was born May 19, 1709, and 
died December 15, 1742. In 1740, 
John Perkins, Jr., and his wife, 
Ruth, deeded land which descended 
to them from their father, Mr. 
James Bishop, deceased. John 
Perkins married (second) Decem- 
ber 3, 1744, Thankful Chamberlin 
of Wallingford, Conn. 

Children (all by second wife): 

i. Reuben 5 , b. Sept. 27, 
1745, m - in Cheshire 
Nov. 12, 1767, Thank- 
ful Smith, 
ii. Titus, b. Aug. 27, 1747, 

d. Jan. 12, 1752. 
iii. John, b. Aug. 30, 1749, 
m. July 24, 1776, 
JerushaTurner. Child- 
re n : Eunice 8 , b. 1 Q D e 
2 5i 1777; Buka y b. 
Sept 18, 17S0; />////</, 
b. Oct. 20, 178a. 
iv. Ruth, b. July 4, 1751, 
v. Elizabeth," b. Nov. S, 
1753- 



202 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



Children: 

i. Elizabeth 5 , b. Sept. 9, 
1744, m. Dec. 12, 1765, 
Peter Perkins, 
ii. Mabel, m. Jesse Terrel. 

27. Thomas 4 Perkins ( Seth 3 , 
Jonathan 2 , Edward 1 ) of New Haven 
married Rachel, daughter of Ebene- 
zer and Hannah (Hotchkiss) Peck, 
who was born August 2, 1721. He 
died in 1758. 

Children: 

i. Rachel 5 , b. and d. Nov. 

11, 1741. 
ii. Rachel, b. Sept. 26, 
1742, m. Apr. 19, 1770, 
Lemuel Potter, 
iii. Mary, b. Aug. 20, 1744, 
probably m. Jacob 
Hotchkiss. 
iv. Thomas, b. May 8, d. 

9, 1746. 
v. Jonathan, b. Apr. 28, 

1747, m. Jan. 10, 1771, 
Lydia Carrington. 

vi. Thomas, d. 1790, m. 

Eunice , who m. 

(2d) Shadrach Minor. 
vii. Lucy. 

28. Samuel 4 Perkins (Daniel 3 , 
David 2 , Edward 1 ) of "New Haven 
married February 17, 1743, Hannah 
Leek. He died in 1749. 

Children: 

i. Sarah 5 , b. Aug. 21, 

1746. 
ii. Samuel, b. Oct. 10, 

1748, m. Oct. 17, 1773, 
Sarah Brown, who was 
b. July 13, 1754, and d. 
Aug. 19, 1834. He died 
July 2, 1778, and his 
widow m. (2d) April 
27, 1783 Benjamin Mat- 
thews. Samuel had 
one child: Sara/i G , b. 
Nov. 9, 1776, d. Jan. 
2, 1778. 

29. Amos 4 Perkins ( Daniel 3 , 
David 2 , Edward 1 ) of Woodbridge, 
Conn., married January 23, 1745, 
Hannah Bishop. He died in 1795. 



Children: 

i. Mary 5 , b. Nov. 12, 

1745- 

ii. Amos. b. Nov. 21, 1746. 
iii. Daniel, b. Mar. 1, 1749. 
iv. Abram, b. June 6, 1752. 

v. Elijah, b. July 17, 1756. 
vi. Silas, b. Apr. 4, 1758. 

30. David 4 Perkins ( Daniel 3 , 
David 2 , Edward 1 ) of Woodbridge, 
Conn., married November 19, 1747, 
Lydia Bradley. He died between 
September and December, 1776. 

Children: 

i. David 5 , b. Dec. 30, 

1 749, m. Anna Beecher. 

ii. Lydia, b. Mar. 16, 1751, 

m. July 30, 1771, Roger 

Ailing, d. May 19, 1839. 

iii. Sarah, b. Oct. 24, 1752, 

m. Jacob Sperry. 
iv. Mary, m. Jan. 1, 1777, 

Joel Hine. 
v. Martha, b. Oct. 10, 
1757, m. David Bald- 
win of Waterbury, 
' Conn, 
vi. Isaac, d. 1777. 
vii. Huldah. 

31. Ithiel 5 Perkins ( Roger 4 , 
John 3 , John 2 , Edward 1 ) of Derby, 
Conn., married October 26, 1767, 
Esther Fox. 

Children: 

i. Roger 6 , b. Apr. 5, 1769. 

ii. David, b. Apr. 20, 1771. 

iii. Joseph, b. Oct. 30, 1773. 

iv. Anna, b. July 21, 1776. 

32. Simeon 5 Perkins (Benjamin 4 , 
John 3 , John 2 , Edward 1 ) of Meriden, 
Conn., married Tryphena . Eli- 
jah Prindle and his wife, Elizabeth, 
Simeon Perkins and his wife, Try- 
phena of Wallingford, and Elihu 
Benham of Woodbridge, deeded 
land to John Benham and his wife, 
Mary, of New Haven. He died 
about 1807. 

Children: 

i. Anna 6 , m. Joel Merri- 

man. 
ii. Lucinda, b. May 31, 
1775, m. William Olas. 






STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



203 



iii. Jared, b. Apr. 25, 1777. 

iv. Huldah, b. May 17, 

1779, evidently d. 

young. 

v. Tryphena, m. Joseph 

Farrington. 
vi. Simeon, 
vii. Benjamin, 
viii. Sherlock. 

33. Stephen 5 Perkins*' (Stephen 4 , 
Stephen 3 , John 2 , Edward 1 ) of Meri- 
den, Conn., married Susanna, 
daughter of Benjamin and Miriam 
Curtis. In 1773, Abel Curtis, 
Stephen Perkins and his wife, 
Susanna, Daniel Parker and his 
wife, Miriam, all of Wallingford, 
Timothy Thompson and his wife, 
Esther, and John Woodward, Jr., 
and his wife, Ruth, both of New 
Haven, deed land to Benjamin Cur- 
tis of Wallingford (Wallingford 
Land Records, Vol. XX, p. 474). 
He died September or October, 
1815. 

Children: 

i. Fletcher 6 , m. Damaris 

, and had children: 

Stephen' 1 \ b. October 
13, 1 791 ; Amasa, b. 
June 23, 1793; Sally 
(twin with Amasa, b. 
fifteen hours later), b. 
June 24, 1793; Try- 
phena, b. Aug. 28, 
1795; Eunice, b. Aug. 
2 3» 1 797 ; Tryphena, b. 
June 22, 1800; Damaris, 
b. Dec. 20, 1802. 



ii. Philo. 
iii. Liberty, 
iv. Lois, m. 
v. Tabitha, 
Auger. 



Rice. 



m. Philemon 



34. Peter 5 Perkins ( Peter 4 , 
Peter :i , John 2 , Edward 1 ; of Wood- 
bridge, married December 12, 
1765, Elizabeth, daughter of Joel 
Perkins. He died November 20, 
1799, and she died April 17, 1798. 
Children: 

i. Peter 6 (twin), b.iSept. 

27, 1766. 
ii. Ruth (twin), b.^Sept. 

27, 1766. 
iii. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 14, 

1767 
\ iv. Hannah. 
" v. Mabel, 
^vi. Sarah, 
vii. Joel, 
viii. Henry. 

^'35. Edward 5 ^ Perkins*, \ ( Peter 4 , 
Peter 3 , John 2 , 'Edward 1 )' 'of Wood- 
bridge married (first) Mary Thomas, 
probably daughter of Israel and 
Martha (Hine) Thomas, born No- 
vember 21, 1747. He married (sec- 
ond) Rosanna , who married, 

after his death, James Brown of 

Burlington. Edward died in 1787. 

Children (from Tuttle genealogy) : 

i. Israel 6 , b. Dec. 30, 

1767. 
ii. Edward, b. Feb. 7, 

1769, m. Lois Abbott, 
iii. Mary, b. Jan. 17, 1771, 

m. Elias Lounsbury. 
iv. Huda (twin), b. Oct. 

3°, 1775- 
v. Electa (twin), b. Dec. 
30, 1775, m. Uri Tuttle, 
d. July n, 1S56. 
vi. Rosanna, b. Jan. 14, 
1781, m. Henry Gritley 
of Water bury, 
vii. Anna. b. Nov. 22, 17 — , 
m. Elijah Crook. 



PUBLISHER' S NOTES 



THIS issue of The Connecticut Magazine begins Volume IX, 
which we feel confident is to be the most notable yet produced. 
The Four numbers of Volume VIII having been completed, it 
was decided by the management, at the request of many sub- 
scribers, to issue the first number of Volume IX on the first of the year, 
hereafter confining each volume within its given year and establishing pub- 
lication dates on the respective quarters of each year. By this important 
arrangement Volume IX begins with Number I (issued January i, 1905) 
and covering first quarter of January, February and March; Number 2 
(issued April 1) will cover second quarter of year, April, May and June; 
Number 3 (issued July 1) will cover third quarter of year, July, August and 
September; Number 4 (issued October 1) covers fourth quarter of year, 
October, November and December, closing Volume IX with the close of 
the year of 1905, and beginning Volume X on the first day of the first 
month of 1906. This establishing of quarterly publication dates has been 
contemplated since the reorganization of the corporation but has not before 
been opportune. All subscribers have received the Four numbers of 
Volume VIII ; kindly write us if your files are incomplete, so that any 
inaccuracies may be rectified and our entire list of subscribers begin 
Volume IX and the year 1905 in raithful cooperation to make The Con- 
necticut Magazine not only a continued honor to the Commonwealth of 
Connecticut, but a leading factor in American letters. 




Drawing by E. A. Sherman 

End of Number i. Volume IX 




A HARTFORD PIANO HOUSE WHERE ART 
AND ETHICAL IDEALS PREVAIL 



COMMERCE should go hand 
in hand with ethical ideals. 
There is nothing more true 
than that the most success- 
ful life is the most useful one, and 
if this principle could be carried 
into the sale of the products of 
everyday use, commerce would at- 
tain one of the highest places 
among the ideals of mankind. 

Every firm, if it would carve out 
its own destiny, if it would attain 
some degree of leadership in its 
own line of trade, must adopt a 
fixed policy of business, in the 
maintenance of which consistency 
must be a ruling motive. The 
adoption of a fixed principle re- 
quires a large conception, not alone 
of the business conditions govern- 
ing the particular industry involved, 



but of general trade regulations as 
well. Would it aspire to attain an 
unusually high level^ its governing policies 
must include well-defined ethical princi- 
ples. 

Sedgwick & Casey believe that 
the highest tribute that can be paid 
to their business management is to 
say that it is conducted in such a 
manner as to be useful to the com- 
munity served by it. 

In their perseverance to exem- 
plify the business policies they be- 
lieve to be helpful to their interests 
and those of their clientele alike it 
became necessary for them to adopt 
a number of fixed principles en- 
tirely unusual in the conduct of 
the piano trade in Connecticut. 

Chief among these was the inau- 
guration of a fixed line of selling 



2IO 



WHERE ART AND ETHICAL IDEALS PREVAIL 



prices, known in a limited number 
of representative houses throughout 
the country as the "one price prin- 
ciple," and to remove the old-time 
bargaining methods by marking the 
prices of their pianos in plain 
figures. By positively removing 
obscure price methods the public 
became safeguarded to an extent 
to be secured by no other means, 
and in the broadest sense this sales 
method has proven the most useful 
move to be devised for the public's 
purchasing safety. 

When it is known that there are 
less than a dozen houses in the en- 
tire country conducted upon 
one price selling methods, and that 
in consummating this business 
move Sedgwick & Casey ran counter 
to all previous methods governing 
their industry, the courage of their 
decision may be appreciated. 

Though it was the most advanced 
step taken by a house in a similar 
business, the public's generous 
response to the issues involved was 
instant and emphatic, proving decisively 
that it was not only an honest move but 
one of practical business judgment as 
well. 

The Sedgwick & Casey 
Pianos. 

In choosing year by year the 
makes of pianos to be sold by 
them, Sedgwick & Casey have en- 
deavored in every instance to make 
a choice of instruments of such 
fame and excellence as a matter of 
common knowledge that it would 
be enough for their salesmen to 
simply tell the truth about them. 
In adhering to this purpose, Sedg- 
wick & Casey have taken over the 
sale of a line of pianos fully abreast 
of a really metropolitan demand 
and of the most assured excellence 
in all musical communities. 

Realizing the importance of carry- 
ing in each grade of piano, from the 
most expensive to the lowest in 
price, instruments of standard repu- 
tation, step by step the line has 



been augumented by piano names 
of national fame. 

As nothing less than leadership 
would satisty, Sedgwick & Casey 
knew their leading piano must be 
of such commanding reputation as 
to hold undisputed prestige among 
those critics of supreme judgment 
whose verdict is unquestioned. 

The largest following is, usually, 
not the most select; the fineness of 
judgment in comparative values in 
art productions is necessarily lim- 
ited to those whose inherent train- 
ing has been a life work of consci- 
entious study, working under intel- 
ligent guidance. 

To distinguish, intelligently and 
unerringly, between two or more 
artistic pianofortes, is a matter not 
to be entered upon lightly; beside 
the general knowledge that comes to 
musical students and artists in the 
musical profession, their judgment 
cannot be final simply from the 
training acquired by music study, 
their experience must embrace a 
knowledge of the technics of manu- 
facture, tonal acoustics, etc. 

The number competent to assure 
authority in these vital respects is, 
of course, limited but it was upon 
the judgment of the great musi- 
cians, reinforced by their own ex- 
perience, that Sedgwick & Casey 
largely relied in selecting the 
Mason & Hamlin as the instrument 
to head their fine line of artistic 
pianos. 

The men comprising the Mason 
& Hamlin concern, since its found- 
ing a half century ago, have all 
been men of ideals, whose chief am- 
bition has been to give to the world 
a higher standard in their chosen 
profession. 

In all industries there are com- 
parative values of merit; some 
workmen achieve good and useful 
results, others build higher and 
finer; once in a great while, from 
the creative brain of the highest 
order of genius, a new standard is 
set for future emulation. It is 



WHERE ART AND ETHICAL IDEALS PREVAIL 



2 I I 



this creative force that has made 
the Mason & Hamlin pianofortes 
the recognized musical standards 
to-day among competent judges. 

Heralded in America and Europe 
as the most advanced type of artis- 
tic pianoforte construction, it was 
fitting that their sale in Hartford 
should be taken by the Sedgwick & 
Casey organization. 

Following the same guiding 
policy throughout their line, the 
Gabler and Emerson pianos also 
occupy an honorable place in 
their equipment. These fine old 
piano names, standards of high 
merit for half a century, also 
add the strength of their prestige 
to the house fortunate in their 
possession. 

Reinforcing the piano line still 



further, there are found in conjunc- 
tion with those instruments already 
named the fine old Sterling, the 
Huntington, the Capen and the 
Mendelssohn, products which have 
carried their makers' names ambi- 
tiously throughout the country. 

This assortment of piano names is 
unusually complete a?id y 7chal is best y it 
is select. Quality has its place in all 
the Sedgwick & Casey calculations and 
in any of the grades of pianos sold there 
every purchaser is assured of a standard 
of musical value. 

Those interested will enjoy exam- 
ining and trying the many beauti- 
ful pianos displayed by Sedgwick & 
Casey at their warerooms. Asylum 
and Trumbull street, Hartford, and 
a cordial invitation is at all times 
extended. 



WHO'S YOUR TAILOR? 

We make Suits and Top-Coats to order at prices from $15. to $50.00. 
Quality and Fit Guaranteed. 

UNITED STATES WOOLEN COMPANY 



Just a door from flsylam Street 



835 MAIN STREET, HARTFORD, CONN 



SPECIAL MILK FOR BABIES 

Obtained from a breed of cows known to give the bsst milk for the purpose, and produced unde 
the most hygienic conditions ; clean cows, clean stables, clean milkers, sterilized utensils and bottles 
and many other details of care. Also choice milk and cream for family use. 

Daily delivery at Hartford and New Britain. J? 7 71 ^ TPQT71 TP TP A 7? ~h/ 

Outside orders by express given careful attention. JlX Jl dJ \JT JOj O J. U JOj Jj J\.JXJm 

Inspection of the dairy is invited. Telephone 13-5. NBWINGTON, CONN 



INSIDE INFORMATION 

CONCERNING 

THE BETTER CLASS 

OF 

CONNECTICUT 

REAL 

ESTA TE 

GIVEN HERE 



Real Estate 



MJCTTOtfffR] 



IN ALL THAT FIRST= 
CLASS WORK IMPLIES 



APPRAISER FOR 

CONNECTICUT TRUST 

AND 

SAFE DEPOSIT CO. 



OFFICE: 

82 Pearl Street 
HARTFORD 

CONNECTICUT 

'Phone 





9 



What mat- 
ter if you 
do pay a few cents 
more for Baker's 
than for ordinary ex- 
tracts ? Your expense 
for extracts in a year 
is but a trifle, any. 
way. You can 
well afford the 
best. 

They come 




Made direct 
from the 
finest fruits by a 
special process, by 
which the natural fruit 
juices arc all pre- 
serve. They are 
stronger, last longer, 
keep indefinitely. 

M yonr 
Grocer 



BAKER EXTRACT COMPANY. 

SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 
OUR HANDSOME 1905 CALENDAR SENT FREE TO ANY ADDRESS. 



Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



HAVE ONE? 

Sampling Produces 
ORDERS for US. 

It's Yours for a Postal. 



Large Bottle 




I 



, [ho 

MEDICINE 

A SPEE6Y CURE •' 

" JK /HI*"*, *7 ttc , « 

A .£—*■—— 



Same 

Quality as Sample. 



Dr. Brown's 
Anodyne and 
Family Medicine 



Has Largest Sale 
in Its Home Town. 



JAS. G. WOODRUFF, President of the William L. 
Gilbert Clock Company, Winsted, Conn., says: 
I have used Brown's Anodyne, and believe it to be 
one of the best of family medicines for all troubles for 
which it is recommended. I have used many bottles of 
it and still continue to use it. It is our great remedy 
for coughs, colds, and other troubles common to every 
family. 



I know Brown's Anodyne and the men who make it. 
An acquaintance of many years with both induces me 
to give my endorsement of the claims of the company 
for their remedy. We still keep it in our household and 
use it with confidence. EDWARD S. FERRY, 

Formerly Pastor Winsted M. E. Church. 



For Internal or External Use— in fact it's 
good for any Pain. Rub it in. Druggists 
sell it for 25c. It's worth it. Prepared 
only by 

THE BROWN ANODYNE CO., Inc. 
WINSTED, CONN. 



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/illiam Coe Bill 



-COM PAN Y- 

[incorporated] 



HATS 



" Straight from Our Factory to 
Your Head " 



109 Asylum Street, 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



" The Leading Fire Insurance Cotnpany 0/ A merica ' 




WM. B. CLARK, President 

, H. KING, Secretary, A C. ADAMS, HENRY E. REES, 
J. IRVIN, A. N. WILLIAMS, Assistant Secretaries. 



€#&*&& 



>j0U&d/i 



S.30TO7Z.30. 

/?f*o 

/.30ro<? 




TAKE ELEVATOR. 






We pay the Freight east of Rockies. 
RIGHT IN LINE FOR PUBLIC FAVOR 



Vndrews Typewriter Chair and Table 

With Spring Steel Rod Frames 
Metal Work Japanese Copper Plated 
Chair has Adjusting Supporting Back 

This Furniture is Practically Indestructable. Will last a 

Lifetime. 




Designed with a definite object in view— the greatest amount of 
convenience and comfort for the least amount of money — an ob- 
ject most happily attained, for this furniture IS convenient, it IS 
comfortable, and considering its worth is remarkably inexpensive. 

The Most Popular Inexpensive Chair and Table. 

Price, Chair No. 75M, $4.00. Price, Table No. 100M, $8.00. 

Chair and Table complete, $12.00. 

THE A. H. ANDREWS CO. 
174-176 Wabash Avenue, = Chicago, III, U. S. A. 



67 YEARS 

IN BUSINESS AT 

16 STATE ST. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 

the Hartford 

Printing Co. 

elihu geer's sons 
BookandJob Printers 



WEDDING INVITATIONS, CARDS, ETC., 
PRINTED AT VERY LOW RATES 

Printers and Publishers of GEER'S 
HARTFORD CITY DIRECTORY. Gene- 
alogy of the Gallup Family for Sale 



Qitr Uiiie ♦ ♦ ♦ 



Includes everything pertaining to 
a HIGH CLASS ART STORE. 



WE DO FRAMING . . . 

and apply taste, care and judgment in all that we do 
Taking Especial Pride . . . 

in our ideas for the Framing of Charters. Award! 
Memorials and Similar Work. 



THE J. C. RIPLEY ART CO., 752 fl ain Street. Hart ford. Conn. 

Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



QUILTED jWUSMJi PTTHESS PADS 



are made in all suitable sizes for Beds and Cribs, 
are a Sanitary necessity. 



They 



QUILTED GRIB SCREE]* PADDING 

18 inches wide, is the most useful article that a mother 
can buy for the comfort of her baby. When put around 
Crib it saves from draughts and protects arms, legs and 
head from contact with metal frame of bed. 

ASK DRY GOODS DEALER AND SEND TO US FOR SAMPLE 

EXGEhSIOR QUlIiTIflG GO., 15 Laight St., N.Y. Gity 



TORRINGTON and HARTFORD 

flERRV CHRISTT1A5 
EVERYBODY 

HOW ABOUT A USEFUL PRESENT? 

Roll Top Desk, A Morris Chair, 

A Cellerette, A Shaving Stand, 
or something for a Den. FOR HIM. 

Dressing Table, Card Table, 

A Cheval Mirror, A Princess Dresser, 
or a Ladies' Desk. FOR HER. 

Baby Carriage, High Chair, 

Baby Walker, Rocking Horse, 

Doll Co-Cart Sleds. FOR BABY. 

Any of these will make a '" Happy New Year and Many of Them." Don't forget the Invalid 

Table for the sick room, and how about the Rolling Chair ? We are agents for the 

factory, with our two big stocks in Torrington and Hartford. We 

will do our best to make your Christmas Shopping easy. 

ALL GOODS MARKED IN PLAIN FIGURES AND FREIGHT PREPAID. 




Torrin S ton Bruce, Filley & Co. 



Hartford 



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_s 








■\ 


/ 


\ 


/ 


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. ... 








Exhibit nf THE HARTFDRD FAIENCE CO. 

at ST. LDUIS EXPDSITIDN 

= HARTFD RD, C D NN, - - — 

Mantel is "THE SUN WORSHIPPERS" previously mentioned in the Connecticut Magazine. 
"Write us for other designs and information. 




INDIA TEA 



"THERE IS NO BETTER, 
FOR IT'S THE BEST THERE IS. 



The Most Popular Tea at the World's 

Fair in St. Louis was INDIA TEA. 

We have just received a large consignment of the best South India Tea from 
the well known firm of T. Stanes and Co., Tea Planters ana Coffee Growers. 
The Tea is grown and picked under European Supervision and is picked and 
cured by the most modern machinery— thus ensuring purity and excellence. 

We carry the following brands in 1 lb. and 1-2 lb. packages : 

Orange Pekoe, Flowery Pekoe, Pekoe Souchong and Congo, 

OUR PRICES ARE RIGHT. 



HE INDIA STORE 



25 PEARL STREET 



HARTFORD, CONN. 



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§§*§§§'§§§ 



§§§§§§§§&?{ 



OCT. 
CV3C 
<UX 
XX 

vs. 
://: 

<*/? 

vx 
vs. 
yy. 
yy 
yy 

SOS 

VS. 
VS. 
VS. 
«K 

yy 
yy. 

<*3C 

yy. 
yy. 
yy. 
vs. 
vs. 
vs. 
vs. 
•//. 
vs. 
vs. 
vs. 
vs. 
vs. 



NEW YORK BRANCH. 

The Columbia Typewriter 




Cibie 
all 



1bi£ ibeal macbine for operators because 
all its writing is at all times visible 
anfc because it is tbe specialist in 
automatic movements, fll>an\> operations 
necessarily manual on otber typewriters 
are entirety automatic on tbe Columbia, 
At is tbe labor saver among typewriters. 



The Columbia Typewriter JJf g. Co., 

116th Street, Lenox and Fifth flvenaes, 
Neui Yofk City, jl Y. 



8 8 8 8 8 s 8 



S § § § § § § § § § § § § 



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-. \_ „' _ 



fff JS?7^ei?seT 




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HOTEL 
HLBERT 

EUROPEAN PLAN. 

1 1 th St. and University Placi 

NEM YORK CITY. 
One Block West of Broadway 



MOST CENTRALLY LOCATED 
NEAR UNION SQUARE. 

First-Glass Service and Accommodatioi 
at Moderate Rates. 

Rooms at $1.00 per Day and Upward 
Restaurant on Premises. 

L.&E.FRENKELI 

PROPS. 



tyllJIOIlWEflltTfl J-IOTE 

Bowdoin Street, opposite State House, Boston, Mass. 




Absolutely Fireproof 

Nothing Wood but the Do\*$\ 

Rooms with hot and cold water, free pdB 
baths, $1.00 and $1.50 a day for one peril 
$2.00 and $2.50 a day for two persons. Rolf 
with private bath $1.50 and $2,00 a day for |e 
person; $2.50 and $3.00 a day for two persB. 

Address all communications to 



STORER F. CRAFTS, Mgr 



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The Mothers Mission. 




1903. 



1840 JJ GREAT Emperor once asked 

one of his noble subjects what 
would secure his country the first 
place among the nations of the earth. 
The nobleman's grand reply was, 
"Good' Mothers." Now, what con- 
stitutes a good mother ? The answer 
is conclusive : She who, regarding 
the future welfare of her child, seeks 
every available means that may offer to promote a sound physical develop- 
ment, to the end that her offspring may not be deficient in any single faculty 
with which nature has endowed it. In infancy there is no period which is 
more likely to affect the future disposition of the child than that of teething, 
producing as it does fretful ness, moroseness of mind, etc., which if not 
checked will manifest itself in after days. 

Mrs. Olinslow's Soothing Syrup 

is unquestionably one of the greatest remedial agents in existence, both for 
the prevention and cure of the alarming symptoms which so often manifest 
themselves during the teething period, such as griping in the bowels, wind 
colic, etc. It is also the best and surest remedy in the world in all cases of 
diarrhoea in children, whether it arises from teething or any other cause. 
Twenty-five cents a bottle, and for sale in all parts of the world, being the 
best remedy for children known of. 



Mothers ! Mothers ! ! Mothers I ! ! 

-THE BEST OF ALL- 
Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup has been 
used for over SIXTY YEARS by MILLIONS 
of MOTHERS for their CHILDREN while 
TEETHING, with PERFECT SUCCESS. 
It SOOTHES the CHILD, SOFTENS the 
GUMS, ALLAYS all PAIN ; CURES WIND 
COLIC, and is the best remedy for D1AR 
RHKEA. Sold by Druggists in every part of 
the world. Be sure and ask for " Mrs. Wins- 
low's Soothing Syrup," and take no other 
kind. Twenty five cents a bottle. 



1840. 




1903 



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Up To 
Date 
and 
. Reliable 1^ 

EBSTERS 




The Best 
for 
Home 
School^ Office 

DICTIONARY! 



INTERNATIONAL 



Includes in the New E,dition 

25,000 NE,W WORDS, Etc. 

New Gazetteer of the World 
New Biographical Dictionary 

Edited by W. T. HARRIS, Ph.D., LL.D., 

United States Commissioner of Education. 

2380 Quarto Pages. 5000 Illustrations. 

New Plates. Rich Bindings. 

FREE, "A Test in Pronunciation," in- 

structive and entertaining. Also illustrated pamphlet. 

G. & C. ME,RRIAM CO., 

Publishers, Springfield, Mass., U. S. A. 



Connecticut Business Collejf 



Established 1895 



Incorporated 



SCHOOLS IN 

fiartford ana middietown, Conn. 



upei 



In charge of skillful teachers of long experience under the sir^. 
sion of one of the most successful school managers in the state 

SELECT BUSINESS SCHOOL 

Both schools are attended by select young and middle aged pel 
from good families. (See page 23, College Catalogue.) 
Both schools are well equipped and have the facilities for da 
first class work all the while. 

Bliss System of Actual Business 
from the Start 

Its patronage is from other states as well as from all parts of > 
own state. There is no age limit. Enter any time; come from a 
where. Among our best satisfied patrons have been gradus 
from Yale, Lafayette and Wesleyan, also school teachers and peo 
with previous experience. No one need hesitate. This is the pi 
to get satisfaction. 

This school does not guarantee positions as it has no way of cont: 
ing the demand. lis management has placed its graduates ren 
though in the past, and many times can truthfully advert 
«' Every Graduate in a Position." 

LARGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 



Call or send for complete information. 

HARTFORD LOCATION: 

718 Conn. Mutual Building 



Cor. Main and Pearl Streets 



MIDDLETOWf 
Y. M. C. A. Build 

283 Main Street. 



E. J. WILCOX, Master of Accounts, 

PRESIDEN 



Biliousness 

CURED QUICKLY and 

PERMANENTLY By Using 




& 



VIM, VIGOR AND VITALITY 

They also relieve Distress from Dyspepsia, Indiges- 
tion and Too Hearty Eating. A perfect remedy 
for Dizziness, Nausea, Drowsiness, Bad 
Taste in the Mouth, Coated Tongue. Pain 
in the Side, TORPID LIVER. 

THEY CLARIFY THE SKIN, PURIFY THE 
BLOOD AND REGULATE THE BOWELS 

BY Cleansing All Disorders from the System 

Positively Cure all Diseases of the Stomach, 
Liver, Kidneys, Sick Headache, Con- 
stipation and Nervousness. 

FOR SALE AT A1LL DRUGGISTS 

Two Sizes, I Oc. and 25c. a Box 

ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTES 



DIGEST 



EflRLY CONNECTICUT PfiOBRTE KECORD: 



IN 3 VOLUMES 
Volume I to III, Hartford District, 1635-1750 



Volume I, an Octavo of 700 pages now reac 
Volume II, in press; Volume III, in copy. The 
contain a very full exhibit of every estate enter 
in this District during 115 years so far as 
records are known to exist. Each volume 
very full and complete indexes and references 
the original records and papers. There is als< 
list of the Probate Districts in Connecticut sho 
ing the towns in which they are or have be 
included. Issued in a numbered edition limit 
to One Thousand Copies. Sold only in sets 
$7.00 per volume net, to be paid for and deliver 
as published. Express 27 cents additional (if p* 
in advance). 

Orders and remittances may be sent to I 
Miles W. Graves, State Savings Bank, Hartfo; 
Conn. 

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EDWARD F. COST CHARLES B. RYAN 

2nd Vice-President General Passenger Agent 

PORTSMOUTH, VA. 



First arrivals have 
THE CHOICE OF ROOMS 

in the hotels at 

ST. AUGUSTINE 

because the 

SEABOARD 
FLORIDA 
LIMITED 

Solid Pullman train with dining 
and observation cars takes its 
patrons over the shortest route 
between 

NEW YORK 

and 

ST. AVGVSTINE 

and gets there first 



For illustrated booklets giving 
full information of the leading 
WINTER RESORTS OF THE 
SOUTH apply to ticket agents 
of connecting lines, or Seaboard 
Air Line Railway. 



One of the handsomest calendars 

for igoj is the Seaboard Historical 

Calendar, four pages ; 

similar to small cut shown, .W 

advertising, 

gift or mailing. 

Sent to any address on rect 
gj cents. 

CHARLES B. RYAN 

General Passenger .-'. \ 
PORTSMOUTH. VA. 



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V, 



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3pSEs^ 



IF©. 



HAS STOOD THE TEST FOR THREE GENERATIONS 
GREAT GRAM IT 

GRANDMOTHER 
MOTHE 






- ' 5 



Manufactured only by 

Mathushek PtkNo Mfg. Co, 

New haven , c6nn. 



W O AMLS N Y 



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With one Class 4 3.00 ) 



$3.50 

All four 

$3.00 

All three 

$4.75 
The Four 

$4.25 

All three 



CLASS No. 3 



Art Student 

American Boy 

Book-keeper & Short Cuts 

Cosmopolitan 

Era Magazine 

Good Housekeeping 

Harper's Bazaar 

House Beautiful 



Inter-Ocean (Weekly). 
Jr Toilettes 



Little Folks (New) 

Leslie's Monthly 

Madame 

National Magazine 

Outdoor Life 

Pearson's 

Philistine 

Pictorial Review 

Recreation 

Sunset 

Success 

Table Talk 

Technical World 

Twentieth Century Homp. 
Youth 



CLASS No. 4 



Art Interchange 

Automobile 

Booklovers 



Burr Mcintosh. 
Critic 



Current Literature . . . 

Etude 

Independent 

Lippincott's 

Out West 

Outing 

Review of Reviewers. 

Smart Set 

Toilettes 

World's Work 



Any two Class 3, 
$1.50 



Any three, 

$2.00 
Any four, 

$2.50 



Any two Class 3, with 
one Class 4. 



$3.25 



Any one Class 3. one 
Class 4, one Class 1, 

$3.00 



Any two Class 4, 

$3.75 
Any three. 

$5.2 > 

Any one Class 4. with 
two Class ;;. 
$3.25 

Any one Class 1, any 
one Class S, any one 

Class 4. 

$3.00 



OUR CATALOGUE is now ready and will be 
sent you on request. It giyes all the leading offers 
for 1905. Ask for it, we make no charge for it. 



REFERENCES.-Le Roy National Bank, Bank of 
Le Roy, Munn & Company, or all leading publish- 
ers. Our agency has been established over IT years. 



Address 



THE GRUMI1UX NEWS & SUBSCRIPTION CO., * 

LE ROY, GENESEE COUNTY, N. Y. 



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C H. DEXTER & SONS. 



A. D. COFFIN. 



H. R. COFFIN. 



Paper manufacturers 

WINDSOR LOCKS, CONNECTICUT. 



Sfc 



makers of * 



TWO MILLS. 



" Princess' ' Cover Papers. 

"Unique" Cover Papers. 

"Abbotsford" Deckle Edge Papers. 

"Star" Bristol Boards. 

"Star" White and Colored Tissues. 

"Star" Manifold Linen and Onion Skin Papers 

Specialties in Colors and Thin Papers. 



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Jhid Cake Fork, . . $1.00 Lakewood Berry Spoon, . $1.25 

itan Tomato Server, . 1.25 Orchid Cold Meat Fork, 1.00 

Puritan Lettuce Fork, . $1.00 

If your dealer does not keep them, we will send any piece, 
postage prepaid, upon receipt of price mentioned .... 

imeon Land George H.Rogers Company 

MANUFACTURERS 



HIGHEST QUALITY SILVER PLATED WARE . 

I Market Street, - - HARTFORD, CONN 

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^Jhe QTrtiss^YYay Qo. 



Incorporated. 



Manufacturers' 
Work Solicited 



J& 



Suggestions and 

Estimates 
Furnished 



"rinters 
Olectrotypers 
Dookbinders 
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Flat and Curved 
Electrotypes 

We have all the latest 
machines for making 
same 



RRIINXIING 



Advertising 
Novelties 

Wood, Leather, 
Aluminum, Memo 
Books, Blotters, 
Etc., Etc. 



THE LARGEST 
MMUFftCTCRERS OF 

Calendars 

and 

Calendar Pads 

IN NEW ENGLAND. 



The Best 

Work 



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to-date machinery 



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to 



From Chicago daily, Aug. 15 to Sept. 10, inclusive. 

Correspondingly low rates from other points. 

SPECIAL TRAINS 

Personally Conducted, leave Chicago August 18 and 25 

for San Francisco via the Chicago, Union Pacific and 

North- Western Line. Stop-overs at Denver, Colorado 

Springs and Salt Lake City, with side trips at a 

minimum of expense. 

No extra charge for travel on these special trains. 

These low-rate tickets also good on fast daily trains, including The Overland 
Limited, a solid through train every day in the year, less than three 
days to the Coast, over the only double-track railway between , 
Chicago and the Missouri River, via the most direct route 
across the American Continent. 



The 'Best of Everything. 

Send 2-cent stamp for itineraries and full particulars concerning 
this unusual opportunity to visit the Coast at a minimum of 
| expense. All agents sell tickets via this line. 
B. KNISKERN, 
Pass'r Traffic Mgr. C. & N.-W. Ry., 



UNION 
PACIFIC 



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#" — -# 




#- — -# 



LINUS T. FENN: 



Who sells Fine furniture at Main & Gold Streets, in 
Hartford, is showing a line of Choice Antiques, and Re- 
productions of Rare Examples of Important Periods in 
Furniture, which will appeal strongly to Persons of 
Refinement and Good Taste* 

Antique pieces have been chosen with Judgment, 
and most carefully Restored; the Reproductions have 
been Faithfully Copied by our Craftsmen, and Excel in 
Richness of Fabric, Correctness of Style, and Beauty 
of Workmanship* 

Most Dignified and Interesting Examples of Pure, 
Classic Colonial; Exclusive Empire; and many other 
things of Old Time Flavor, of a most Quaint and Inter 
esting Individuality as rare Sheffield Plate and hanc 
wrought Brasses-all sold at Proper Prices. 

LINUS T. FENN, 

at Main & Gold Streets, Hartforc 




ILLUSTRATORS 

FOR THE 

CONNECTICUT 
MAGAZINE 

MAKERS OF PLATES 

AND DESICNS FOR 

FAHILY AND TOWN 

HISTORIES. 

Commercial Work for 

MANUFACTURERS' 

CATALOGUES and 

BOOKLETS. 

ZINC, COPPER and WOOD ENGRAVING 
EMBOSSING and ELEC TROTYPING. 

THE 1. PINDAR CORP., 

730 Main Street, Hartford, Conn 



I 



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WINCHESTER 




Rifles Shoot, Well Because Made Well 

It's not the name "Winchester" on a rifle that makes it good; but the brains, 
workmanship and high-grade materials put into all guns bearing the name " Win- 
chester " do make them not only good, but the best and most reliable arms made. 
If you want to obtain the most satisfactory shooting, always use Winchester 
make of cartridges in a Winchester rifle, for one is made for the other. 

FREE-Send name and address on a postal card for our 160 page illustrated catalogue, 
WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS COMPANY - NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT. 



W. H. LELAND & CO, 




Half-Tones, 
Zinc 

Etchings, 
and Wood 



op 

S3 



ELECTRO- 
TYPING. 

Catalogues and Booklets designed and executed in an 
artistic manner. ORIGINAL DESIGNS. 

Lithographing Wedding Stationery 



In all its branches. 



and COPPER PLATE CARDS 



144 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 




Omo 

Dress 

Shield 



A PERFECT DRE SS SHIELD 

WHY? 

Because it is absolutely odorless and ab- 
solutely impervious. Every pair warrant- 
ed. Contains no poisonous chemicals of 
any kind. Recommended by the American 
Journal of Health for its 'hygienic qual- 
ities. For sale by all the Pry Goods 
Stores throughout the U. S and Canada. 

OMO MANUFACTURING CO. 
Middletown, Conn. 



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in 

4 ■ 




SEND FOR 
CATALOGUE 

We Manufacture 

Clocks 
Vases 
Plateaux 
Candelabra 
Candlesticks 
Bronzes 

AND A FULL LINE OF 
GAS AND ELECTRIC 

PORTABLES, 
AND ELECTRIC 

LIGHTING SPECIALTIES 

Premium Goods 



<$©$> 



The Goodwin & Kintz Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF FINE METAL GOODS. 
WINSTED, CONN. 



A Favorite 



ij|::iYl#PKY : 

it When you become 

W ' TIRED OF DRINKING 
I MIXED AND BLENDED 

'■'%! WHISKIES. TRY OUR 

fPOLAND 
ioLffloiWM RYE ; a ■ straight 

^\ WHISKY- I4YEARS 
^ J OLD. UNCOLORED 

|rt§ - AND- UNSWEETENED, 
1 1 I ■ THE NATURAL' PRODUCT 

|: TI : •■. OF THE -GRAIN. 



G.F. HEUBLEIN &BRO. 
£9 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. HARTFORD. CONN. 



All Over the World 



IF you anticipate making: plantings of Hardy-Trees or other Hardy- 
Plants, we are certain that our Catalogues will interest you. We 
cordially invite you to visit our Nursery at any time, for we are 
confident that our many acres of carefully grown stock and sys- 
tematic way of handling our business will appeal to you favorably, 

THE ELM CITY NURSERY COMPANY 



EDGEWOOD, EDGEWOOD AVENUE, 



NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT 



Electric Cars direct to the Office and Nursery 



SIDNEY PERldN BUTLER, President and Treasurer. E. OSGOOD BUTIiER, Vice-President. ERNEST MORTON BUTLER, Secretary. 



Established 1884- 

Results, not Promises. 



The Ghilds-Batler Business School 

Day and Evening Sessions. School in session throughout the year . Pupils enter each Monday. 

Annual attendance over 450 pupils. 

New Y. fl). C. A. Building, 152 Temple Street, New Haven, Conn. 

Fourth Floor. 

P. 0. Box, 643. Telephone. Eievator. Catalogue Post free. 



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DECORATORS 

and Dealers in 
Metal Ceilings, 
Wall Papers, 
Paints, 



C A M E R AS 

The Bonner-Preston Co., 

843 Main Street, Hartford, Conn. 



Brushes, Art 
Materials and 
Photographic 
Goods, 



7Jhe Connecticut Agricultural College 



CO - ED UCATIONAL 



Otorrs, Conn. 



OLLEGE COURSES 

r Graduates of High 
shools, leading to the 
egree, B. S. 



SUPPLEMENTARY 

Practical and Scientific 
Courses, for Graduates of 
Common Schools, leading 
to Diplomas. 



WINTER SCHOOL 

Short Courses for Busy 
People. 



SUMMER SCHOOL 

for Teachers and Others. 
in Nature and Country 
Life. 



&ree TJuition ~~ &ree Room Rent 



Jipply for the College Catalogue 



(tnnr/ 7T/rvf/> in u ** ara &l* merchandise for men, women and children 

Sooct Quality 
Sooci Value 



IT PAYS 
TO BUY 

OUR KINDTS) 



jfcorsfall dc 

Rothschild 

OUTFITTERS 



93-99 Asylum St. 
Hartford. 




THE EVENING REGISTER 

Contains all the live local matter and the 
news of the world — clear, concise and 
correct. Direct wire into the office. $5.00 
per year. 



THE WEEKLY REGISTER 

Now in its 28th year, is improving week 
by week. It is the paper for the surround- 
ing country. Only $1.00 per year. 



JOB PRINTING Done in an up-to-date style, and equal to 

that of the best city offices in Connecticut. 



THE TORRINGTON PRINTING COMPANY 

253 WAXER ST., TORRINGTON, CONN. 



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"ONE THIRD SAVED 



a 



NO SUBSTITUTE CAN 
EQUAL 

METEOR" Made Coffee. 

The Best Coffee can 
be Spoiled 

by the old hit or 
miss plan used in 
some households; 

but 

with a 



t 




Sectional View. 
Xo.'5S92 Series Meteor Coffee Pots. 



METEOR" COFFEE PERCOLATOR 




No. 993 " Meteor " French 
Circulating Coffee Percolatol 



everything is so arranged that by following the simple instructions the 

quality is 

•'ALWAYS DELICTO US" 



Chafing 
Dishes 

WITH THE FAMOUS 
-IVORY" ENAMELED FOOD PAN 



^-n 



p#- 



AN ENDLESS VARIETY WITH ALCOHOL 
LAMPS AND ELECTRIC HEATERS. 



e^£ 




Manning, Bowman & Co., 



MERIDEN, CONN. 



NEW YORK 



CHICAGO. 



SAN FRANC] 



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All R^al ~ 
except the Alp are 
deli .ered, carriage 
prepaid, anywhere 
in the U n i t e d 
States or Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba. Por- 
to Rico. Hawaiian 
and Philippine Isl- 
ands, also Germany 
and all point-, cov- 
ered by the Parcels 
Post System.on re- 
ceipt of 537", [,er 
pair. ("A!p" jl 00 on 

account of weight.) 

The extra charge is 

for delivery. 



Samples of 
leather sent 
on request. 



I FOR OUTDOOR WEAR 

Regal Shoes come straight from the Tannery to you with but one 
handling. This Regal short cut saves you four , distinct profits, bring- 
ing you the highest grade of shoe service in the v/orld for the lowest 
possible price. Here is a practical illustration of the wonderful shoe 
values Regal customers receive. Under the Regal system we are 
able to sell this fine high topped boot, 

e*c "ALP," 
at the regular Regal price, $3.50 

Try to buy it outside of a Regal store and 
you will pay from $7.00 to $14.00 for a shoe 
in no way superior to it either in mater- 
ial or workmanship. 

The leather is heavy oil grain, 
soft as velvet, tough as iron, 
comes in black or tan. The 
shoe is Blucher cut, lace style, 
with straps and buckles, 11- 
inch high top, kid lined 
in vamp, unlined in top 
bellows tongue, and 
extra extension sole. 

Made as care- 
fully and as 
gracefully as a 
dress shoe, but 
strong enough 
t o withstand 
the roughest wear. 

The leather is oil 
soaked and water-proof. 

With a pair of "Alps " you can laugh at the rainiest, 
slushiest day the winter sends. 

Hunters, mountain tourists, prospectors, suburban^ 
ites, college men— anyone who has to do rough walking 
will find in the "JHp " just the shoe he needs. 

ORDER 82KA in Black Oil Grain Leather as illustrated 

BY STYLE 82KB same except in Russet 
Sent, with charges collect, on receipt of $3.50. Prepaid fcr 
$4.00 (extra amount is for expressage). 

If you want this shoe, order today, as we will 
not advertise the "Jllp" again in this magazine. 

If not near one of the 80 Regal Stores, send to our 
Boston or New York Mail-Order Department for meas- 
urement blank which will show you how to get the 
"Alp" by mail in your exact size. 

A postal brings you our 

NEW STYLE BOOK 

It gives you clear instructions how to order 
It is like buying in one of our New York 
stores, for the book contains full descrip- 
tions and large photographic reproduc- 
tions of all our 75 EXQUISITE WINTER 
STYLES for men and women. Remember 
these all come in quarter sizes, 288 
fittings in each style, making perfect fit a 
certainty. 




REGAL 
SHOE CO. mc. 



Mail Order Departments 
2 Summer St., Boston. Mass. 
785 Broadway, 
New York. 
Station A— Cor. Gemr. 
Streets.San Frandsoo. Sub-Station B 
Dearborn St.,OHa«a Sub-Station C OC 
Olive St. st. Louis. Sub-Station D-<-i CMrtSt, 
NewOrleans. Sub-Station E-« Whiten Si 

London Post Depot, 97 Cheapaide, England. 
Re?al Shoes are delivered through the | 
ment to any part of the United Kingdom 



15 6. 



The Largest 
Retail Shoe 
Business in 
the World. 




SHOES FOR MEN AND WOMEN 




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inir our Advertisers 




The 

•T; 

Phrasing 
Lever of the 

ANGELUS 



'J^ fT never dis- 

J^ appoints, it 

never fails. To be 

a master-musician, to 

express your idea of your 

own favorite music, is the 

rare pleasure in store for you. 



Any of our Agents %>ill gladly sho%> you The Angelus 
Name of nearest Agent together %>tth handsome booklet mailed free 

THE WILCOX & WHITE COMPANY . 



Established 1876 



MERIDEN, GOO.. U. S. A. 



^ — ^ 



_ _ 



, 



, ,. , -. • < , 



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3-5° 



■ t 
■ 
• ■ .. . . 



Silver and Is a IPr&tty JtToIic 
sddiniz Gift. 



. ... ■ :. outitingi I o the co' i 
i ag m .; t b steepe< it 
: :' o it, md whe; sere ed bacls . 
filing •. i fcer. Th< \ .' ;. 

, .■■ ■ id ■ <t •:. .'■ ■• . -. : ' . • 

cage. TLj 
..- an e ] i J e ' I n v t I i ■ . " 



RTFORD, C< 



' 



■ 









WADSWORTHj 

M CHARTER OAK 



W. H- G0C1 




utual 



i: : 



to p 



: 











Wgfffl 



IVILLI 



' Pi . ■ 




IRE iNSURAr 



Premium Income, 1903, 

; 

to Policy-Hoi 

[ARTFORD 



wbfwtc* 












•iM*/i' ■ 






Among 
es," by 
om. Art 
r from Mills 
xter & .Sons at 
ocks, Connecticut 



Che 

Connecticut 
llagazine 



Insure your Property in the 

PHOENIX 



O F 



HARTFORD 



Capital, .... 

Assets, . 

Surplus, . ... 

Surplus to Policyholders, . 

Reinsurance Reserve, . 

Losses Paid since Organization, 



$2,000,000.00 
7,341,884.91 
1,742,346.17 
3,742,346.17 
3,070,611.96 

53,972,773.70 



AGENTS EVERYWHERE 

Time Tried and Fire Tested 



"The Leading Fire Insurance Company of America" 

WM. ft CLARK, President 

W. H. KING, Secretary 

A. C. ADAMS, C. J. IRVIN, 

HENRY E. REES, A. N. WILLIAMS 



ASSISTANT SECRETARIES 




INCORPORATED 1819 



CHARTER PERPETUAL 



Cash Capital, 

Cash Assets, . 

Total Liabilities, 

Net Surplus, . 

Surplus as to Policy-Holders, 

Losses Paid in 86 Years, 



$4,000,000.00 
15,814,054.98 

5,367,203.89 

6,446,851.09 
10,446,851.09 
99,899,109.49 

KEELER & GALLAGHER, General Agents 



WESTERN BRANCH, Traction Building, Cincinnati, O 

NORTHWESTERN BRANCH, Omaha, Neb. 
WM. H. WYMAN, Gen'l Agent. W. P. HARFORD, Ass't Gen'l Agent. 

PACIFIC BRANCH, San Francisco, Cal. BOARDMAN & SPENCER, General Agents. 

INLAND MARINE DEPARTMENT. 
CHICAGO, Ills., 145 La Salle St. NEW YORK, 50 and 52 Pine St. 

BOSTON, 137 Milk St. PHILADELPHIA, 226 Walnut St. 



Tiffany & Co, 



Diamond and Gem Merchants, Gold 
and Silver Smiths, Stationers and 
Dealers in Artistic Merchandise. 



Information for Purchasers 

Visitors are always welcome and incur no 
obligation to purchase 

The standard of Tiffany & Co.'s wares is never 
permitted to vary. No rule in their establish- 
ment is more rigidly adhered to 

Their prices are as reasonable as consistent 
with the best workmanship and a quality 
worthy of the name of the house 

The minimum quality of Tiffany & Co. 
jewelry is 14-karat gold 

All their watches and rich iewelry are mounted 
in 18-karat gold 

All their silverware is of English sterling 
quality, 925/1000 fine 

Mail Orders 

Attention is directed to the facilities of 
Tiffany & Co.'s Mail Order Department. Upon 
advice as to requirements and limits of price, 
Tiffany & Co. will forward promptly photo- 
graphs, cuts or careful descriptions of what 
their stock affords 



Tiffany & Co. 
especially invite 
a comparison 
of their prices 



The Tiffany 
1905 Blue Book 

will be sent 
to intending 
purchasers 
without charge. 

This catalogue 
contains 

no Illustrations. 

It is a compact 
little volume of 
490 pages, with 
concise descriptions, 
and range of 
prices of Jewelry, 
Silverware, Watcher.. 
Clocks, Bronzes, 
Porcelains and 
Glass suitable 
for wedding 
presents or 
other gifts 



Tiffany & Co. 
are strictly 
retailers. 

They do not 
employ agents 
or sell their 
wares through 
other dealers 



Union* Square New York 



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{Perfection in Cut Slass 

3* or 7Jhose who Want the <ffiest 



"PUNCHBOWLS 

"DECANTERS 

CLARET 

"PITCHERS 

WATER 

"PITCHERS 

SYRUP CUPS 

CHEESE 

"DISHES 

"BUTTER 

"DISHES 

HORSERADISH 
"DISHES 

CREAM BOWL 

SPOON 

HOLDERS 

CRQSE VASES 

LILY VASES 

VIOLET VASES 

"BON BON 

"DISHES 

ZNAPPIES 

SALAD BOWLS 

"TALL OLIVES 

JELLY DISHES 



CUT GLASS is not a luxury 
nowadays — it's an essen- 
tial. As important as 
silver, bric-a-brac, rugs — any of 
the twentieth century joys of 
living. 

Cut glass is always of value 
— no matter how long you may 
use it. It has a standard of its 
own that makes it as safe to buy 
as gold bonds. 

And it is always in good taste 
— always acceptable as a gift — 
always carries with it a warm 
place in one's heart for the donor. 

Our cut glass store is not a 
discovery — rather a development. 
We have been planning it for 
years — studying goods and mak- 
ers. Now we are ready to show 
the largest and choicest collec- 
tion in Connecticut. 

And while showing favorable 
contrasts in designs — the con- 
trast in prices will be still more 
favorable. 



^OSE BOWLS 

CELERY 

TUSHES 

SAUCE 

"BOTTLE 

OLIVE DISHES 

COMPORT 

SUGAR 

SHAKER 

INDIVIDUAL 

SALTS 

"TOOTHPICK 

HOLDER 

ICE CREAM 

SET 
WATER 

GLASSES 

WINE GLASSES 

SHERRY 

GLASSES 

LEMONADE 

GLASSES 

CLARET 

GLASSES 

FINGERBOWLS 

CREAMER 
<AND SUGAR 



TJhe jfcowe dc Stetson Stores 



Tfew Jfcaven, Connecticut 



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0f men who * * « 
Bold the Crust * * 
and Appreciate its 
Responsibilities— tbe 

Contemporary * * 

American * * * 



IMPORTANT LITERARY ANNOUNCEMENT 



EDITION IS BEING RAPIDLY EXHAUSTED— ORDER TO-DAY 




- \ FTER MANY YEARS OF RESEARCH AND INVESTIGA 

^m l\ TION, FREDERICK CALVIN NORTON HAS COMPLETE! 

/•> HIS BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF THE GOVERNORS Oi 

/jSeM ■£.*<££ CONNECTICUT AND AVILL BE ENGAGED DURING TH1 

=^= NEXT FEW WEEKS, WITH AN ASSISTING STAFF O] 
HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES, IN VERIFYING EVER 
Hp' HISTORICAL FACT IN THE EXTENSIVE COMPILATION. T( 

TRACE THE INDIVIDUAL RECORDS FROM THOUSANDS OF OL1 
DOCUMENTS HAS BEEN A TREMENDOUS UNDERTAKING 
WITH THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE LEADING LIBRARIES ANll 
HISTORICAL ORGANIZATIONS, THE WORK WILL NOW B] 
PERMANENTLY COLLECTED IN A BEAUTIFUL VOLUME OF ABOUT 350 PAGES 
ILLUSTRATED WITH NEARLY FIFTY RARE OLD PRINTS AND EXCLUSIVE REPRC 
DUCTIONS FROM OIL PAINTINGS AT THE STATE CAPITOL, PRINTED ON ANTIQU1 
LAID PAPER, AND BOUND IN DURABLE ART CLOTH COVERS WITH TITLE II 
GOLD. THE OFFICIAL EDITION WILL BE LIMITED, NUMBERED, AND DISTRIBU 
TED BY SUBSCRIPTION ONLY TO PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIBRARIES WHICH HAVE 
REQUESTED ITS PUBLICATION, AND TO A FEW WHO DESIRE TO BECOME PA1J 
RONS OF THE WORK BY SIGNIFYING THEIR INTEREST IMMEDIATELY. BEFOR1 
GOING TO PRESS IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED THAT A LIST OF 1000 PATRONS Bl 
REGISTERED FOR THE OFFICIAL EDITION. THE PATRON LIST WILL BE COM 
POSED OF THOSE WHO VALUE THE LITERARY DIGNITY AND HISTORICAL IM 
PORTANCE OF SUCH A COMPILATION AS THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT ANI 
DESIRE IT AS A VOLUME OF REFERENCE IN THEIR LIBRARIES. THEY ARE II 
NO WAY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FINANCIERING OF THE UNDERTAKING BU] 
MERELY BECOME SUBSCRIBERS TO THE BOOK UPON PUBLICATION AT A hOMi 
PRICE, MADE POSSIBLE BY THIS CO-OPERATIVE PLAN OF GUARANTEED SALES 
READ THE COUPON BELOW AND MAIL TO-DAY. NO CASH IS REQUIRED AND N(jj 
ADVANCE PAYMENTS ACCEPTED. ALL THAT IS DESIRED IS A SIGNIFYING Ol 
YOUR WILLINGNESS TO PURCHASE. 



WE RESERVE RIGHT TO CANCEL YOUR ORDER IF IT COMES TOO LATE 



CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE COMPANY, New Haven, Conn. 

Appreciating the historical importance of Frederick Calvin Norton's compilation entitled Th 
Governors of Connecticut, the undersigned desires to register as a patron of the first official editio 
as above described to the extent only of agreeing to purchase the volume upon publication and de 
livery at the exceptionally low cost (considering the labor involved and the historical value of th 
work) of Five Dollars payable only after inspection and acceptance of the volume. 

Number of Copies 



Patron Street. 



Town- 



State.. 



Date. 



FILL ABOVE BLANK TODAY — NO CASH REQUIREI 



'HE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



E ONLY OFFICIAL COLLECTION OF PRINTS AND PORTRAITS OF THE MEN WHOM THE PEOPI E OF 

CONNECTICUT HAVE DISTINGUISHED BY ELECTING THEM TO THE HIGHEST HONOR Q| 'JHJ 

COMMONWEALTH WILL BE PRESENTED IN FREDERICK CALVIN NORTON'S 

GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 

SEND YOUR ORDER BY NEXT MAIL-NOW AT PRESS 




Governor of Connecticut 1858-1866— Popularly Known as Connecticut's AVar Governor, and Personal Friend 
and Adviser of President Lincoln. 
Above Is a sample of the portraiture and facsimile signatures In the volume now in process of publication. TllK QOVBRNOBB OW 
CONNECTICUT. It is an exclusive reproduction from the official oil painting in the State Library at the State Capitol at Hartford 



SOLD ONLY BY SUBSCRIPTION — EDITION LIMITED 



The Connecticut Magazine 



NUMBER 2 SECOND QUARTER NINETEEN HUNDRED AND FIVE VOLUME IX 

An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Published in four books to the annual volume. Following is a list .of con- 
tents in this edition, generously illustrated, and ably written. Editorial 
department in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford — Business depart- 
ment at 671-679 Chapel Street, New Haven. 



Art Cover — Among the Pinnacles — Painting by Louis Ransom, formerly of Hartford. 
Frontispiece — Man Think for Thyself — Sonnet . . . rev. daniel hugh verder 206 

of Waterbury 

Is the World Growing Better 207 

The Outlook is Full of Promise . rt. rev. chauncey b. brewster, d.d. 208 

(Episcopal) of Hartford 

We Stand on the Threshold of a New Social World rev. Walter j. shanley 209 

(Catholic) of Hartford 

Education Binds All Mankind into a Union rabbi meyer elkin of Hartford 210 

(Hebrew) 
Never Was Individual Life Sweeter and Nobler rev. william s. morgan, ph.d. 212 

(Unitarian) of Derby 

Acquainted with the Laws of Nature and of Life rev. Richmond fisk. d.d. 213 

(Universalist) of Middletown 

Religion Will be more Rational and Cheerful rev. azel washburn hazen, d.d. 213 

(Congregational) of Middletown 

The Way to the Triumph of Righteousness . . . rev. w. a. richard 214 

(Methodist) of New Haven 

The Dominion of Intelligence and Conscience rev. john coleman adams, d.d. 216 

(Universalist) of Hartford 

Good Will Finally Win Over All Forms of Evil rev. Arthur h. goodenough, d.d. 218 

(Methodist) ' of Bristol 

We Are Passing Through a Period of Transition rev. george m. stone, d.d. 219 

(Baptist) of Hartford 

O Thou, Enthroned — Sonnet . . . rev. daniel hugh verder of Waterbury 220 

Young Men Molders of Future Sentiment . . . rev. aetius e. crooke 221 

(African) of Hartford 

Advancing Civilization Observes a Growth . . . rev. r. a. ashworth 222 

(Baptist) of Meriden 

Obedience to the Great Commandments . . rev. w. g. Andrews, d.d. . 223 

(Episcopal) of Guilford 

The "Work of Education flavel s. luther. ph.d., ll.d. 225 

President of Trinity College 

The Age of Agricultural Science Theodore sedgwick gold 232 

of West Cornwall 

The Rose and the Nightingale dr. Frederick h. williams 236 

of Bristol 
Country Life in Connecticut— Seven Photographic Reproductions 

Springtime 

The Old Mill in the Woods 

The Gorge Thro' Which Flows the Housatonic River 
An Old Homestead in the Naugatuck Valley 
The Passing of the Mill at West Granby 
A Summer Scene on the Farmington River . 
The Brook in the Woodland at Robertsville 
The Foreigner in New England 



REV. JOEL S 

Fourteen illustrations from photographs Sec. Missionary Society of Connecticut 
Application made for entry as second class matter an New Haven, Connecticut. 



237 
237 
238 

239 
204 
241 
242 
243 
244 



The Connecticut Magazine 



NUMBER 2 COVERING MONTHS OF APRIL, MAY AND JUNE VOLUME IX 

Publication dates 1905: Book I, Volume IX, was issued January 1, and 
included first quarter, months of January, February and March — Book II (here- 
with) second quarter, includes months of April, May and June— Book III will 
be issued July 1, and includes third quarter, months of July, August and 
September— Book IV will be issued October 1, and includes fourth and last 
quarter of year 1905, months of October, November and December, closing 
Volume IX. 



My Convoy — Poem . . . ... . . anna j. granniss of Plainville 257 

Caricatures of the Puritans— Four drawings 258 

Grotesque Inscriptions in God's Acre frederica craft diamond 262 

From Summer Sojourn in Milford 

Legend and Literature Margaret scoville dorman 269 

Ten illustrations from photographs 

Connecticut Artists and Their "Work— Six reproductions 279 

A Forest Walk . . daniel f. wentworth 279 

Autumn Morning daniel f. wentworth 280 

The Old Love Lane . daniel f. wentworth 281 

The Old Lighthouse at New Haven Harbor . . . Gardner a. reckard 282 

Ships That Pass in the Night Gardner a. reckard 283 

The Closing Hour of Day Gardner a. reckard 284 

Along the Way — Poem . . . . . . harold Arnold walter 2S5 

The Last of the Beechers 286 

I Memories On My Eighty-Third Birthday . . Isabella beecher hooker 
Seven illustrations of Hartford 

II The Home Life of Isabella Beecher Hooker . . . ella burr mcmanis 299 

of Hartford 

III Appreciation francis trevelyan miller 302 

At Close of Day I Knelt — Sonnet . . Howard Arnold walter of New Britain 307 

Mark Twain— His Autobiography — Two drawings 309 

The Power of Song in American Life . . francis e. Howard of Bridgeport 313 

Customs of Burying the Dead mary l. d. ferris, Former Editor of the American Author 317 

Success — Poem Katharine gilman grou 31S 

The Development of Man's Great Brain • . . edw. anthony spitzka, m.d. 379 
Illustrated with six charts Member faculty Columbia University 

The Growing of Tobacco in Connecticut e. h. jenkins, ph.d. 336 

Director Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 
Illustrations from photographs 

Pastoral Reverie John h. guernsey 346 

of Waterbury 

Bridgeport— A Story of Progress Illustrations from photographs, julian h. sterling 349 

Portraits of Distinguished Sons of Connecticut 5*M 

Connecticut's Public Library Buildings 

Achievements of a Connecticut Sculptor (Paul Bartlett) . • . Herbert randall 
Four illustrations from photographs of Hartford 

The Hive of the Averys mabel cassine holman 395 

Four illustrations of Saybrook 

Ordination Service of a Century Ago Judge martin h. smith 403 

s of Suffield 

Nomenclature of Connecticut Families • • joel n. eno, a.m. of New Haven 406 

Studies in Ancestry— Genealogical— Department Conducted by . C. L. N. CAMP 413 

of New Haven 

Heredity lovkll hall of Middletown 4-7 

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fiere Beginnetb tbeSecond Part of tbeHintb Book 

Showing the manner of Oft and (be 

Attainment thereof in the 

Commonwealth of a 

Diligent People 



EDITED BY 



WlriUl4Us0 /^t&Z^LA^L-^TTl&^t^ 



MAN! THINK FOR THYSELF 

SONNET BY DANIEL HUGH VERDER 

BE NOT a slave to what another may think, 
Think for thyself and let thy reason rule; 
Be thou the workman, not the workman's tool. 
Then shalt thou manly be and calmly drink 
Of freedom's sparkling- nectar, God-like gift; 
Then Phcebus' smile will penetrate the mist, 
Then murky, dismal clouds will higher lift 
And every flower with fragrance sweet be kissed. 

Too many, oh too many in fetters are 

Weighed down by foul convention's filthy rust; 

'Tis only fear that keeps them from the truth. 

So while thy muscles are strong, and hale thy youth, 

Let naught of cowardice thy manhood mar; 

Soil not thy life by groveling in the dust. 



CI)€ 



Connecticut magazine 

uocume tx numseR 2 




T$ the Olorld Growing Better 
UJbat Does tbe future Portend 
R€R€ are among u$ those with a 

confidence in tbe Infinite Principle 
and a faitb in our fellow men 
who believe tbat Jill things happen for the 
most Good, there are those with a listen 
ing ear for every man's conscientious con 
fiction, and a willingness to lend a helping 
hand to all that portends the bettering of life 
Ot long since we briefly talked of 
tbe men who Blazed the Path for 
givilization-tbe Indian? then we 
spoke of the men who Came and Saw the 
Opportunity-tbe Dutch; in our last discus- 
sion we tarried over tbe qualities of tbe 
men who found tbe Ufork to Do and Did 
Tt-the Puritans; and now let us barken 
intently to tbe men who fiold tbe trust 
and Appreciate its Responsibilities-tbe 
Contemporary American ** # ^ 




THE OUTLOOK IS FULL OF PR6MISE 



BY 



RT. REV. CHAUNCEY B. BREWSTER, D.D. 

BISHOP OF THE DIOCESE OF CONNECTICUT OF THE PROTESTANT 
EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



I SURELY believe the world is growing better. I believe 
there never were so many men as now trying to live a 
clean and helpful life of service to others. So far as 
my observation and information go, I am inclined to think 
there never was a time before when in our colleges so many 
young men were interested in doing good, so intent upon 
serving the world for His sake and carrying His truths to 
those who know them not. The outlook is full of promise. 



WE STAND 



ON THE THRESHOLD OF A NEW 
SOCIAL WORLD" 



BY 



REV. WALTER J. SHANLEY 

MEMBER BOARD OF CONSULTORS OF THE DIOCESE OF CONNECTICUT, 
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 



YOU ask if I think that the 
world is growing better. It 
is growing better if we com- 
pare it with the time when 
monarchies and aristocracies count- 
ed battles and murders and slaugh- 
ters, and those great successful rob- 
beries called conquests as the true 
source of distinction, and the proper 
title to general esteem. 

We live in a better, a holier world, 
which honors the victories of mind, 
the battles of patience and ingen- 
uity, the conquests made in the name 
of humanity, the inroads upon vice 
and ignorance, the glorious peaceful 
conquests of religion and science. 

Past ages, however, exercised vir- 
tues in which we are found want- 
ing—the spirit of faith which sees 
beyond our low material horizon a 
world of love and harmony ; a spirit- 
ual sense which enables man to see 
in the system of existing things 
something beyond the crass and 
grossly visible world of matter; a 
contempt for mere material comfort 
and perfection which cannot satisfy 
the tremendous desires of the heart, 
whose final haven is far and away 
beyond the world of sense ; an habit- 
ual dwelling in the future which 
weans men from too absorbing an 
attachment to the present and cuts 
at the very root of selfishness; a 
scorn for material riches and a de- 
votion to the things of the mind, 
which checks the development of 
those awful inequalities that need- 
lessly disfigure our human society. 



We, in this country, are equipped 
with all that can assure us the 
highest pinnacle in the temple of 
national fame. We stand on the 
threshold of a new social world, like 
the young barbarian nations of 
Europe, with the difference that 
they were ignorant and brutal, 
whilst we are intelligent and re- 
fined; they were subject creatures 
of nature, whilst we have in a sense 
yoked and harnessed nature for our 
service. And yet, unless this mag- 
nificent modern national life become 
informed by a spirit of faith, unless 
the unseen, the intangible, the 
ideal forces which flow free from 
that gift of God, permeate our 
social and political being, we shall 
not live, or we shall fall short of 
that good, to which we are called. 
Unless we open our minds to the 
highest Christian idealism, and rec- 
ognize more practically our common 
fraternity; unless we protect the 
virtue of the family which is the 
unit of morality, by casting out the 
demon of divorce and kindred evil 
agencies, we shall not round out our 
destinies, but fall by the wayside, 
and in our ruin point a moral to 
some future republic of New Zea- 
land or the East Indies, or some 
United States of Asia. 

There is no true culture without 
religion, and no civilization can 
long endure which does not recog- 
nize God, and our human duties 
toward Him as Creator, Provider 
and Preserver. 



£<) CuU^-Q^ 




EDUCATION BINDS ALL MAN- 
KIND INTO A UNION" 



BY 



RABBI MEYER ELKIN 



OF THE CONGREGATION BETH- ISRAEL OF HARTFORD 



"rv 



i 

you believe the world is 
growing better and why?" 
conscientiously believe 
the world is growing bet- 
ter in its feelings and actions as to 
true humanity. Its charities to the 
poor, its sympathies for the suffer- 
ers either from bodily ailments, or 
from the shortcomings of the mind ; 
its social intercourse, irrespective 
of creed or nationality; its com- 
mercial relations with the different 
types of humanity — are all in ad- 
vance of former ages. While among 
the Greeks, even in their most 
brilliant epochs of poetry and phil- 
osophy, the stranger was treated as 
a barbarian; and not less so later 
on among the Romans— mankind is, 
in our days, gradually becoming 
cosmopolitan in its regard and treat- 
ment of the different inhabitants of 
the earth. General education and 
a better knowledge of the nexus 
that binds all mankind into a union 
is principally to be accredited with 
this happy advance ! 

II 

* "Do you believe that the Puritan 
faith is being obliterated in this 
state?" Dear sir, I am a t rabbi 
— that is, a teacher of the truths^of 
Judaism, and it might perhaps be 
rash in me to pronounce on the 
faith of a Christian sect. But candor 
dictates to me to express the hope 
that the faith of the Puritans — that 
is, their firm belief in the truth of 
their cause and acting in accord- 
ance 'with their belief— will never 



die out in this state of ours! To 
their prejudices, however, I would 
gladly preach the funeral sermon, 
and in a thorough Christian style, 
too. 

Ill 

"What do you^think of present 
moral conditions in Connecticut, 
spiritual, political or social?" The 
moral condition of our beloved 
state, I think to be neither better 
nor worse than any other state in 
the Union. New England people 
do, as a rule, know how to behave; 
but neither dare we mistake their 
conduct as being perfect. As an 
aggregate it can fairly be pro- 
nounced as on the ascent. Socially, 
however, they are somewhat angu- 
lar; feeling, perhaps, proud as the 
descendants of the first comers to 
our beloved America! Well, I per- 
sonally look upon it as an innocent 
and pardonable pride! 

Your question as to the future of 
religion; Man is by his very endow- 
ments intended for religion. Reli- 
gion — that is, belief in a Divine 
Creator, as also the belief in man as 
being spiritually made in God's own 
image, hence immortal — will live 
through all the ages the world may 
last! 



IV 

"Do you believe that creeds are 
passing, and that the denomina- 
tions are gaining or waning?" With 
the further advance of knowledge 
and education, creeds are bound to 
fall! True religion is divine in 
nature; creeds and ceremonies are 
the inventions of man. What is 
divine on earth is bound to endure. 
God has implanted into man a de- 
sire to know his Creator, and this 
desire, being of divine planting, will 
last as long as man lasts on earth. 
The means, as creeds and cere- 
monies, to bring man near to his 
God and Creator, are but of human 
make, thought out at different times 
by well-meaning but fallible men; 
and as man advances in thought, 
these creeds and ceremonies, will 
and must either entirely depart or 
adapt themselves to the changing 
mode of thinking. Hence I hold 
that denominations will gradually 
wane away, and all mankind will, 
in accordance with the utterances 
of holy prophecy, come to acknowl- 
edge God as One, and His name 
as One! 



/?«.&<' <VJik^ 



-NEVER WAS INDIVIDUAL LIFE SWEETER 

AND NOBLER" 



BY 

REV. WILLIAM S. MORGAN, Ph.D. 

STATE SECRETARY FOR THE UNITARIAN CHURCHES OF CONNECTICUT 



1MGST thoroughly believe the 
world is growing better in 
knowledge, human helpfulness, 
civilization and morals. There 
are those, however, who will admit 
that the world is waxing in material 
interests and intellectual discipline 
but waning in its ethical conscious- 
ness and practice. Yet he that 
sighs for the ethical life of decadent 
Rome, of Mary's England or of the 
France of Louis XIV, fails to ap- 
preciate that our lines have fallen 
in pleasant places. Never in the 
history of the world was the public 
conscience more sensitive; never 
was individual life sweeter and 
nobler. There are things enough 
to sicken any soul. The world is 
not perfect. It is in the making, 
and is gradually and surely climb- 
ing to higher ethical planes. 

The faith of the Puritans as a 
system of belief is rapidly passing 
away. We need, however, their 
sublime conception of duty and of 
the higher demands of the life of 
the spirit. 

Creeds, in consequence of the in- 
flux of modern knowledge, are 
being explained out of existence by 
those who pretend to believe in 
them, and are discarded altogether 
by any person who wishes to be in 
touch with scientific thought and 
feels his vision of truth enlarging 
with his growing experience. I 



Conservatism in religious think- 
ing is the prevailing attitude of the 
people of Connecticut, but we are 
in the dawn of a better day. 

The religion of the future — and, 
willy-nilly, the signs of the times 
demand it — will be a happy mar- 
riage between the most rigid scien- 
tific attitude and the most reverent 
and appreciative spirit for all that 
is divine in life. Then men and 
women shall realize that there is in 
this world— 

"A motion and a spirit that impels 
All thinking things, all objects of all 

thought, 
And rolls through all things." 

The great facts of religion shall 
be actual possession. The universe 
shall be a book of revelation. All 
good books shall be inspired bibles. 
Belief in the miraculous shall give 
place to that in universal law. 
Plans of salvation shall disappear; 
character alone is all sufficient to 
save. The church must turn its 
vision from the future to the pres- 
ent. It must help make the earth 
a garden of the Lord. It must 
hasten the day when disease and 
crime shall disappear. Religion 
shall be most rational, human and 
helpful. It will allow each man to 
formulate his creed according to 
the grammar of his individuality and 
,it will harness all human forces in 
'the cause of righteousness. 



ACQUAINTED 



WITH THE LAWS 
AND OF LIFE" 



OF . NATURE 



BY 



REV. RICHMOND FISK, D.D. 

UNIVERSALIST CLERGYMAN AT MIDDLETOWN, CONNECTICUT 



1 BELIEVE the world is growing 
better, because an extended 
survey of past history of human 
relations contrasted with pres- 
ent, shows clearly that the latter 
are ethically a marked advance over 
any period of the past; because the 
present is better acquainted with 
the laws of nature and of life and 
more obedient to such laws — politi- 
cally, socially, spiritually, physi- 
cally; because there are more lovers 
and seekers of truth, justice, peace, 
mutual service, benevolence and 
brotherhood the world over in the 
aggregate, than in any ten cen- 
turies prior to 1800 A. D. 

I do not believe Puritanism is 
being obliterated so much as it is 
being, or has already been, trans- 
formed. I believe creeds are pass- 



ing, but passing because faith, 
hope, love and knowledge grow 
from more to more, and because 
ethical conceptions of God and the 
soul have approached nearer the 
standard raised by; Jesus. 

I believe denominations are, on 
the whole, holding their own, losing 
here, gaining there, but that all of 
them are more or less intensely 
feeling the strain and difficulties 
incident to an age of transition in 
both faith and economics. 

I think the future of religion as 
the expression of, or name for, the 
faith, hope and love of man for 
God and his fellow man, was never 
so promising as in 1905. What its 
organicforms and their varieties mav 
be in coming centuries no prophet 
may now even venture a guess. 



RELIGION WILL BE MORE RATIONAL AND 

CHEERFUL" 

BY 

REV. AZEL WASHBURN HAZEN, D. D. 

PASTOR FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, (CONGREGATIONAL) AT MIDDLETOWN 

BELIEVE the"world is growing ~ ful summaries of Christian truth. 



I 



better," because the power of | The lines are less distinct between 
Jesus Christ is ever widening I denominations, yet there is no evi- 
as the years go by. fl dence of their bein S obliterated. 



I do not think "the Puritan faith W' tt 



As to the condition of our state. 



. , - ,,.. 1 . spiritual, political or social, there 

is being obliterated in this state. J£? . F T *' * 2* * 

Tl . * . . , , , ,. M is urgent need of a revival of gen- 

It is still held by a large portion off uine * eli ion< of civic righteousness 
the sturdiest people in the common- J and of social purit y. More stress 
wealth. was once i a id upon the moral char- 

I do not think that ''creeds are J acter of candidates for office than at 
passing." They are more intelli-;'^ present. 

gently held than formerly, doubt- ~ : % Religion will become more ra- 
less, and there is a tendency to % tional, more cheerful, more inrlu- 
shorten them. But they are still f ential, more attractive, with the 
here, and they will remain as need- ^ "process of the suns." 



THE WAY TO THE TRIUMPH OF 
RIGHTEOUSNESS" 

BY 

REV. W. A, RICHARD 



PRESIDING ELDER OF THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CONFERENCE OF THE DISTRICT 

OF NEW HAVEN 



THE man who believes in a good God cannot be greatly 
apprehensive concerning the future of religion and 
human progress. Although often halting and unsteady 
the development of race ideals tends to increasing clear- 
ness and loftiness. In measuring moral progress one must deal 
in centuries rather than in years. But this done, no healthy- 
minded student of history can fail, as it seems to me, to discover 
that degrading superstitions are disappearing; man's inhumanity 
to man is being mitigated; the life of the masses, thanks to a 
quickened sense of justice, is becoming more tolerable ; poverty, 
sickness, and suffering are being ameliorated; religious thought 
and feeling are being unified, especially on the high plane of 
reality and, therefore, of spirituality — in a word, the law of love, 
howsoever it may seem to fail in particular instances, is certainly 
operative more and more in politics, society and religion. 

It is true, of course, that the Puritan faith no longer pre- 
vails, as once it did, in Connecticut or even in New England, for 
the simple reason that Puritans themselves do not prevail. Not 
only is the web of religious life here shot through with the strands 
of other faiths, but vast numbers of our citizens are under the 
influence of other, if not less worthy, traditions. Nevertheless, 
the Puritan faith is still, without doubt, the most potent single 
religious element amongst us, affecting all denominations and 
often reaching beyond them. 

Moral conditions at present in both spiritual, political and 
social relations, owing not only to the presence of heterogeneous 
populations, and the utter absorption of men, body, mind and 
soul, in business activities, but also to increasing indulgences due 
to growing wealth, are complex and puzzling. But on the other 
hand, increasing millions are being poured out in philanthrophy, 



education, and aggressive missionary effort. Communicants in 
our churches now number about 28,000,000; whereas they were 
as one to fourteen of the population in 1800, to-day they are as 
one to three, and are still growing. This would seem to answer 
the question, "Are creeds and denominations growing or declin- 
ing? " though religious tolerance is certainly increasing. 

The religion of the future will, to my mind, be more 
simple, natural, real and, therefore, more spiritual. Doubtless, 
ritual and ceremonial will long be employed to a greater or less 
extent, but as a means rather than as an end. 

The battle will be fierce; the way to the triumph of right- 
eousness will be long and weary, yet the race, I believe, may say 
with Robert Browning: 



I shall arrive, — what time, what circuit first, 

I ask not ; 

In some time, His good time, I shall arrive." 



THE DOMINION OF INTELLIGENCE AND 

CONSCIENCE" 



BY 



I 



REV. JOHN COLEMAN ADAMS, D.D. 

PASTOR OF THE CHURCH OF THE REDEEMER (UNIVERSALIST) AT HARTFORD 

S THE WORLD growing better and why? I am committed by creed, 
conviction and character to an affirmative answer. I was born a 

: Universalist ; and irretrievably Universalist by observation and ex- 
perience. 

I am not an optimist,p ro perly speaking; because an optimist is a believer 
in the doctrine that things are about as good as they can be. I believe 
they can be better than they are, and that they are steadily improving. 
Most of the optimists of the latter day sort prove their faith, to them- 
selves, by shutting their eyes and denying the evils in creation. 

I am a *« meliorist,'_I_ a believer in the growth of the world from good 
toward better and best. One can open his eyes and face the facts and 
hold this conviction. The world is growing better because it is coming, 
slowly and painfully, under the dominion of intelligence and conscience, 
under the sway of ethical and intellectual forces. To be sure, there is 
profound ignorance and horrible sin in the world to-day, and society 
could be cited as a witness to evils as bad as existed in the days of the 
Caesars. 

Progress is the movement^ a i ong procession; and while the rear of the 
column is still in the shadows of barbarism, the advance guard is already 
far up the heights and out in the light. The rear of our civilization 
has not passed the lynching-fires of the South, and the absolutism of 
St. Petersburg. But the advance is abreast the Hague Tribunal and 
the Parliament of the World's Religions. 



We are headed for the far=off g oal set for us by the cross that stood on 
Calvary; and the feet of our restless race will never halt till they have 
pressed that sacred height. 

This is the light that lighteth 

All men,4n that new day 

Whereof men dream, as God's great scheme, 

And where-for all men pray. 

Oh, like you not the vision? 

Is it Dot dear to men? 

Does not each heart yearn for the part 

And long to be living then? 



Right well we know 'tis coming; 
We trust our cheering dreams ; 
We hope without a waver 
For the day which so distant seem; 
Our God is daily winning 
Some triumph thro' His Son, 
And out of evils 'round us 
We see His work move on. 



GOOD WILL FINALLY WIN 

OF EVIL" 

BY 



OVER ALL FORMS 



REV. ARTHUR H. GOODENOUGH, D.D. 

PASTOR OF THE PROSPECT METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH AT BRISTOL 

"O world, as God has made it! All is beauty; 
And knowing this is love, and love is duty." 



IN response to your request, I 
happily state that I do believe 
the world is "growing better." 
Why? Because God is, and 
because men are more and more 
conscious of that fact. People love 
the good, the true, the beautiful as 
never before, and they more heart- 
ily and generally cooperate with the 
unseen Power which is ever work- 
ing for the ultimate and sure 
triumph of righteousness in the 
State and purity in the individual. 
There is no doubt in my own mind, 
that the good will finally win over 
all forms of evil. 

Nothing can destroy truth. The 
good in all isms is imperishable. 
Real faith in God, whether Puritan 
or of any other type, will survive 
the last system of oppression and 
tyranny. Creeds are instruments 
that may have had a legitimate use 
in a past age — but they are obsolete 
now. The thing that wise men are 
thinking about in our day is life. 
The supreme thing is character. 
And the root and strength of char- 



acter is the religion of Him who 
loved all men and who went about 
doing good. Society is looking for 
the honest man. The pure woman 
is the queen of our day. And 
nothing contributes to this product 
like the Christian religion. The 
religious life of a community is a 
factor in its culture, education and 
progress. The true happiness of a 
people has its root in religion. 
The higher values of life sink into 
atrophy and decay unless fed by 
the Church of God. What do I think 
the future of religion is to be? 
A series of altruistic and philan- 
thropic and spiritual triumphs for 
eternal advancement and welfare 
of the human race — the Sons of 
God. 

I think the moral conditions of 
Connecticut will compare favorably 
with those of any other state. And 
yet it would be a profitable thing 
for all our citizens if the Social Con- 
science of the state was more 
abhorrent of evil and strenuous for 
the good. 



'God's in His heaven, 

All's right with the world." 



WE ARE PASSING THROUGH 
PERIOD OF TRANSITION" 

BY 

REV. GEORGE M. STONE, D.D. 

PRESIDENT OF THE CONNECTICUT BAPTIST EDUCATION SOCIETY 
PASTOR OF THE ASYLUM AVENUE BAPTIST CHURCH AT HARTFORD 



M 



AN1FESTLY we are passing in the Christian Church 
through a period of transition, the next issues of 
which it is difficult to forecast. I venture three gen- 
eral propositions: 



FIRST The Bible will emerge from its present ordeal 

with clearer credentials of inspiration than before 
it entered into it. 

SECOND— The controversy between Religion and Science is 
near its end. In this end approaching, Science 
will take a place as one of the most reasonable 
and helpful witnesses to the integrity and value of 
the revealed religion. 

T H I R D— The present most imperative need in political life 
is a return to the new standards of Ethics, and 
in Social Economics to the broad minded recog- 
nition of the changed conditions of the Laborer, 
and kindly interest in his personal dignity as a man. 




Sonnet by Daniel ljugb Ucrder * a* <* «* 

tfiOU, enthroned amid the jasper stones, 
Ulbere Cherubs veil their faces in thy sight, 
f^llllt Jlnd Seraphs stand line wardens blazing bright, 
Rear Cbon our supplications and our moans- 
fiumanity's heartfelt and heartsick groans- 
UPbicb come before Cbee in our helpless plight. 
Spare thou thy people, Cord, and grant ns light 
Or we shall lie amidst the dust and stones. 

fiere at thy earthly altars stand by day 
tby priests with hands uplifted in thy name, 
Pleading the merits of thy sacrifice, 
together with their praise and holy lives? 
Saviour, look not from thy flock away, 
But on our altars let thy souBlood flame. 



-YOUNG MEN MOLDERS OF FUTURE SENTIMENT" 



BY 



REV. AETIUS E. CROOKE 

AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL ZION's CHURCH AT HARTFORD 



IN reference to inquiry as to 
whether, in my opinion, the 
world is growing better, I 
answer most positively, yes. 
Of recent years this question has 
been stirring the minds of many 
thinkers in this and the old coun- 
try. It has been given wide circu- 
lation, perhaps, because of certain 
indiscreet writers on the subject of 
an apparent falling off of church 
attendance and the further report 
that fewer college men are studying 
for the holy ministry as a life work. 
In regard to the former statement, 
I am not quite sure that those who 
make it are correct. There may be 
some truth in the latter; but if 
there is, there are reasons assigned 
for it. But it is not my purpose to 
give those reasons in this letter. 

The pessimist would take a dis- 
couraging view of the situation and 
answer your question in the nega- 
tive. But he who is optimistic and 
whose optimism is founded on facts 
gained by careful study and obser- 
vation, will find abundant evidence 
for the faith that he has. 

Take it in our own country, 
America; there was a time when 
men were elected to high offices in 
the state and nation regardless of 
their Christian proclivity. The 
shrewdest politician once was the 
man. While I would not pretend 
to say that politics do not largely 
dominate, still it is hard to-day to 
elect any man to high office if it be 
known that he is strictly irreligious 
or immoral. 

It is within the memory of many 
in this generation that a candidate 
for the presidency of the United 
States, one of the greatest states- 
men the country ever produced, 
almost on the eve of the election 



some reports touching his moral 
character gained credulity, and it 
was used as a means to defeat him, 
and he was defeated. (I am not 
discussing the truthfulness of the 
statement; I simply state a fact.) 

We hear more within the last 
decade about peace treaties than all 
the other decades previous to this 
put together. Nations are grad- 
ually learning to settle disputes not 
so much by the sword as by reason. 
Sentiment is growing in this direc- 
tion because men are recognizing 
more fully that the object of 
Christ's coming into the world was 
to bring "peace on earth, good will 
towards men." 

Another splendid example that 
the world is growing better is by 
the very courteous manner in which 
Japan promises to treat her Russian 
prisoners in the recent fall of Port 
Arthur, as was seen in our daily 
papers in their articles drawn up. 

And so I may go on to an unlim- 
ited extent illustrating my reasons 
for my belief. 

But I must give but one more 
proof right here in this country, 
and let this suffice. Christianity is 
becoming a more potent factor in 
our American colleges than ever. 
This appears to me to be the great- 
est argument of any. For these 
young men are to be the molders of 
future sentiment — our Luthers in 
the Church, our educators, finan- 
ciers, business men, etc. It is only 
recently the Rev. Dr. A. F. Schauf- 
fler of the International Sunday 
School Association, compiled some 
statistics showing the growth of the 
Christian faith in the colleges. I 
quote him : 

"At the beginning of the last 
century there were in Harvard and 






222 



IS THE WORID GROWING BETTER 



Yale fewer professing Christians 
than at any period in their history. 
In 1902, at Bowdoin College in 
Maine, the freshman and sophomore 
classes contained only one student 
who was a professed believer. At 
Williams College in Massachusetts, 
there was at the time only one 
church member in the freshman 
class and none in the other classes. 
This was, of course, the age of Tom 
Paine. 

"From this low average, how- 
ever, the increase of professed 
Christian believers was not only 
steady throughout the century but 
the ratio of increase steadily rose, a 



most significant fact. I found that 
finally in 1885 one student out of 
every ten in Harvard was a church 
member. In Williams the pro- 
fessed believers numbered one- 
third — one in every three. In Am- 
herst the professed believers were 
seven out of every ten; in Yale, 
out of approximately two thousand 
students, five hundred and eighty 
were evangelical church members. 
Since 1885 this increase and increas- 
ing ratio has steadily continued." 

From the above it appears con- 
clusive beyond a reasonable doubt 
that the world is growing better — 
religiously, morally, politically. 



ADVANCING CIVILIZATION 

A GROWTH" 



OBSERVES 



BY 

REV. ROBERT A. ASHWORTH 

TRUSTEE OF CONNECTICUT BAPTIST CONVENTION — PASTOR FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH AT MERIDEN 



CERTAINLY the years are 
producing a higher standard 
of moral character and con- 
duct. Take only one ex- 
ample, in the matter of temperance. 
The bill for one day's entertain- 
ment of Congregational ministers 
in Hartford in 1784 includes these 
items: "Twenty-four dinners, fif- 
teen bowles of punch, eleven bot- 
tles of wine, three bowles of whis- 
key toddy, total, seven pounds, five 
shillings and nine pence." In 
moral sensitiveness, moral courage, 
benevolence, self-control, and re- 
gard for the rights of others, there 
has been progress. These are all 
peculiarly the virtues of civiliza- 
tion. Yet I recognize the truth of 
Mr. Lecky's statement, in his "His- 
tory of European Morals," that in 
the history of the race there is no 
such thing as "unmixed improve- 
ment." Advancing civilization ob- 
serves a growth in both vice and 
virtue. The moral differences be- 



tween individuals in primitive races 
are slight. In a highly-developed 
civilization the contrasts tend to 
become more and more marked. 
We find, side by side, deep and 
reverent love, self-sacrificing loy- 
alty, passionate devotion to truth 
and justice, and utter baseness and 
depravity compared to which the 
vices of savagery are but childish 
pranks. Whether we believe that we 
are gaining more than we lose and 
the tendency is forward and upward 
will always be largely a matter of 
temperament. They who are most 
heartily committed to the cause of 
righteousness will always be the 
most optimistic in their outlook. 

As to the Puritan faith, it is being 
obliterated in this state in the sense 
in which the foundation of a build- 
ing is obliterated by the super- 
structure. Puritan Calvinism is a 
stage in the development of relig- 
ious thought. Theology is a human 
statement of divine realities and as 



IS THE WORLD GROWING BETTER 



223 



such can never be final. Puritan- 
ism exalted God at the expense of 
man. We emphasize to-day the 
possibilities of human initiative as 
Jonathan Edwards did not. The 
free will of man is a part of our 
creed. The pendulum swings too 
far away from Puritan theology to- 
day and it may be it will swing 
back, but never all the way back. 
Theological thought ascends in a 
spiral, not in a straight line. Our 
religious ideal is not so ascetic as 
that of the fathers; it finds room 
for a rounded development. It is 
the task of to-day to avoid the errors 
and save the virtues of earlier gen- 
erations. 

Creeds will never pass away. 
Man feels an innate necessity of 
formulating his beliefs. But creeds 
change and expand with knowledge 
and experience. The church or the 
individual bound to a statement of 
belief made by an earlier genera- 
tion and adequate for them alone, 
is seriously hindered in growth and 
progress. More light is daily break- 
ing out of God's word and human 
statements of truth need constant 
revision. ' The years are bringing 
new stores of truth and laying them 



at the doors of our creeds, and 
these, though with much creaking 
and straining, must be enlarged to 
receive them. 

Denominations are gaining — i. e , 
are growing constantly in num- 
bers. But denominationalism, in the 
narrow sense, which regards itself 
as exclusively possessed of saving 
truth and looks askance upon differ- 
ing communions, is waning, as it 
ought. Denominationalism empha- 
sizes non-essentials. There is a 
growing spirit of toleration and 
mutual understanding which will 
bring about great results in the near 
future in the direction of denomina- 
tional cooperation and union. 

The future of religion is full of 
hope. One interprets history 
strangely who does not realize that 
man is a "religious animal." Re- 
ligion is the most potent influence 
to-day in the direction of human 
affairs. Theologies, which are 
human theories, change; religion, 
which is "the life of God in the soul 
of man," will always remain. 

"Our little systems have their day; 
They have their day, and cease to be ; 
They are but broken lights of Thee ; 
And Thou, O Lord, art more than they.'' 



OBEDIENCE TO THE GREAT COMMANDMENTS 



BY 

REV. W. G. ANDREWS, D. D. 

MEMBER STANDING COMMITTEE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL DIOCESE OF CONNECTICUT 
RECTOR CHRIST PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH AT C.UILKORD 



I BELIEVE that the world is 
growing better, chiefly because 
it has, on the whole, been grow- 
ing better since the pre-historic 
period. But growth has not been 
uniform, and we may have entered 
on a temporary retrogression. 

(2) Understanding by "the Puri- 
tan faith" the distinctive religious 
beliefs of the Puritans of the seven- 
teenth century, it seems to me 
almost obliterated. This is a very 



different thing from the oblitera- 
tion of the common faith of Chris- 
tians, and the essence of Puritan- 
ism — which is the instinct of obedi- 
ence to God, and may be shown 
under very various conceptions of 
what God requires— is far from 
being obliterated in Connecticut. 

(3) "Creeds," regarded as long 
confessions of faith, or theological 
systems imposed by authority, "are 
passing." Brief statements of pri- 



224 



IS THE WORLD GROWING BETTER 



mary Christian beliefs, like the 
Apostle's Creed, have probably- 
suffered by being classed with dis- 
credited confessions and systems, 
but are really more easy of accept- 
ance than before, and in more gen- 
eral use. At present they are not 
"passing." 

As a result, denominations are 
approaching the same theological 
position, and becoming less secta- 
rian, and better able to act together. 
They may even be making their 
way slowly towards one highly 
elastic ecclesiastical organization. 
But nearly all experienced in the 
last century an invigoration of their 
own historic life, and are likely to 
cherish that for a good while 
longer. Apparently they are not 
"waning," but in a noble sense 
are "gaining," without necessary 
prejudice to the cause of church 
unity. 

(4) "Present moral conditions in 
Connecticut," regarded as (a) 
"spiritual," have a very dark aspect 
in the prevalence of worldliness, or 
devotion to material good — the 
very opposite of spirituality and 
full of danger to morals; they have 
a bright side in an intense devotion 
to truth as distinguished from tra- 
ditional opinions, and in the general 
approval of "altruism," which 
means unselfishness, or love, and 
lies at the center of spirituality. 
Regarded as (b) "political," they 
are disgraceful to the state as re- 
spects the activity and influence of 
unscrupulous men, caring for little 
but personal end, and as respects 
that insane zeal of better men for 
partisan ends, which practically 
puts allegiance to party above alle- 
giance to country, and is in effect 
simple treason. They do honor to 
the state in so far as those who 
seek to reform political methods 
have succeeded; and when all who 
privatelv condemn unworthy meth- 
ods condemn them in caucus and at 
the polls, this display of their 
manliness by her citizens will 



do the state still greater honor. 
Regarded as (c) "social," they are 
deplorable, though I have reason 
to believe that existing evils have 
sometimes been exaggerated. The 
organized efforts of the friends of 
virtue to diminish vice must do 
some good, while forces always at 
work will act with more energy as 
the danger is more keenly felt. In 
making pure forms of enjoyment 
more accessible promises much. 

(5) "The future of religion" is 
equivalent, in duration, to the 
future of humanity, because reli- 
gion is an element of human nature. 
We shall be, as a race, in some 
sense religious until we cease to be 
human ; God will last as long as 
man toils. And the religion of the 
future will be that of Jesus Christ, 
because He, as Son of God and Son 
of Man, could show and has shown 
the universal Fatherhood of God 
and the universal Brotherhood of 
Man more clearly than any other. 
The central doctrine of Christian- 
ity, its Founder's divine Sonship, 
which best discloses the supreme 
truth of religion, that God is our 
Father, can never be disproved, 
because it lies beyond the reach of 
science and criticism. And even 
if it can never be proved for the 
intellect, its adaptation to human 
needs, as good men feel them, will 
more and more require good men 
to believe it. Acting on them and 
through them, it will by degrees 
win and transform other men, until 
all are transformed. Thus, by the 
agency of religion, with some new 
revelation of the Son of Man, the 
world will have become once more 
"very good"; the creed of the Son 
of God will be confessed by innum- 
erable filial lands. 

"In loveliness of perfect deeds," 
there will be One Church, in the 
Kingdom of God: and "moral con- 
ditions" everywhere, and in every 
sphere of action, will belong to the 
spiritual sphere of full obedience to 
the Great Commandments. 



THE WORK OF EDUCATION 

ADMINISTERING THE PAST IN THE INTEREST 

OF THE FUTURE GATHERING THE WORLD'S 

TRUTH AND WISDOM AND PASSING IT 
ON AS AN INHERITANCE ESSAY 

BY 
FLAVEL SWEETEN LUTHER, Ph.D., LL.D. 

PRESIDENT OF TRINITY COLLEGE AT HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 

In assigning to Dr. Luther the subject of education, he suggested in the course of the correspondence that his 
views were possibly best expressed in his inaugural address, and with his authority, The Connecticut Magazine 
presents it herewith, believing that its great truths should be given wider opportunity for doing good. The es«ay 
comes from the ripe experience of a distinguished scholar. As presented in magazine form it is entitled, " The Work 
of Education," and is slightly abridged, omitting only the portions in which Dr. Luther referred more especially to 
the college and church with which he is affiliated — Editor 



THE duties of man change, in 
some respects, as the genera- 
tions succeed each other. 
Perhaps there has never 
been a time when, looking out 
upon the world, men might not 
justly say: ,4 Here are special tasks 
set for us — tasks new and strange, 
without exact precedent, to give 
way, when accomplished, to other 
novel problems." Sometimes a 
war is to be waged, as happened to 
our fathers in '76 and in '61. Or a 
new view of nature must be made 
clear; this occupied those who be- 
lieved Darwin. Religious theories 
may need restatement, as in the 
days of Christ and the Apostles, to 
say nothing of later — much later — 
instances. To-day perhaps we dimly 
perceive, some of us, that very par- 
ticular social problems call upon us 
for anxious thought, and present 
themselves as our present duty and 
most inviting opportunity. 

Yet there is one labor that has 
been common to all civilization — 
the work of administering the past 
in the interest of the future. To 
gather up all that the world has 
gained of truth and wisdom in all 



the ages, to pass it on, augmented 
by the fruitage of the present, as 
the inheritance of those who are to 
come after us — that is our duty and 
our privilege, as it has been the 
duty and privilege of every genera- 
tion since man became a living 
soul. When this process goes on 
slowly, without the conscious pur- 
pose of those through whom world- 
making causes operate, we call the 
chain of results by the name, "evo- 
lution." For the more rapid 
changes that ensue when evolution 
becomes partially directed those in 
whom and through whom it is 
effective, we need some other word. 
It is such changes that we have in 
mind when we think and speak of 
progress. And as, on the whole, 
what we mean by evolution tends 
from the simple to the complex; so 
what we mean by progress leads 
toward increasing perplexity and 
difficulty. And as the higher forms 
of lower life either perish or else fit 
their environment, so those whose 
lives are cast amid new conditions 
must be prepared to meet thero ; or 
else will progress fail and mankind 
sink backward. 



226 



THE WORK OF EDUCATION 



The work of education is thus 
twofold, at least. It is the admin- 
istration of an estate and the 
preparation of the heir. We need 
not seek for any etymological defini- 
tion of the verb "to educate." But 
it is always worth while to consider 
what we mean by it. And, broadly 
speaking, is it not just this that we 
mean? We are to see that not one 
jot or tittle of wisdom and learning 
shall be lost, as the children take 
up their fathers' tasks; and we are 
to strive to bring it about that 
the children are trained in the 
use of what has been gained for 
them. 

The former of these undertakings 
is relatively easy, though there have 
been failures, temporary failures, 
even here. But it is doubtless true 
that libraries and museums may be 
made to preserve records of all that 
is learned in all the ages, and that 
pretty much all of it, through division 
of labor and accountability, may also 
be communicated from the older to 
the younger as intellectual require- 
ment. And if that were all, if to 
cause young men and women, in 
the aggregate, to know all that 
their fathers and mothers knew, 
were the sole concern of educators, 
if teachers were administrators and 
nothing more, then, great as were 
their task, yet would it lack most of 
its present difficult problems. I 
fancy that the Chinese system of 
education is relatively simple, be- 
cause for many years it has stopped 
just at this point — communicating 
things supposed to be true and 
neglecting the training of the youth 
in using the tools put in their 
hands. The result has been that 
the tools do not improve and that 
the nation is paralyzed. Not thus 
shall we teachers contribute to the 
growth of mankind in what makes 
for advancement, not thus if we 
stop when we have hold the 
thoughts of the fathers. Unques- 
tionably some such considerations 
as these are at the bottom of recent 



unrest in educational matters here 
among our own people. 

That there is unrest and perplex- 
ity is evident enough. Many ex- 
periments are testing new methods 
in schools and colleges. Pedagogy 
is claiming recognition as a labora- 
tory science, and the reason for it is 
not that teachers have failed to 
teach what has been nor to impart 
what is known, but that a suspicion 
exists that the pupils are not made 
sufficiently competent to utilize 
their acquirements. 

This is a hopeful sign. The pres- 
ent doubtfulness could not exist in 
a stagnant civilization. All the 
searching for new methods in edu- 
cation, and the discontent with 
present or past results, imply an 
abiding faith in man's infinite ca- 
pacity for improvement. We do 
not search for that which we have 
no hope to find nor grieve over the 
failures that might not have been 
avoided. 

It has just been said that there is 
a wide-spread suspicion, and it 
amounts to a conviction, that pupils 
are not sufficiently trained, in 
school and college, to utilize their 
requirements. This belief finds 
expression in the jesting para- 
graphs of the public press, in cyni- 
cal confidences exchanged at 
teachers' meetings,in solemn lamen- 
tations written for reviews and not 
infrequently printed therein, in the 
complaining of men of affairs who 
ask for the bread of skilled service 
and receive, they say, the stone of 
learned incompetence. We who 
have been teachers for many years 
have all along heard these fault- 
finding voices. We are aware of 
the criticism that our work is more 
or less ineffective in producing the 
sort of men and women that the 
world wants, that our pupils leave 
us while unfitted for the duties of 
life, that they must still be taught 
the things most necessary to be 
known. We have tried various 
methods for meeting this complaint. 



THE WORK OF EDUCATION 



227 



What is called the elective system 
in school and college work is largely 
an attempt to open new roads to 
actual usefulness by catering to in- 
dividual taste. This system has 
been found helpful and will surely 
be continued and extended. This 
not because the elective system en- 
ables the few to follow the line of 
least resistance, but because it 
makes it possible for the many to 
obey the subtle, natural laws of 
character. But there has been gain- 
ing ground for a considerable peri- 
od a more important idea than that 
at the basis of the elective system 
of studies; and that idea is, that 
all schools ought to be professional 
schools, in spirit, method and pur- 
pose. I say that this idea has been 
gaining ground, and I believe it, 
though it is certain that the bald 
statement just made is likely to 
provoke vehement dissent from 
some educators, perhaps from many. 
But to me it appears that the fun- 
damental reason for trying to teach 
anybody anything is that the learn- 
ing of that thing qualified the pupil 
for service. There are many sorts 
of service, and there are require- 
ments common to all of them. 
Hence there are things to be 
learned by everybody and these 
come first — are taught to children. 
They open the mind; yes. They 
train the powers; yes. And the 
reason for taking pains to open the 
mind and to train the powers is 
that thus the individual is made 
more useful. It is a pity that so 
fine a word as useful may need to 
be explained. But we ought per- 
haps to remind ourselves that it is 
a very comprehensive form. It in- 
cludes the shade-tree and the rose- 
bush, as well as the wheat- field and 
the grape-vine. It applies to the 
artist and the man of letters as well 
as to the engineer, the merchant, 
the farmer, the physician, and him 
who labors more numbly with his 
hands. To enable one to become 
useful, then, is to make him compe- 



tent to render some kind of service, 
able to produce more than he con- 
sumes. 

Now it may well be that this 
principle of training with a view to 
labor will call for exactly the same 
curriculum as the principle which 
affects to ignore actual apprentice- 
ship in college life. But it— the 
principle — implies a motive in both 
teacher and pupil that is of great 
importance. 

What reason i3 there for going to 
the high school, to the college? 
There are many answers. Here is 
a very common one: "If you go to 
college," it has been said, "you 
will become one of a pleasant class 
of people. You will get your living 
more easily, escape some hardships, 
unload upon the less fortunate some 
of your portion of the world's bur- 
den of care and labor." No wonder 
that to many it seems consistent, 
then, to enter at once upon this 
easier life and to make the college 
course four years of leisure. No 
wonder that many more earnest 
souls — boys dumbly conscious of the 
unworthiness of such a motive — will 
have nothing to do with such a life, 
and surprise their parents by say- 
ing, "I don't want to go to college; 
I want to go to work." 

Convince such a youth that the 
college teaches before all else how 
to work most and best, and you 
have, if you have told the truth, 
pronounced the divine ephphatha 
to an imprisoned spirit. Can we 
do this? That, assuredly, is the 
great question for colleges to an- 
swer. It is not enough, indeed it 
is a mere trifle, that the college 
put it in the power of their grad- 
uates to live lives marked by pleas- 
ures and gratifications from which 
the uneducated are shut out. It is 
a small thimr that the college man 
is able to appreciate the great litera- 
tures of the world, able to compre- 
hend the thoughts of philosophers, 
able to understand the marvels of 
natural law as revealed by modern 



228 



THE WORK OF EDUCATION 






physical science. He may be all 
this and still be like an engine with- 
out boilers — a fine product of me- 
chanical skill, which, however, as it 
stands, is worth only a few cents a 
pound. Yet, undoubtedly, the man 
just described has gained some- 
thing, as the engine is valuable by 
virtue of its possible uses when the 
boilers are added. For the man who 
has been improved and given cause 
for self-satisfaction, may, if he will, 
still learn how to serve and exercise 
that ability to the advantage of his 
fellows. This, indeed, has been, 
in many thousands of cases, the his- 
tory of the college graduate, other- 
wise would colleges long ago have 
been abolished. He has awakened 
at graduation like one out of sleep, 
has discovered the real purposes of 
life, has fitted himself for service 
and become a real man, giving out 
more than he receives. 

But yet it is perhaps true that in 
many minds the opinion prevails 
that the training of the college is 
a thing not to be associated with 
any idea of productive labor — that 
it is well to make study and reflec- 
tion ends in themselves, without 
relation to active doing, until the stu- 
dent is graduated at the age of about 
twenty-two. It seems to me that 
this is a mistaken notion, and that 
so far as it is entertained it makes 
much harder the task of arousing 
and maintaining earnestness of pur- 
pose among undergraduates. It is 
difficult for the average young 
American to become enthusiastic 
over studies which, he is instructed, 
bear no sort of relation to that 
which is to receive his principal 
attention and absorb his energies 
during his active life. It is difficult 
to make the average young Ameri- 
can believe that learning things, 
being examined concerning them, 
and promptly forgetting them, is a 
process thoroughly improving in 
itself. Appeal is made to his pride, 
by the distinction of class-rank; to 
this need or his acquisitiveness, by 



the offer of money prizes; to his 
fears, by threats of disgrace to 
come; to his love of home and 
family, by urging the wishes of 
those to whom he owes an especial 
devotion — and, with a few, such 
considerations are effective. But 
from the mass comes the insistent 
question, "What is the use?" And 
the fact is patent that the youth's 
whole attitude changes, becomes 
alert, anxious, zealous, the moment 
he begins recognized professional 
study. It will hardly be denied 
that it is in the professional schools 
and the technical school, including 
also those graduate courses which 
have a definite purpose, that the 
most sincere and hearty studying 
is done. Now the theory that col- 
lege work should be distinctly non- 
professional is, in this country, 
comparatively modern. The older 
colleges were professional schools 
at first, their courses of study being 
supposed to provide a specific 
preparation for a particular class of 
work. The notion against which 
protest is now made grew up later 
because of the presence in college 
of men who contemplated, as a life- 
work, vocations for which the older 
courses manifestly afforded no spe- 
cial preparation. A jealousy, wholly 
unconscious, of the claim of a score 
of novel occupations this motive for 
study, which I have praised, other- 
wise characterized. It has to be 
classed as learned professions, led, I 
think, to the untenable proposition 
that a youth should be trained for 
three or four years not only without 
reference to learning how to do any 
specific thing, but without much 
thought of ever doing anything 
whatever. 

Of course it is a well-known fact 
that special schools designed to 
afford a brief professional training 
in theology, medicine and law, were 
established quite early in our his- 
tory. But their requirements were 
so meager as to make them bits and 
fragments of a college, or a college 



THE WORK OF EDUCATION 



229 






that had been spoiled in the con- 
struction, rather than professional 
schools in the modern sense. They 
were the asteroids in the educa- 
tional sky. It is a longer process 
and more difficult to fit a man for 
service than used to be supposed, 
longer and more difficult than it 
really used to be, for standards are 
higher and demands more exacting. 
My thesis takes this outline, then: 

(1) The object of education is to 
fit men and women to do some- 
thing. 

(2) All honest occupations are of 
equal dignity and for all of them 
training is necessary. 

(3) American young men will re- 
spond to the invitation to learn how 
to do real work when they will not 
respond to an invitation to improve 
themselves. 

(4) The ambition to serve is 
nobler than the desire for self-im- 
provement. 

On this last point a few words 
may well be added. Probably all 
of us have heard it condemned as 
basely material. Its application 
and results have been derided as a 
bread-and-butter theory of educa- 
tion. Well, it is possible for men 
to do more shameful things than to 
earn a living. Such instances have 
been known. Many of us learned 
a good while ago and from a cata- 
chism of some historical importance 
that a part of man's duty to his 
neighbor is "to learn and labor 
truly to get (his) own living." 

The principal source of our pres- 
ent social troubles seems to be the 
desire to get a living without learn- 
ing and laboring truly — the desire 
sometimes expressing itself through 
unrighteous enterprises undertaken 
by the rich ; and sometimes through 
attempts by the poor to render less 
than a fair equivalent for their 
wage. There has been a general 
weakening of our old pride in labor 
for its own sake, a loss of the old 
intensity of satisfaction in the well- 
doing of honorable tasks. 



So, even if it were just to call 
education with special view to ser- 
vice a bread-and-butter education, 
one might well reply that a college 
which should do something to make 
its graduates conspicuously fit and 
conspicuously desirous to earn a 
living, would deserve well of the 
Republic. But, nevertheless, it 
may freely be conceded that the 
wish to learn the just reward of 
labor is not the highest motive. 
But that is not the motive which 
actuates the man who really desires 
to be of use in the world. The 
desire to serve means high ideals, 
self-sacrifice, altruism, faith in God 
and man, charity. It means a will- 
ingness to give one's self utterly to 
others. It is the one great motive 
which may most confidently be ap- 
pealed to in American youth; yes. 
in all men, young or old, whom we 
are ready to honor. You will find 
it in the heart of the boy who 
studies by day and works by night 
to get through college and the pro- 
fessional school. 

It urged and urges the generous 
men and women of the past and 
present who made and make it pos- 
sible for young men, rich and poor 
alike, to obtain their education here 
in the eastern states for far less 
than cost. It is the spirit which 
moves our younger commonwealths 
to charge themselves with the main- 
tenance of their magnificent state 
universities. It is the motive 
powers of the world. So, fellow 
teachers, let us lay aside all fear of 
commercialism, of materialism, of 
trade and trades, and put ourselves 
frankly in sympathy with the 
noblest aspiration in the human 
heart, the desire to do something 
that ought to be done the best that 
it can be done. Let us say to our 
pupils that the reason for studying 
this branch or that is that a knowl- 
edge of it is useful — that thev will 
need it in their business. If the 
student asks why, tell him. Or if 
you cannot, then consider whether 



THE WORK OF EDUCATION 



the branch is really worth studying 
by that man and that time. Shall 
we have maul training? Let things 
be made that some one else wants. 
Are we to teach a language? Teach 
the pupil to use it, to express his 
thoughts in it. Have we courses in 
the sciences? Let the students un- 
derstand how to apply science to 
the actual problems of life and 
especially to that greatest and most 
practical of all problems— the find- 
ing out of God by man. Let the 
historian feel that he is revealing 
mankind to men and that under- 
standing mankind leads to a most 
useful trade. 

The curriculum perhaps will not 
be changed because we assume this 
mental attitude. We shall get no 
further light on the relative impor- 
tance of various degrees nor shall 
we attain certitude as to the proper 
length of the college course. But I 
think that if we trouble ourselves 
less concerning the influence of the 
several branches of knowledge on 
the human mind and considerably 
more concerning the applicability 
of those branches in human lives, 
we shall do something toward re- 
storing to college experience that 
intellectual earnestness, that strong 
desire to learn, and to learn how, 
that seems not always present in all 
colleges to-day. 

We are troubled because it is 
hard for us to understand that all 
trades have become professions; 
that literature and art and theology 
and law and medicine and com- 
merce and engineering, and agri- 
culture, and every other righteous 
human employment, are all on an 
absolute level of dignity; that each 
of them demands skilled experts 
and in the long run, will have no 
others. We are unwisely afraid 
that learning may be degraded by 
association with man's needs and 
man's progress. Believe me, no 
keen thirst for knowledge, no rever- 
ence for the wisdom of the ages, no 
self-consecration of the highest 



things will perish, if we teach our 
students that all their acquirements 
and training bear directly upon 
their efficiency as laborers in the 
Garden of God. Let us teach all 
things as at West Point tactics and 
strategy are taught — teach all things 
as means for advancing the glory of 
man by service, unto life's end — 
teach them as a definite preparation 
for definite work, or as inquiries 
concerning matters which men must 
understand if they would continue 
to advance, and in explaining which 
good may be done to others. 

We need not fear that we shall 
produce mere money-getters; for 
we shall be rather developing 
money-makers — L e. y those who add 
to the material and spiritual re- 
sources of mankind. This is what, 
as I think, the world wants of us, 
and will have of us or others who 
will be called to take our places if 
we fail. American colleges have 
not, thus far, led public opinion or 
directed progress in any large way. 

They have followed unwillingly 
at a distance. But it is time that 
we understood that nothing is more 
futile than to resist the well-defined 
trend of the aggregate of human 
thought. For the well-defined trend 
of the aggregate of human thought 
is upward, toward what is best, else 
were there no God. 

It is hoped that in every college, 
whether the branches taught may 
be few or many, learning may be 
regarded as a set of tools, not as 
doses of medicine; as something 
whose results will be found outside 
the learner, not inside of him. 

It is altogether likely that what 
we now call professional schools 
will always be necessary to com- 
plete the formal training of the 
young and give to the new life its 
final impulse. But surely it were 
well that the colleges should do 
their earlier work with the same 
high ideals, the same consecration, 
their students striving with all sin- 
cerity to become useful. Most 



THE WORK OF EDUCATION 



231 



young men will do that, if they 
really understand that such is the 
purpose of education, and out of 
that effort to become of avail to 
others will surely grow the sweet, 
cultured humanity that is so beauti- 
ful to look upon and so precious to 
possess. It is a mighty work that 
colleges undertake. The steady 
accumulation of the treasures of 
knowledge; that is, the increasing 
complexity of the weapons needed 
for winning the further progress of 
civilization, has made exceeding 
difficult, the problem of widely train- 
ing our young soldiers and servants 
to fight and work. The man who 
could do great service fifty years 
ago would be ill-equipped indeed 
for bearing the burdens of to-day. 
That is one good reason for the 
fact that trained men begin their 



productive labor later in life than 
they did a generation since. It 
takes longer to learn how because 
the work is more difficult. It has 
been truly remarked that the epoch 
of the so-called self-made man is 
probably about to close. Men all 
need thorough training hencefor- 
ward. So there must be many more 
schools, more colleges, more uni- 
versities; more and larger ones. 
The present must provide for the 
future, as the past provided for the 
present, by furnishing rich endow- 
ment for the training of the men of 
the coming years. Every man, and 
especialh r every college man, is a 
legatee of his predecessors. No man 
pays for his education, as he gets it. 
But he can recognize his obligation 
later and pass along, augmented, the 
heritage that he has enjoyed. 



ADVICE FROM POOR RICHARD'S ALMANAC 



PLOUGH DEEP, WHILE SLUGGARDS SLEEP ; 

AND YOU SHALL HAVE CORN TO SELL AND TO KEEP 



LAZINESS TRAVELS SO SLOWLY, THAT POVERTY SOON OVERTAKES HIM 



HE THAT RISETH LATE MUST TROT ALL DAY. AND SHALL SCARCE 
OVERTAKE HIS BUSINESS AT NIGHT 



NOW I HAVE A SHEEP AND A COW EVERYBODY BIDS ME "GOOD MORROW" 



THE AGE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE 

MEMORIES OF EIGHTY-SEVEN YEARS LIVING CLOSE TO 
THE SOIL AND TRYING TO LEARN THE GREAT LES- 
SONS OF NATURE FROM THE DAYS OF HOMESPUN 



BY 

THEODORE SEDGWICK GOLD 

FIRST SECRETARY OF CONNECTICUT STATE BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE 

The distinguished author of this informal writing is 87 years of age, having been born March 2d, 1818, the son of 
Dr. Samuel Wadsworth Gold. Theodore Sedgwick Gold was graduated from Yale College in 1838, and in May, 1845, 
he established, with his father, an agricultural school at their farm, Cream Hill, West Cornwall, Connecticut. At the 
beginning there were but four pupils, afterwards increased to twenty, the capacity of the school. For twenty-four 
years, until April, 1869, this institution united classical and scientific education with theoretical and practical instruc- 
tion in agriculture, also encouraging a taste for the pursuits of rural life, developing and strengthening the body with 
the mind. The writer of the following article has been officially connected with the Connecticut State Agricultural 
Society from its beginning in 1853. Thirty-four successive years, beginning in 1866, he was secretary of the Connecti- 
cut State Board of Agriculture. His name is closely woven with the development of the Storrs School and Agricultural 
College, the Connecticut Experiment Station and many other state institutions. To-day, Dr. Gold is distinguished 
as possibly the oldest agricultural educator in this country, and is a fellow of A. A. A. S., member Am. Pom Soc.,, 
Am. For. Ass'n, Nat. Geo. Soc, Am. Hist. Ass'n, Founders and Patriots, Sons of American Revolution, and many 
other scholarly organizations — Editor 



THE last century witnessed 
great change in the econ- 
omic conditions of the world, 
and nowhere greater than in 
New England. First we have the 
"age of homespun," in which e very- 
family and neighborhood raised the 
raw material and fitted it for use. 
They gathered from the forest, 
cultivated land and the sea, mater- 
ial for food and clothing, sufficient 
for their own use and also to. pro- 
cure many of the luxuries from 
other climates. Thus agriculture, 
manufactures and commerce had 
their origin, agriculture always 
taking precedence. The boys and 
girls grew up not only with a 
knowledge of how these things were 
obtained, but by actual service in 
the field and the household formed 
those habits of thrift and of econo- 
my which are to-day the foundation 
of all individual and national 
wealth. 

The numerous streams threading 
every valley were not allowed to be 
idle when all men were so busy. 
The water-wheel drove the mill- 
stone that took the place of the 
samp mortar. The saw mill fur- 
nished boards for building, in place 



of logs, and the cording machine 
made the rolls of wool for spinning. 
It was in this practical school that 
the Yankee boy, with his jack-knife, 
developed, in making everything 
for utility or comfort. His amuse- 
ments all took a practical turn. 
His water-wheel drove his trip 
hammer. In his primitive stove of 
flat stones he roasted potatoes and 
apples; he trapped the wily fox and 
other game; always busy himself, 
when not on errands for others. 

This brings us along early in the 
century of the "age of inventions," 
when the Yankee not only "made 
everything, but made the machine 
to make it with. " Agricultural im- 
plements were of the rudest char- 
acter; the plows mostly of wood, 
shod with a steel point and straps 
of iron ; the grain of the wood from 
which they were hewed governed 
their form. In stony soil frequent 
trips were required to the black- 
smith shop to sharpen the point. 
Every neighborhood must have its 
blacksmith; a post office within five 
or ten miles might answer, but that 
distance for a smith's shop was too 
great. All common tools for farm 
and household were made there and 



THE AGE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE 



233 



their quality depended upon the 
skill of the artisan. The harrow 
was entirely of wood, and, when the 
.season's work was done, was left 
to rot by the side of the field — for 
what man or boy who had driven 
team to drag it over the field did not 
feel sure he could make a better one J 

In connection with this, and fol- 
lowing it closely, came the "age of 
manufactures." Witness the work 
in iron, silver, copper, tin and other 
metals; in wood, in rubber, in wool, 
in cotton, and silk; clocks for the 
world, watches for the millions, 
tools for the artificer and the farmer, 
sewing machines for the house- 
holds — true advance guards of civil- 
ization. I saw them thirty years 
ago in the log house of the Hudson, 
near the Rockies, thus replacing 
the native blanket with modern 
dress. Connecticut has been in the 
lead in all inventions, whether for 
war or for peace. 

Then comes the last triumph of 
the century, the "age of science," 
in which all the knowledge of the 
past and the discoveries of the pres- 
ent have united to bring under con- 
trol the hitherto hidden forces of 
nature and make them subservient 
to .the human will. To-day they 
are setting their powers at work to 
relieve human toil and fulfill their 
purpose in perfecting the world's 
labor. 

How has our agriculture fared in 
this century of progress — this on- 
ward march of humanity? We may 
begin to speak of agriculture with 
the first half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. A fertile soil with broken 
surface, well watered by springs 
and streams and covered by forests, 
which by their shelter not only 
preserved the springs and streams 
in their permanence and purity, but 
also tempered the rigors of winter 
and the heats of summer and sup- 
plied abundant material for build- 
ing, fencing and fuel, these condi- 
tions united to scatter the popula- 
tion over the state at an early date. 



Every farm was self-centered, for 
it supplied all its own wants, and 
was not dependent for a market for 
sale or purchase. All the grains, 
fruits and vegetables of temperate 
climates flourished and bore fruit 
abundantly. The apple orchards 
were mostly seedlings; some very 
good and some only fit for cider, 
which was hardly regretted as this 
was then the chief object in orchard 
planting. Sometimes suckers were 
taken from favorite trees, thus 
securing several of the same kind. 
Grafting was rarely practiced, 
though an ancient art. The oldest 
apple tree I recall is a grafted 
"seek-no-farther" on my farm, the 
only survivor of an orchard planted 
by my great grandmother, Sarah 
Douglas Wadsworth, soon after 
1760, while her husband, Samuel 
Wadsworth, was plowing. It still 
bears fruit; though the trunk is 
now a one-sided shell. Two "pear- 
main" trees were in the same 
orchard. In another orchard on my 
farm were four American golden 
russets and one "seek-no-farther." 
All of these have borne fruit in 
modern times and some of it took 
the first prize at the New Orleans 
Exposition for apples grown on 
trees over one hundred years. 

Pear trees, mostly wild seedlings, 
grew vigorously, but the choicer 
kinds were confined to village and 
city gardens, until the "Bartlett" 
came in and captured the state. 

The old sour "pie-cherry" grew 
and fruited abundantly, renewing 
itself in hedge rows. English 
cheeries fruited well wherever 
planted in village or city gardens, 
surely in rural districts. 

Plums of common varieties, once 
planted by the garden wall, re- 
newed themselves. There was also 
the quince, forming the principal 
supply for preserves. 

Peaches grown from the pits 
were planted in the garden corners 
and renewed from time to time. 
Thev were healthy and hardy and 



234 THE AGE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE 



many bore fruit of exceeding excel- 
lence. One tree on the farm of 
Judson Adams of Cornwall attained 
an age of over one hundred years 
and bore excellent fruit. Standing 
in a pasture, it was broken down by 
cattle, but renewed itself by sprout- 
ing from the stump. 

Of small fruits, currants and 
gooseberries were in every old-time 
garden. Wild strawberries were 
abundant, but in cultivation were 
confined to a few village and city 
gardens and were not sold in the 
market. Wild grapes were abund- 
ant with their rare flavor for jams 
and jellies, but grapes were not 
much of a market product until the 
4 'Isabella," the "Hartford Prolific," 
the "Concord," and the "Dela- 
ware," with a multitude of competi- 
tors, were cultivated. The orange, 
the lemon and the banana were 
about the only tropical fruits that 
reached the north. I remember 
about sixty years ago seeing Presi- 
dent Day of Yale working in the 
strawberry bed in his garden near 
the present Battell Chapel, and his 
example there made a more lasting 
impression on me than all the ex- 
amples in his Algebra or mathe- 
matics. 

A change has taken place in all 
of these fruits during the century. 
They have been attacked by 
various diseases and many insects, 
yet they have largely increased in 
quality, quantity and commercial 
value, in spite of all their enemies. 
The apple has to combat the borer, 
the caterpillar, codling moth, 
maggot, canker worm and fungi; 
the pear and quince must fight the 
borer, blight and "pear psylla" ; 
the peach is attacked by the borer 
and the yellows ; the plum by the 
knot and curculio; the currant and 
the gooseberry by worms destroy- 
ing the leaf and thence the crop — 
and still a more vicious enemy is 
the San Jose scale, which is so small 
that it can scarcely be recognized 
by the naked eye and yet is a com- 



mon enemy to all our fruit-growing 
trees and shrubs. In Massachusetts 
the Gypsy moth and the browntail 
moth, imported from Europe, de- 
stroy fruit and forest trees. The 
national government must take hold 
and eradicate these pests or they 
will become a national agricultural 
calamity if neglected. 

During the War of 1812 the 
women of New Haven raised silk 
worms on leaves of the white mul- 
berry and made quite a quantity of 
sewing silk. The industry spread 
to some of the rural towns, notably 
Mansfield, where large groves of 
mulberry trees were planted, and 
the raising of silk and its manufac- 
ture promised success for a quarter 
of a century. About that time the 
Mosus multicaulis was introduced 
from China — a species with very 
large leaves and rapid growth, yet 
too tender for our climate. The 
multicaulis craze was the wildest 
ever known in the country. In 
those days trials in silk raising were 
common all over the country. As 
a boy of ten years I brought some 
silk-worm eggs from Poughkeepsie 
to Goshen and raised a few hundred 
silk worms, walking a mile daily to 
get leaves from a single white mul- 
berry tree. The worms thrived 
and did good work, but I did not 
choose to repeat my experience 
traveling for leaves, so I sowed a 
plot of four square rods with the 
white mulberry in the garden on 
our Cornwall farm. They grew 
well but before they were large 
enough to transplant the multicaulis 
bubble burst like a bomb, carrying 
in its destruction all the enthusiasm 
for silk culture. A boy tires quick- 
ly, but it will be noted that he re- 
covers as quickly after a brief rest. 
In 1844 I sent to Mansfield for a 
few hundred eggs and, with the aid 
of one of the New Haven silk 
raisers, we raised the worms from 
those young trees, and made sew- 
ing silk from the cocoons. I have 
only one tree left to show from that 



THE AGE OF AGRI CULTURAL SCLENCE 235 



planting, but I have the silk, and 
better than that — the experience. 

In the last half century Connecti- 
cut has done much in securing and 
disseminating knowledge pertain- 
ing to agriculture. Yale College in 
1846 appointed John Pitkin Norton 
of Farmington as professor of agri- 
cultural chemistry. His early death 
in '52 removed a man of the highest 
promise. John A. Porter succeeded 
him as professor of agricultural 
chemistry and organic chemistry; 
he died in 1866. Professor Porter 
arranged for a course of lectures at 
Yale beginning February 1, i860, 
and lasting for four weeks. This 
was the greatest farmers' institute 
ever held in the country. Lecturers 
came from all parts of the country; 
students and professors of agricul- 
ture, as well as practical men in all 
departments of agriculture and hor- 
ticulture. The condition of the 
country prevented the continuation 
of these lectures in succeeding 
years. Professor Samuel W. John- 
son was appointed professor of ana- 
lytical and agricultural chemistry at 
Yale in 1856. In 1858 he was ap- 
pointed chemist by the State Agri- 
cultural Society and employed in 
the analysis of fertilizers. This 
work was continued later by the 
State Board of Agriculture. 

In 1875 a vigorous campaign of 
instruction upon the subject of ex- 
periment stations was conducted by 
farmers' institutes held in all parts 
of the state and addressed by Pro- 
fessors Johnson and Atwater, and 
by printed documents. Part of the 
state press united in securing legis- 
lative action appropriating $2,800 
per year for two years to Wesleyan 
University for the work of a sta- 
tion. There was also a gift of 
$1,000 by Orange Judd and the free 
use of a laboratory in Judd Hall. 
Dr. W. O. Atwater, professor of 
chemistry at Wesleyan, having re- 
cently returned from Germany, was 
appointed director. The success 
was such that at the end"of the two 



years the General Assembly made a 
permanent and more liberal provis- 
ion and appointed a committee with 
authority to establish and locate 
the station and elect a director. 

The Sheffield Scientific School of 
Yale offered free use of laboratory ; 
Professor Johnson was chosen di- 
rector and the station located at 
New Haven. 

Dr. Atwater is still a member of 
board of control of the station and 
later was director of Storrs Experi- 
ment Station, and under his charge 
have been conducted the most val- 
uable experiments on tood and 
nutrition. 

Later the New Haven station, 
under Dr. Johnson, purchased facili- 
ties for extensive development, 
which is now in charge of Dr. E. 
H. Jenkins, a worthy successor to 
Professor Johnson. Professor Wil- 
liam H. Brewer, professor of agri- 
culture in 1864, is the last name I 
shall mention here. With talents 
as versatile and as comprehensive 
as agriculture itself, indefatigable 
industry as an explorer, always a 
student of nature, he is an authority 
upon every subject from the forest 
crowned hills and broad prairies, 
especially pertaining to their sub- 
jugation to the uses of man. 

It is difficult to prophesy the 
future of Connecticut agriculture. 
Old practices must give way to new 
ones, guided by the light of science, 
but it seems to me that for success 
we are to look to the dairy, sheep 
husbandry, orchard culture, and 
forestry, with their associates, such 
as poultry and bees. In these I 
believe there is health and inde- 
pendence, with pecuniary reward 
greater than that secured by the 
globe trotter who is looking for 
broader fields to exercise his powers. 
Surely, the light from our experi- 
ment stations and agricultural col- 
lege should make this age of agri- 
cultural science more progressive 
and efficient than any previous era 
in the world's historv. 



THE ROSE AND THE NIGHTINGALE 

BY 

DR. FREDERICK H. WILLIAMS 

OF BRISTOL, CONNECTICUT 
AUTHOR OF MANY POEMS IN THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS 

It was a beautiful fancy of Persian poesy, that the Nightingale loved the Rose, and wooed her nightly with his 
lopeless song. The Turkish poet, Mohamed Fasli, wrote a long poem on this subject, which is full of a weird beauty 
and some exquisite fancy. It is entitled, " GUI and Bulbul." Gul is the rose, Bulbul the Nightingale. I have only 
used the thought incidentally; the main idea actuating ine is the samenessof all nature, in the power to feel and suffer, 
-as well as to create poesy. 

In sweet June nights, to the Red Rose tree 
The lonely Biilbiil sings by me. 
The Red Rose sits on her thorny stem, 
Crowning the night like a diadem ; 
Quivers and shakes to the Biilbiil's tune — 
But kisses the Dew with her lips of June. 

The Bulbul plaints till the stars grow dim, 
Their tears like dew fall over him ; 
The Night Wind carries the heart-ful strain 
Where Echo whispers the sad refrain ; 
The Red Rose droops on her thorny stem, 
It pains her heart like a requiem. 

The Red Rose wakes to the kiss of Dawn, 
The idling Dew from her breast is drawn, 
Her face to the laughing Sun is turned, 
The lowly Biilbiil's voice is spurned. 
His sweet song turns to a bitter moan, 
His heart falls still like a cold, cold stone. 

Oh! come and tune thy voice with me, 
And sing no more to the Red Rose tree; 
Come sing with me to the Maiden Fair, 
With Wonder Smile and the raven hair; 
Perchance her heart shall kinder be 
Than the Red, Red Rose that loves not thee. 

A dainty laugh and a Maiden Fair — 

The Red Rose gleams in the raven hair ; 

The Biilbiil's song dies stilled in fear 

The Wonder Smile and the Dream draws near — 

The Red, Red Rose in the dust is thrown, 

The Maiden Fair with a lover flown. 

But ever yet in the nights of June, 
From the Red Rose tree plaints Biilbul's tune; 
Lonely we float down memory's streams 
With vanished smiles and the ghosts of dreams ; 
Yet who would miss from memory's Sea 
Ghosts that are dear as the things that be ? 



COUNTRY LIFE IN CONNECTICUT 




SPRINGTIME 







►J 

Sg 

o £ 

h h 




- 

a - 

1 Z 

- 

- 
C G 




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- - 



- 




AN EMBRYO AMERICAN JUST TRANSPLANTED FROM IRELAND 

THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 

MASSACHUSETTS IS THE MOST FOREIGN STATE IN 
THE UNION AND CONNECTICUT IS CLOSE BEHIND — 
PURITAN NEW ENGLAND TO-DAY IS ABOUT 60 PER CENT 
OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE* INVESTIGATIONS MADE 



BY 

REV. JOEL S. IVES 

SECRETARY OF THE MISSIONARY SOCIETY OF CONNECTICUT 



THE first foreigner in New 
England landed on Plymouth 
Rock in 1620. Others landed 
later on the shores of Long 
Island Sound. We are an Anglo- 
Saxon - Celtic - Germanic - Franco - 
Scandinavian people. The North 
American native in New England 
is fast becoming a minus quantity. 
By the census of 1900 there were 153 
Indians enumerated in Connecticut. 

High-Tide Immigration 

Immigration as a problem be- 
longs to the last forty years. The 



rapid enlargement of national re- 
sources after the Civil War proved 
an attraction to the Old World, for 
the immigration of 72,183 in 1863 
increased to 459,803 in 1872, and 
after decreasing steadily till 1878 
reached its high-tide mark in 1882 
of 788,992. Its next highest point 
was in 1892, 579,663. These are 
large figures, and they have rapidly 
increased the percentage of foreign 
parentage in the whole country. 
From 1892 there was a decrease in 
immigration till in 1898 the number 
was 229,299, but since that date the 



*This article is the latest report of Mr. Ives and is revised from previous compilations 
exclusively for the Connecticut magazine 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 



245 



increase has been rapid far beyond 
all expectation and has already out- 
stripped the record of 1882. 

It is to be particularly noted that 
immigration preceding this last 
rapid increase was largely from the 
northern tier of European nations — 
the same peoples who, after the 
sixteenth century discipline of relig- 
ious warfare, came in the seven- 
teenth century to found and build 
the Republic of the New World. 
They were the Huguenots and the 
German .patriots, the Covenanters 
and the Puritans, the Swiss moun- 
taineers and the Dutch Lowlanders, 
the followers of Gustavus Adolphus 
and the soldiers of William theSilent. 

New England received its share 
of this influx from Northern Europe, 
but a large proportion found its way 
across the prairies and aided in peo- 
pling the ' ' Great American Desert. ' ' 




FROM SWITZERLAND TO CONNECTICUT 



During the ten years ending with 
1874 the immigration into the 
United States was 3,337,478; during 
the next decade, 3,893,230; during 
the next, 4,531,619, and during the 
decade ending with 1904, 4,628,798; 
making a total for forty years of 
16,391,125, and an annual average 
of over 400,000. This has raised 
the percentage of foreign parentage 
from 28.2 in 1870 to 34.3 in 1900. 

Since 1898 the annual increase 
has been more than 100,000 and 
the records for 1903 and 1904 out- 
strip all the rest. March, April, 
May and June of 1903 and May and 
June of 1904 average more than 
100,000 each. Such figures break 
all the records of the Immigration 
Office. Aliens reach us in large 
numbers across the Canadian and 
Mexican borders who are not 
tabulated. Think of it! Practi- 
cally two million aliens added to 
our population in 1903 and 1904! 

Present Sources of Immigration 

It is no longer the north of 
Europe which is sending these 
vast multitudes to our shores. 
In large proportion they come 
from Southern Europe, from 
Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, from Aus- 
tria-Hungary with its thirteen 
different kinds of peoples, from 
Poland and Russia, Turkey, 
Greece and Portugal. 

During the year 1904, 166,049 
immigrants have come from 
Russia; 158,467 from Italy — 
six-sevenths from Southern 
Italy; 153,096 from Austria- 
Hungary; in all, 4 7 7- ()I - f rom 
a total European immigration 
for the year of 71 7, 2 43^ or 66 P er 
cent. 

It is interesting to note that 
during the twelve months of 
1903 the Russian immigration was 
148,^619, Italian 232,606, and Aus- 
trian 233,510; a total of 614,735, 
or 69 per cent of the European out- 
put. The immigration from those 
three countries for two years 



246 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW E N G I A N D 




ftheC. H. M. S. 

SPANISH BOYS THAT HAVE BECOME ADOPTED SONS OF CONNECTICUT 



is 1,092,346; the total immigration, 
1,694,823. These are the largest 
figures of the Immigration Office. 
It is to be noted that the decrease 
during 1904 of about 150,000 is 
largely among the Italians and 
Hungarians, while there has been 
a gain from Russia. 

These people of Italy, Austria 
and Russia are poor, superstitious, 
ignorant and indifferent, if not hos- 
tile, to all forms of both church and 
state. The oppressions of church 
and state have driven them forth. 
Of those over fourteen years of age, 
in last year's immigration, 28.7 per 
cent were illiterate. The southern 
Italians were more than half illiter- 
ate. It is an enormous burden upon 
the body politic. It is the unsolved 
problem of our free institutions. 
We have absorbed into our Ameri- 
canism the Saxon, the Celt and the 
German; it remains to be deter- 
mined what we can do with the 
Latin, the Slav and the Hun. We 
point with pride to our past, but 
what shall be said of New Haven, 
with a quarter of its people Italians 
and Hebrews, or of Fall River or 



Woonsocket, where almost nine out 
of every ten are of foreign parent- 
age? 

An increasing proportion of the 
present immigration is coming into- 
New England. The average alien 
brings with him but $16 — the 
southern Italian but $10 — and there- 
fore in his poverty is perforce pre- 
cipitated upon these Atlantic shores. 
New England, in 1870, was 30 per 
cent foreign, and in 1900, 48 per 
cent. For southern New England 
the figures are even more striking — 
41.5 in 1870 and 6T.3 in 1900. 
These three states are more than 62 
per cent of foreign parentage — that 
is, more than three-fifths. If three 
generations should be counted, 
hardly more than one-quarter of 
southern New England is native. 

New England No Longer Puritan 

Emigration, also, is to be remem- 
bered. In Connecticut during the 
last decade it was 15 per cent. 
There are 65,000 New Englanders- 
in New York City and 100,000 on 
the Pacific slopes. At the same 
time the birth and death rate con- 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 247 




NORWEGIAN 



ITALIAN 



ARABIC 



stantly favor the new comer. These 
sturdy young people, with their 
large families, are crowding to the 
front. The Pilgrim and Puritan 
have had their day. Gregorian 
chants and Hebrew synagogues and 
sunny Italy have new meanings as 
we read the records of fifty different 
nationalities coming into our cities 
and towns, driving native help 
from our factories, buying up our 
"abandoned farms," holding the 
balance of power in political and 
moral questions, and making the 
future of not a few of our churches 
dependent upon these very "strang- 
ers and foreigners." Over 95,000 
Italians, and about as many more 
Austria-Hungarians, have come into 
New England in the last five 
years. The five New England cities 
of Fall River (86.1), Holyoke (83.2), 
Lawrence (83.1), Lowell (77.9), and 
Woonsocket (83.6), have a higher 
percentage of foreign population 
than New York (76.9), Chicago 
(77.4) or San Francisco (75.2). 

During the year 1904, 58,411 
aliens came into Massachusetts, only 
New York and Pennsylvania receiv- 
ing more. This is a larger number 
than went into the fifteen states and 
territories of Arizona, Colorado, 
Idaho, Kansas, Minnesota, Mon- 
tana, Nebraska, Nevada, North 
Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South 
Dakota, Washington, Wisconsin and 



Wyoming. Add the immigration 
into the rest of New England and 
the appeal for missionary work in 
the East is tremendous. 

New England Missionary Ground 

In the "Winning of the West" 
New England civilization has had a 
large and honored share. The 
home, the school house and the 
church which made this unique 
civilization have gone with the New 
Englander in his westward crusades. 
The rocky farms of Connecticut and 
the hill towns of Massachusetts 
have poured out with a lavish hand 
for the character building of our 
Western Empires. It is a noble 
missionary history ; but times have 
changed and, while the western 
need continues and in many parts 
increases, there is a new and im- 
perative demand for missionary 
endeavor in old New England. The 
Gospel must reach these incoming 
thousands or the New England 1 
Christian civilization will cl\i>. 
be. New England does not ask 
help from her giant children oi the 
West, but she does ask that these 
children remember the long and 
generous care of the past; as well, 
too, the new and changed conditions 
bringing their new and increased 
demand for missionarv work in the 
East. Connecticut has given four 
and a half million dollars to this 



248 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 



home missionary enterprise, and 
eighty-six cents out of every dollar 
have gone out of the state. We 
will gladly give in the years to 
come, but we simply cannot do it 
unless a largely augmented stream 
of benevolence provides for mis- 
sionary work at home. We are now 
in the condition of an army when 
the base of supplies is in danger. 
And the serious thing is that so 
few appreciate the fact. 

Connecticut the Pioneer 

Connecticut is the pioneer in mis- 
sions. The General Association 
began the prosecution of missions 
to the new and frontier settlements 
of the country as early as the year 
1774 and The Missionary Society of 
Connecticut was formally organized 
in 1798, being thus the oldest mis- 
sionary society of America. Massa- 
chusetts is the pioneer of foreign 
work. A grant was made to the 
German church in Boston in 1837 
and was continued for twenty-eight 
years. Swedish work began in 
1866, and a grant was made to the 
Hollanders in 1874 and the same 
year to the French. In 1885 the 
Swett legacy was received, which 
permitted the setting apart of 
$100,000 for the rapidly expanding 
foreign work, as well as the appro- 
priation of $150,000 to the national 
society. The French-American Col- 



lege was established and a weekly 
newspaper, partly in French and 
partly in English, published. 

Oh, that some large - minded 
donor might make possible still 
wider enlargement of this glorious 
work, not in Massachusetts only, 
but in every part of the Master's 
Kingdom! Alas, the Swett legacy 
is all expended! 

Foreign Work in New England 

In Massachusetts the Gospel is 
preached in their own native tongue 
to Armenians, Finns, French, Ger- 
mans, Greeks, Italians, Norwe- 
gians, Poles, Swedes and Syrians at 
an expense of $20,000 annually. 
There are thirty - three foreign 
churches with 2,787 members. 

Massachusetts is the most foreign 
state in the Union and Connecticut 
is close behind. 

Connecticut reaches the Armen- 
ians, Chinese, Danes, Finns, French, 
Germans, Italians, Norwegians, 
Swedes and Syrians, at an expense 
of $9,000, and counts about 2,000 in 
the membership of twenty-eight 
foreign churches. By the employ- 
ment of general missionaries at least 
one hundred different points in the 
state are Foreign Missionary Stations. 

In Maine there are two Scandina- 
vian churches, in Vermont three 
Swedish churches, and in Rhode 
Island five. Rhode Island ministers 




SLAVONIC 



JEWISH 



POLACK 



LITHUANIAN 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 



249 




MR. ESPERTI PREACHING TO ITALIANS AT KENT, CONN. 



also to the Armenians, Greeks and 
Portuguese, spending about 40 per 
cent for foreign work. Many of 
our larger churches have Chinese 
classes in the Sunday schools. 

It is a matter of encouragement 
that the regular membership of our 
churches includes so many who are 
enumerated under foreign parent- 
age. In Connecticut our churches 
have representatives of thirty-three 
different nationalities upon the 
church rolls, and not less than one- 
sixth of the membership is of for- 
eign parentage. It is probable that 
the ratio would be larger in Rhode 
Island and Massachusetts. The 
leaven therefore has been working. 
Have we faith to believe that it 
will leaven the whole lump? 

No one has ever questioned the 
wisdom of the plan by which the 
heterogeneous masses of our early 
settlements were fused into a com- 
pact civilization. No one can deny 



that the Gospel was the mighty fac- 
tor in this accomplishment. We 
have witnessed in this generation 
the rejoicing of the desert as it has 
been made to blossom like the rose 
under the benign influences of the 
Gospel, like the irrigating streams 
from the hills that have changed 
the hot sands to fertile fields. The 
river that has flowed from out the 
throne of God is broad enough and 
deep enough to bear up and carry 
onward the nations of the earth. It 
is just this Gospel which can and 
which must civilize and save these 
thousands of the dreps of Europe 
now brought to New England. 

The Gospel the Solution of ihk 
Probi fm 

It is claimed that the pulpit has 
lost power in not having a clear and 
definite message. No preaching 
can have power without it. My 
conviction is bed-rock that the sal- 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 



251 



vation of New England, whether 
we consider the wealth and luxury 
of the city, or the problems of the 
rural community, or the inflowing 
multitudes of the foreign born, is in 
bringing the Gospel of God's great 
grace to the life of the individual. 
The plan is as old as Paul's solution 
of the problem at Corinth. The 
difficulty is in making personal and 
definite its application. There are 
not enough people in New England 
who clearly believe that the Gospel 
is the power of God unto salvation 
to the Italian working on the rail- 
road, or the Hungarian in the shops, 
or the German on the farm. If we 
believe in missions at all we are 
ready to pray, and give a little money 
for the conversion of naked savages 
in Africa, or on the Fiji Islands, 
while too many of us have no 
faith at all in foreign missions at 
home. 

Our first obligation is to believe 
that the Gospel is the solution of 



our difficulties. Immigration laws 
should keep out certain well-defined 
classes of aliens, but the solution of 
our troubles is not in the line of 
stricter immigration laws. God has 
a purpose in bringing the peoples 
of every nation that the sun shines 
upon into this favored New Eng- 
land. We must fall in with the 
plans of the Infinite. We must 
open our eyes and our hearts and 
our hands to the work God is giving 
us to do. Material things are not 
the only avenues to great achieve- 
ments. In spiritual matters not the 
less this twentieth century can work 
wonders. Not only is the news of 
all the world brought hourly to our 
attention, but the very nations 
themselves are thronging our 
streets, crowding and jostling us at 
every turn. These nations must be 
born in a day. The magnificent 
resources of these hundreds of 
churches in New England, of these 
thousands of church members and 




FRENCH CHURCH, TORRINGTON, CONN 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 253 



of these millions of money must 
bring about magnificent results. 

We speak of "desirable" and 
"undesirable" immigrants. There 
is need of caution here. The south- 
ern Italians in two years have con- 
tributed to our wealth 233 sculptors 
and 440 musicians. The Yankee is 
surely not over-stocked with the 
artistic. The brightest scholars in 
our public schools are the Russian 
Jews and the Italians. Such Poles 
as Kosciusko and Pulaski or Chopin, 
Paderewski, Modjeska and Mme. 
Sklodonski Curie, are "desirable." 
Kossuth was a Magyar and Nicola 
Tesla a Croatian, and John Huss a 
Slovak and Marconi is an Italian. 
Immigration means a bugle call of 
opportunity. 

The Work Needs Generous Gifts 

Money is needed for this work. 
Generous gifts are an absolute 
necessity for the successful prosecu- 
tion of the enterprise. Nothing 
worth doing in this world can suc- 
ceed without money. Our libraries, 
our hospitals, our parks, our colleges 
have secured large endowments and 
are able to minister to the increas- 
ing demands of our times because 
of these resources. Such large be- 
quests and gifts are the proof of 
what the Gospel has wrought in the 
world. The time is not distant 
when, more in accordance with the 
demand, money will flow freely in 
the distinctively religious channels 
represented by the church and mis- 
sionary operations. From a merely 
business point of view there is no 
more hopeful investment of funds 
than the giving of money for the 
uplifting and assimilating of these 
thousands of aliens who are nocking 
into New England. Like the sturdy 
men who of many an alien nation- 
ality wrought out our national 
unity and integrity, because we had 
wrought them into our body poli- 
tic — ready even to lay down their 
lives for the flag they had adopted — 
so, in the peaceful victories of the 



cross and in the giving of material 
wealth, there will be thousands and 
tens of thousands who will devote 
their gains in this New World to 
the building up of that Kingdom 
which is the reason and the power 
of their well being. 

The Work Needs Personal Conse- 
cration 

There is a larger demand. Money 
is only the expression of the will 
and purpose. It is the mere instru- 
ment through which the work is 
done. The demand is personal. 
The appeal is individual. The 
Italian, the Lithuanian, the Rus- 
sian is our brother. Christ died for 
him as truly as for the man whose 
ancestry goes back to the "May- 
flower." Heaven holds out the 
same hope to each. Our New Eng- 
land Puritan self-righteousness 
must never put us in the place of 
the Pharisee lest the poor alien 
find the door of heaven before us. 
Wealth and culture and ease bring 
great temptations. The Church is 
not a club. Christianity is not self- 
delectation. The Church is in the 
world, not to be ministered unto, 
but to minister and to give its life 
for the redemption of the lost. As 
followers of Christ, we are in our 
several communities to seek and to 
save, to stand in Christ's stead and 
beseech men to be reconciled to 
God. 

This kind goeth not forth by mere 
formality, nor by eminent ancestry, 
nor by simple contribution of our 
money. It is accomplished in ex- 
actly the way that Christ Himself 
accomplishes the salvation of the 
world. He gave Himself. 

This is the hardest lesson to 
learn, the slowest truth to gain a 
lodgment in our hearts. In our 
New England communities social 
lines, as well as differences of lan- 
guage, separate the Puritan from 
the Italian and the Pilgrim from the 
Slav. The problem is partially 
solved by the organization of 



254 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW EN GLAN D 



churches where these people hear 
the Gospel in the tongue in which 
they were born. Not with the in- 
tent of perpetuating these race dis- 
tinctions, for we would have them 
loyal and patriotic American citi- 
zens, but with the thought that, as 
long as immigration continues, this 
is the most direct and practical way 
of reaching them with the Gospel 
which is the best thing in civilization. 

The Work Needs the Personal 
Touch 

In one of our Connecticut churches 
a company of Scotch people were 
gathered of a Sunday morning. 
They were not in need of money or 
food, but they were far from home 
and very lonely. The Scotch 
heather was the further side of the 
wide Atlantic. As they waited the 
senior deacon looked in and, seeing 
these strangers at the further end 
of the church, walked up to them 
with outstretched hand and wel- 
comed them with hearty words and 
warm grasp to the church and the 
community. "Ah," said the old 
Scotchman, "that was more than 
thirty years ago, but it was like a 
cup of cold water in the name of a 
disciple and the memory of it is 
very sweet." 

President Roosevelt said most 
truly: "If during this century the 
men of high and fine moral sense 
show themselves weaklings; if they 
possess only that cloistered virtue 



which shrinks shuddering from con- 
tact with the raw facts of actual 
life; if they dare not go down into 
the hurly-burly where the men of 
might contend for mastery; if they 
stand aside from the pressure of the 
conflict, then, as surely as the sun 
rises and sets, all our great material 
progress, all the multiplication of 
the physical agencies which tend for 
our comfort and enjoyment, will go 
for naught and our civilization 
will become a brutal sham and 
mockery." 

For the solution of this problem 
of the foreigner in New England we 
must have the knowledge of the 
facts, large gifts of money, per- 
sonal consecration, and that practi- 
cal grit and grace which faces "the 
raw facts of actual life" and with 
God's wisdom and power wins the 
victory. 

And to His Name be the glory. 
Amen. 

NOTE 

Of the following tables, I to VI, 
give the alien immigration into the 
New England States named, from 
the different nationalities designated 
and for the years 1900-04. Table 
VII gives the total population of 
each of the states, the number of 
foreign parentage and the percent- 
age, from the census figures of 1870, 
1890 and 1900. Table VIII groups 
these figures for the three states of 
southern New England. 



TABLE I 

MAINE 



Nationalities 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


Totals 


Italians 

Poles 


68 

26 

121 

38 

88 

72 

2 

44 

6 

3 



220 


112 
15 
162 
11 
82 
00 
9 

30 

11 

3 



331 


215 

75 

172 

54 

237 

82 

16 

78 

6 

1 

4 

332 


286 



333 

48 

276 

121 

3 

92 

41 

6 

2 

689 


309 
71 

241 
20 

314 

169 
5 

84 
25 

1 
654 


990 

187 


Irish 


1,029 


Slovaks 


171 


Scandi navians 


997 


Hebrews . _ 


534 


Magyars 


35 


Lithuanians 


328 


Germans 


89 


Croatians and Slovenians 


21 


Ruthenians 




Nineteen other nationalities 


2,226 






Totals! 


688 


856 


1.272 


1,997 


1,901 


6,714 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 



5d 



TABLE II 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 



Nationalities 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


Totals 




13 

193 

269 

8 

83 

31 

4 

25 

25 

1 

10 

148 


33 

185 

881 

5 

97 

17 

1 

42 

21 

1 

22 

271 


48 
2&5 
225 

11 
135 

53 
1 

55 

41 


10 
280 


159 

296 

263 

6 

209 

54 

7 

113 

58 

1 

22 

668 


118 

338 

986 

8 

261 

47 

5 

87 

58 



24 
700 


371 
1.297 
1 3>>8 








32 


Scandinavians 


785 
202 




18 


Lithuanians 


32-2 

203 






Ruthenians 


88 
2,087 




Totals - 


810 


976 


1,144 


1,861 


1,905 


6.696 



TABLE III 

VERMONT 



Nationalities 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


Totals 




129 

68 

48 

4 

83 

5 

4 

16 

10 

3 

6 

140 


187 
16 
52 
7 
81 
16 
32 
19 
33 
11 
8 

304 


317 

297 
29 
34 

122 
9 
22 
24 
32 
7 
23 

237 


4S8 

311 

69 

71 

96 

30 

54 

19 

30 

1 

51 

391 


481 

355 
55 
42 

119 
39 
46 
80 
22 
2 
44 

424 


1,608 


Poles - 


1,037 




253 




158 




501 


Hebrews 

Magyars 

Lithuanians 


99 
158 

98 
188 




24 




132 




1,506 






' Totals 


516 


766 


1,153 


1,611 


1,649 


5,695 







TABLE IV 

MASSACHUSETTS 



Nationalities 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


Totals 




5,730 
4,748 
8,749 

289 
3,194 
3,821 

117 
1,331 

465 
86 

125 
10,869 


8,539 

4,353 

7,547 

287 

3,774 

3,606 

87 

939 

620 

46 

280 

11,781 


13,316 

5,916 

7,074 

272 

5,191 

3,570 

87 

1,763 

684 

44 

176 

12,846 


15,964 

6.444 

7.350 

232 

6,599 

4,180 

148 

1,691 

1,033 

64 

220 

01.080 


13.051 
8,888 
7,618 

198 
5.477 
6,888 

88 

1.604 

1,115 

81 

156 

17,027 


56.600 


Poles 


07.0M 


Irish 


88,888 




24.335 




81,856 




537 




:.,\> 




o.917 




811 


Ruthenians 


*>7 




74..V5 






Totals 


39,474 


41,789 


50,939 


65,757 


58,411 


256,370 







2=?6 



THE FOREIGNER IN NEW ENGLAND 



table: v 

RHODE ISLAND 



Nationalities 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


Totals 




1,941 
319 
866 
15 
359 
220 
5 

33 

67 

3 

9 

1,207 


2,068 

338 

742 

4 

480 

295 

1 

40 

95 

8 

15 

1,697 


2,698 

411 

677 

11 

494 

288 

4 

44 

142 

2 

15 

1,630 


3,711 
656 
815 
13 
528 
323 
6 

63 

145 

2 

13 

3,192 


2,724 

517 

833 

7 

462 

487 

3 

29 

162 

3 

50 

2,902 


13,142 




2,241 




3,933 




50 




2.323 




1,513 




19 




209 




611 




18 




102 




10,728 






Totals - 


5,044 


5,783 


6,416 


9,467 


8,179 


34,889 







TABLE VI 

CONNECTICUT 



Nationalities 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


Totals 


Italians 

Poles 


2,899 

2,428 

1,579 

1,101 

975 

828 

788 

736 

530 

111 

111 

549 


4,177 

2,026 

1,297 

959 

1,069 

676 

625 

526 

614 

152 

132 

672 


5,417 
3,299 
1,101 
1,025 
1,355 

725 
1,039 

749 

767 
37 

195 
1,126 


7,543 
4,170 
1,492 

873 
1,666 
1,020 

983 

932 

1,172 

59 

213 
1,690 


6,033 
2,690 
1,412 

709 
1,304 
1,601 

869 

695 

1,034 

36 

255 
1,888 


26,069 
14,613 
6,881 


Slovaks 


4,667 




6,369 


Hebrews .. 

Magyars 

Lithuanians 

Germans 

Croatians and Slovenians 

Ruthenians 


4,830 
4,304 
3,638 
4,137 
395 
906 
5,925 






Totals 


12,655 


12,925 


16,835 


21,813 


18,526 


82,754 



TABLE VII 





1900 


1890 


1870 




Total 
Populat'n 


Foreign Parents 


Total 
Populat'n 


Foreign Parents 


Total 
Populat'n 


Foreign Parents 




Number 


Per 
cent. 


Number 


Per 

cent. 


Number 


Per 
cent. 


Maine 


694,466 
411,588 
343,641 
2,805,346 
428,556 
908,420 


199,734 
168,324 
117,344 
1,746,581 
275,143 
520,892 


28.8 
40.9 
34.1 
62.3 
64.2 
57.3 


661,086 
376,530 
332,422 
2,238,943 
345,506 
746,258 


151,158 
121,293 
104,477 
1,259,121 
200,452 
375,488 


22.9 
32.2 

31.4 
56.2 
58.0 
50.3 


626,915 
318,300 
330,551 
1,457,351 
217,353 
537,454 


91,651 
44,592 
83,615 

626,211 
95,090 

203,650 


14 6 


New Hampshire — 
Vermont 


14.0 
25.3 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 


43.0 
43.7 
37.9 


Totals 


5,592,017 


3,028,018 


47.9 


4,700,745 


2,211,989 


41.8 


3,487,924 


1,144,809 


29.8 







TABLE VIII 



Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 


2,805,346 
428,556 
908,420 


1,746,581 
275,143 
520,892 


62.3 
64.2 
57.3 


2,238,943 
345,506 
746,258 


1,259,121 
200,452 
375,488 


56.2 

58.0 
50.3 


1,457,351 
217,353 
537,454 


626,211 

95,090 

203,650 


43.0 
43.7 
37.9 


Totals 


4,142,322 


2,542,616 


61.3 


3,330,707 


1,834,061 


54.8 


2,212,158 


924,951 


41.5 







MY CONVOY 



BY 

ANNA J. GRANNISS 

AUTHOR OF SEVERAL BOOKS OF POEMS 

» 

I met a stranger at the gate ; 

He laid his hand upon my arm ; 
My tired heart ceased to palpitate, 

My very thoughts grew still and calm. 

I loved him for his quiet ways ; 

His deep-set eyes looked kind and good ; 
I thought, " I wonder where he stays, 

I would detain him if I could ; 

For with him standing by my side, 
I do not think I should so fear 

That foe from whom I cannot hide, 

Who soon or late will find me here." 

He saw the shadow on my brow, 

And marked my fear in voice and eye; 

He questioned, and I told him how, 
How much afraid I was to die. 

He murmured, "Ah, she does not know ! " 
Then with a slow, sweet smile he said, 

'Poor Soul, to think you've suffered so, 
And I am he you so much dread ! " 

I did not even try to speak, 

But thrilled with swift and sweet surprise 
He laid his fingers on my cheek, 

He kissed the lids down on my eyes; 

Then held me very close and still. 
And as I drew my latest breath, 

A sudden glory topped the hill — 

And I had been afraid of— Death ! 









K| 



ii 



""""^ A 



vV 

i ( lit iJ— ' (. 






111 J 




GROTESQUE INSCRIPTIONS IN GOD'S ACRE 

TOMBS OF THE DEAD DECORATED WITH QUAINT SCULPTURE AND 

EPITAPHS MOSS -COVERED AND CRUMBLING STONES MARKING 

THE RESTING PLACES OF THE FOREFATHERS IN THE LITTLE 
BURYING GROUND AT MILFORD, CONNECTICUT, DECIPHERED 

BY 

FREDERICA CRAFT DIAMOND 



PROBABLY there is not in the 
State of Connecticut, and pos 
sibly in any state of the 
Union, a burying-ground of 
its size richer in old inscriptions, 
quaint, curious and ludicrous, than 
that of Milford, Connecticut. 

It is one of the first settled towns 
in the state, having been colonized 
as early as 1639, and that and all 
successive generations until the 
present day have laid their dead 
away within the same enclosure, 
additions having been made to it 
from time to time as necessity re- 
quired. 

The older part of the cemetery is 
readily distinguishable from the 
more modern, occupying as it does 
only one portion of the ground, 
where two hundred or more of 
these ancient tombstones and monu- 
ments are grouped together, all 
moss-covered and gray, but many, 
especially thoss of slate, being well 
preserved, while others are sunken 
deeply into the ground or broken 
and crumbled away and their in- 
scriptions rendered quite illegible. 
Wandering idly among them one 
day, my eye was caught by one or 
two very quaint epitaphs, and pur- 
suing my search further I was re- 
warded by finding many more of 
the same kind, some of which were 
tolerably legible, others being de- 
ciphered only after much patient 
scratching and scraping of mossy 
letters, and as devout kneelings 



before these old gray relics as 
would have delighted a Hindoo's 
heart, and I fancy that even those 
heathens never worship at the 
shrine of more grotesque idols than 
some of the faces and forms en- 
graved upon these stones, but they 
should be seen to be truly appre- 
ciated, peering out at you in all 
their hideousness from these old gray 
monuments of the past. The object 
of our ancestors seems to have been 
to make the idea of death as fearful 
and repulsive as possible, judging 
from the specimens of sculpture 
with which they decorated the 
tombs of their dead. 

There are three governors of 
Connecticut buried in this ceme- 
tery — Governors Treat, Law and 
Pond. The monument of the first 
consists of a heavy brown stone 
slab, about six feet long by three 
wide, resting horizontally upon four 
stone sides. The inscription is 
quite legible through its mossy 
letters: 

Here lyeth interred the 

body of Coll!. Robert 

Treat EfqY who faithfully 

served this colony in the 

post of governour and 

deputy-governour near 

y space of thirty years 

and att y age of four 

score and eight years, 

exchanged this life 

for a better July, 12*.? 

Anno Dom : 1710 



GROTESQUE INSCRIPTIONS IN GODS ACRE 



263 



Governor Law's grave is marked 
by a table of similar material to 
Governor Treat's, supported by five 
stone standards, and a marble tablet 
sunken into the table bears the in- 
scription, which is as yet almost in- 
tact, although the tablet is fast 
crumbling away, some of the upper 
portion being entirely gone, proba- 
bly having fallen a prey to curiosity 
seekers. 

Jonathan Law 

Governour of the 

Colony of Connecticut 

From 1742 to 1750. 

He was born at Milford, 

August 6, 1672, 

where he died, 

Nov. 6, 1750. 

Governor Pond's resting place is 
marked by a simple granite shaft 
bearing on its base these words: 

Charles H. Pond 

Died 

April 26, 1861 

Aged 80. 

Governor of Connecticut. 

There are four stone tombs be- 
sides those of the governors. A 
great grand-son of Governor Treat 
lies buried under one, a brown- 
stone table having five standards. 

Here lyeth Buried the Body 

of Mr Jonathan Treat only 

Son & only Child of Mf 

Jonathan & M r . s Martha Treat 

And great Grandfon of 

Governour Treat who departed 

this Life Augl h y 22 nd A. D. 

1746 Aged 18 years fix 

Months & 6 Days. 

Another consists of a pile of com- 
mon, rough stones surmounted by 
a heavy brown-stone slab. This 
bears three inscriptions: 

John-Anthony Herpin 
obiit 13® Sep. bris 1750 JEtat 4. 

Nicholas Herpin 
Obiit Jan 1 ! 9 n _° 1759 ^tat Die 16* 

Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven 

Christ. 



Mary-Anne Herpin 
obiit 28': AugV 1750 iEtat 2 
How Lov'd how valu'd once, avails thee not: 
To Whom related or by Whom begot, 
A Heap of Dust alone remains of Thee: 
'Tis all Thou art ! and all the Proud shall be ! 

Pope. 

The other two tombs are placed 
side by side. They are brown-stone 
tables resting upon standards. The 
tablets were probably both of slate, 
but one is entirely gone, and the 
other much defaced, yet the inscrip- 
tion is sufficiently clear to be legi- 
ble. 

Here lies Interred 

the Body of 

Cap \ George Allen 

who dec'i Octly 7 th 

Anno Dom 1734 

In the 57 th year 

of his Age. 

The two oldest inscriptions which 
can be found are dated 1697 and 
1698. That of 1697 is engraved 
upon a kind of soft brown stone 
which is fast crumbling away, and 
readily breaks beneath a light touch 
of the fingers. A few of the words 
are entirety broken away, but those 
remaining may still be traced. 

Hear 

Buried 
of Miles 
Merwin aged 
about 74 years died 
the 27 of April 
1697 

The stone dated 169S is in a most 
remarkable state of preservation, 
considering that it was erected 
nearly two centuries ago. It is 
made of slate, and it is noticeable 
that among the many varieties of 
material of which these old tombs 
are composed, those of slate are 
invariably the best preserved, time 
and storm seeming to produce little 
or no effect upon them. 

Here lyeth buried 
The body of M ^ Sarah 



264 



GROTESQUE INSCRIPTIONS IN GOD'S ACRE 



Nisbett wife to M r 
Mongoiv Nisbett 
Aged 41 yeares 
Departed this life 
September y 16 
Anno Domni 1698 

Some of the engravers upon these 
monuments were evidently not ex- 
perts at the art, and apparently had 
little idea of the uses of capital 
letters or punctuation marks, and 
seem to have been utterly regard- 
less of rhythm, and when inadver- 
tently a word was omitted, it was 
placed over the top, or where the 
stone was not wide enough for the 
whole line, a letter or two was 
placed on the next. The spelling, 
too, is quaint and odd in the ex- 
treme, as will be seen from the fol- 
lowing specimens. The old style 
of the letter S was used in many 
instances, also V for U and U for 
V, as well as I for J. 

Here Lyes the body of Ml 8 
Phebe Gillit Wife to M r _ 
William Gillit Jtm r who Died 
Feb? y 10 A D 1736 M\ 29 

e 

Her Dying Words Unto her hufband ar 
Refraine your Paffions ! — Why So much 

(Diffpar'e) 
Its' the Will of God! I hope its' for the Beft 
For you ! for me ! and for my mother-lef s 
To Whom adoe ! To God and you 
I Now Commit thare Care 
Pattern of Pationts to the End of life 
Now Ded fhe Speaks to Every liveing wife 
Peti Such Juell's Should Be Laid In Duft. 
Men are Unworthy and the Lord is Juft. 

Margaret Ernes— 1750, Aged 38. 
The Body was open'd to Let her flie, 
To bueld her hapenefs on high. 

Mrs. Mehetabel Tibbals— 1774 Aged 22. 
Behold and fee as you pafs by 
As you are now fo once was i, 
As i am now fo you muf t be 
Prepare for death & follow me 
Here doth my Body reft in duft 
Till my Redeemer come 
With himile live & fpend a long 
Eternity at home. 



The children's tombs have many 
queer epitaphs. 

David Treat. — Aged 2 years. 
Reft lovely babe thy toils are at 
an end 

Return to God thy Saviour and 
thy friend. 

The inappropriateness of this 
strikes one at the first glance. Im- 
agine the "toils" which a babe of 
two years must have experienced. 

Jule Treat. — 1795, Aged 8 years. 
Chrift Call'd at Midnight as I lay 
In thirty hours was turned to Clay. 

Sam'l Bryan. — 1801, Aged 14 months. 
Look here I lye in death dark tomb 
At one year old freed from the womb 
Then let my body ly and fleep 
While Jefus my poor foul doth kee*\ 

Julia Treat. — 1801 Aged 4 years. 
Julia, tho' young yet fhe is dead 
And bids this world adieu 
Tho here's her body her foul is fled 
The other world to view. 

Martha Hine.— 1771, Aged 6 years. 
Beneath these Clods my Body lies, 
a Cruel Death to Sacrifice, 
no Age nor Sex from Death is free 
o think on Death then think on me. 

Clarenda Bristoll.— 1802, Aged 1 year. 
Clarenda in this grave 
Muft ly and turn to dust 
Her foul is gone to have 
A fentence that is juft. 

Gumfor Smith.— 1756, Aged 7 years. 
Sleep on my Lovely Babe 
And Take thy Reft 
For Jefus Chrift cal'd you hence, 
Because he thought it beft. 

Elisha Gillib.— 1756, Aged 2 years. 
O Happy Babe fo early fled away 
from this vile Earth to realms of End 

(lefs Day 
What wondrous Change dear hast 
thou known 
Leaving thy Cradle to afcend a throne. 



GROTESQUE INSCRIPTIONS IN GOD'S ACRE 



265 






Charles H. Nettleton. — 1857, Aged 4 years. 
The cup of life unto his lips he press'd, 
Found the taste bitter and declin'd the rest, 
Then softly turning from the face of day, 
He gently breath'd his little life away. 

Abigail Ann Peck. — 1830, Aged 15 months. 
Sweet babe she glanc'd into 
this world to see, 
A sample of its misery: 
Then turn'd away her Ian 
guid eye, 
To drop a tear or two and die. 

The two latter seem to have be- 
come disgusted with life earlier 
than the most of humanity and to 
have died from choice rather than 
necessity. 

There are a great numbed of 
young people buried in this old 
ground, and some of their epitaphs 
are among the most amusing to be 
found. 

Sally Rogers. — 1799. Aged 23. 
The rofe that fiorith in the Morn 
But little knows its doom 
My Sally is taken from my arms 
And haftened to the tomb 
Unto the Mighty Power of Death 
Its hard to be Refigned 
But Jefus calls and I muft go 
And leave my friends behind. 

Isaiah Smith. — 1828, Aged 20. 
Behold O youth this grave & see, 
What you though young may shortly be, 
Could he now speak methinks he'd say, 
Dont trifle precious time away. 

William Fowler. — 1785. Aged 23. 
William is dead, Death's clos'd his Eyes, 
Here in this grave, his body lies ; 
While living liv'd, in love of all, 
When dead was mourn'd by great 
& fmall. 

Nancy Clark. — 1823, Aged 15. 
Youth, trust not to your fleeting breath, 
Nor call your time your own ; 
For here you see a blooming youth, 
Was like a flower cut down. 
And you, dear youth who yet are spar'd, 
Must shortly yield your breath ; 
Your wisdom is to be prepar'd, 
To meet the str°ke of death. 



Mary Fowler.— 1792, Aged 24. 
Molly tho pleafant in her day 
Was fuddenly feized and fent away 

rotten 
How foon fhes ripe how foon fhes 
Sent to grave & foon for gotten. 

Mrs. Sarah Camp. — 1752. Aged 22. 

Here Lyes interr'd a Blooming 

Youth who liv'd in love 

Dy'd in the Truth- 
Isaac Fenn Jun r . — 1812, Aged 20. 
Now I am in my twentieth year, 
Before my God I must appear; 
Death calls aloud and I must go, 
And leave my loving friends below. 

James Smith.— 1796. Aged 21. 
Stop gentle reader 
Drop a mournfull tear 
Over a youth who was like you 
But now lies buried here 
Who in his blooming youth was cut 

down 
And from his friends and Parents now is 
gone. 

Miss Anne Buckingham. — 1766, Aged 19. 
Mature from Heaven, the fatal Mandate 
came, 

With it a Chariot of JEtherial Flame, 
To which Elijah like, fhe pafsed the 
Spheres 

Brought Joy to Heaven but left ye 
World in Tears. 

Lewis Merwin. — 1S22, Aged 2S. 
Come all ye mourning friends say 
peace be still 

And bow submissive to Gods 
holy will ; 

We know he was a lovely youth 
indeed 

But here he lies the hungry worms 
to feed. 

The following, I think, would re- 
quire more than an ordinary intel- 
lect to understand: 

Merit Clark. — 1S21, Aged 24. 
Stop friendly youth & drop a mournfu". 
Over a grave who once like you 
But now lies buried here 
And from my friends companions too 
And parents dear. 



266 



GROTESQUE INSCRIPTIONS IN GOB'S ACRE 



The next three are applicable to 
old age: 

Sarah Prudden.— 1788, Aged 80. 
Our age to feventy years is fet 
How fhort the term how frail the ftate 
And if to eighty we arrive 
We rather figh and groan than liv 

e. 

Miss Susan Newton. — 1770, Aged 86. 
If the days of our Years 
be four fcore Years yet 
how foon cut off and we 
fly away. 

Dav. Merwin. — 1816, Aged 74. 
Tis but a few whose days amount 
To threescore years and ten: 
And all beyond that short account 
Is sorrow, toil, and pain. 

These old New Englanders seem 
to have admired and been convers- 
ant with Shakespeare, at least the 
following inscriptions would indicate 
that they agreed with the sentiment 
of those lines of his: 

"All the world's a stage, 
And all the men and women merely players: 
They have their exits and their entrances;" 

In Memory of 

Robert Treate 

a Gentleman of Learning 

& integrity who acted his 

part worthily in private 

Life & in various public 

imployments till he clo 

-fed the fcene Sept 16 

1770 in his 73 d Year 

Ufeful in life at death lamented 

The fmall and the great are there 

Beneath these Clods 

are deposited the Remains of 

Mrs. Mary Ann Fowler 

who made her exit on the 

25th Nov. 1798 M 47 years 

This kind relief the social passions crave 

Jesus himself wept at a good man's grave. 

Any peculiar manner of death, 
such as an accident or certain dis- 
ease, in those days, was recorded 
upon the tomb-stone of the de- 
ceased, and strikes one as being 



rather an odd custom, especially 
when it is set forth after the style 
of the following: 

Elihu Fowler. — 1784, Aged 3 years. 
His life a span! The mournful toll 
Declares the exit of his Soul! 
Grim Death is come ! His life is call'd 
To take its flight The means a Scald. 
Ye who are young come learn your end 
By deep repentance, make Christ your 
frie 
nd. 

Hezekiah 

Son of 

Hez h & Sarah Peck 

who was killed instantly 

by a Cart-Wheel 

$ Oct 3d 1809^) 13 ys 

In the midst of life we 

are in Death. 

In 

memory of 

Mr. Josiah Pardee 

who died in a fit 

March 6*? 1805 

M 65. 

Swift was his flight and fhort 

the road 

He clofed his eyes and faw 

his God. 

My friends be ye alfo 

ready. 

Here lies Intomb' d 

the body of 

Frederick Bull son to 

Henry & Harriet Bull 

who was kill' d 

by a fall from a Horfe 

Sept 1 : 11 th 1798 aged 13 years 

what is man poor feeble man 
Born jeft to bloom and die 
Like as the Clafs his Courfes run 
His fleeting moments fly. 

This one sounds almost rebellious 
in its tone: 

Mrs. Sarah Clark.— 1797, Aged 51. 
Death thou haft conquer'd me 

1 by thy Dart am Slain 
But Chrift will conquer you 
And I fhall rife again. 



GROTESQUE INSCRIPTIONS IN GOD'S ACRE 



267 



The next six are so quaint and 
strange that I could not refrain 
from copying them entirely: 

Be ye alfo ready 
Entomb'd is here depofited the dear Re 
mains of M™ Martha Dewitt 
the amiable confort of M r . Ab m V. H 
De Witt and daugh 1 : of Cap*. Charles 
Pond who in fure and certain hope of 
the refurrection Clof'd her eyes upon a 
vain, tranfitory World Sept- 1 : 30 1790 

Aged 20 
She was Charitable Humane Benevolent 

and of a 
truly fympathetic Difpofition. 
Could real Virtue have added to the num- 
ber of her 
months, Patty had yet been living her Huf- 

band her 
Parents and her friends had yet been happy 

But A 
las. She languifh'd She f icken'd & She died 
Heaven is the reward of Vertue 
She's gone and I fhall see that face no more 
But pine in abfence and till death adore 
When with cold dew my fanting eye brow's 

hung 
My eye balls darken with my faultering 

tongue 
Her name fhall tremble with a feeble moan 
And love with fate divide my dying groan. 

Paufe and reflect, 

that as I am you foon muft be 

Entombed is here depofited 

the Dear remains of 

Mr. Garrit V. H. De Witt 

who bid a vain world a dieu 

Feby 23 d 1793 Aged 38 

Happy the woman who call'd him 

her husband And happy the child 

who called him father 

But his character requires not the 

panegerick of a tombstone 

to perpuate it to pofterity. 

Here the wicked ceafe from trou 

bling & here the weary are at reft 

Entombed is here depofited the 

Dear remains of 

M r . s Margaret De Witt 

the amiable confort of 

Garrett V. H. De Witt 

Who closed her eyes upon a 



vain World Feb ii f . fl 1794 aged 54 

Her exemplary conduct in life 

her unparelled patience 

When wreck'd with pains 

the moft excru dating & her 

perfect refignation in her laft illntfs 

difarm'd the King of Terrors 

of his fting & foften'd him 

to a Prince of peace, 



The truly honourable & Pious 

Roger Newton Efq 1 : 

an officer of diftinguifhed note 

in y Expeditions 1709 and 1710 

for many Years one of y Council, 

& Col of the Second Regiment of 

Militia — Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas 33 years, until he 
departed this Life Jan": v 13 th 1771 
in the 87 th Year of His Age. 
His mind r'turn'd to God, intombed here lies 
The Part the Hero left beneath the Skies 
Newton, as steel inflexible from right 
In Faith, in Law, in Equity in Fight. 



Here lyes y Body of 
Mrs. Mary Gibb Wife to 
Mr. John Gibb 
Who departed this life 
Octo! y 2i 8 _ 1769 Aged 
38 Years & 4 Months 
See there all Pale, & Dead She lies, 
for ever flow my Streaming Eyes. 
Mary is fled, the Lovlyeft Mind, 
Faith, Sweetnefs, Wit, together joined. 
Dwell Faith & Wit & Sweetnefs there 
o View the Change, & Drop a tear. 

In 

Memory of 

Mrs. Mary Newton 

of Orange; Relict of 

Capt. Enoch Newton of 

Woodbridge ; and fiosr 

merly the wife of Capt. 

Enoch Woodruff of Mil 

ford, who died April 18, 

1S24; Aged 79. 

Also Mary Iehabod ; Mary Sarah, 

Mary Ann; and Enoch; who were 

children of Capt. Enoch and 

Mary Woodruff. 



2 68 



GROTESQUE INSCRIPTIONS IN GOD'S ACRE 



The remaining epitaphs are" M of all 
sorts, odd, quaint and amusing, and 
may be of interest to the curious 
reader: 

Joseph Prudden. — 1775, Aged 30. 
Death is a debt to nature due 
W h ich I have paid & fo muft you. 

Mrs. Sarah Hine. — 1813, Aged 67. 
Great God! is this our certain doom? 
And are we still secure? 
Still roalling downward to the tomb 
And yet prepare no more? 

Elijah Smith.— 18 r 6, Aged 22. 
this life's a dream 
and like a flower 
cut down and witherd 
in an hour. 

Rich Piatt. — 1799, Aged 57. 
A loving hufband a tender Father 
Left this world to enjoy the other. 

Jesse Lambard. — 1776, Aged 80. 

Remember my Children 

and Friends 

that You muft Die 

as well as I. 

Moses Northrup. — 1807, Aged 78. 
Beneath this stone Deaths prisoner lies. 
The stone shall move, the prisoner rise, 
When Jesus with almighty words, 
Calls his dead saints to meet their Lord. 

Mabel Piatt.— 181 5, Aged 61. 
Great God, I own thy sentence just. 
And nature must decay ; 
I yield my body to the dust, 
To dwell with fellow day. 

Mifs Susanna Mile*! — 1788, Aged 36. 
Think what I was think what I am 
Ah! think what you must be. 



Mrs. Sarah Newton.— 1818, Aged 71. 
Our friend is dead a solemn sound 
Although in Christ we hope she's found. 

Isaac Piatt. — 18 17, Aged 63. 
Go home dear friends dry up your tears 
I must ly here till Christ appears. 

Sarah Jones. — 1836, 82. 
Here you may see my body lie, 
Among the silent dead, 
Remember you must also die 
And make this clay your bed. 

Jonathan Treat. — 1779, Aged 75. 
Think mighty God, on feeble man, 
How few his Hours, how fhort his Span 
Who can fecure his vital breath 
Against the Cold Demand of Death 
With Skill to fly or power to fave. 

Sarah Bryan. — 1803. 
When I am dead and in my grave 
And all my bones are rotten, 
When this you see, remember me, 
Let me not be forgotten. 

Johnathan Fowler. — 1773, Aged 70. 
The hopes we have the Better part 
Is now above the Skies. 

Abigal Baldwin. — 1784, Aged 47. 
Our Life is ever on the wing 
And Death is ever nigh j n 

The moment when our Lives beg 
We all begin to die. 

Mrs. Sarah Pomeroy.— 1783. Aged 46. 
Thou dear Departed, with no laboured buft, 
Nor panegyric I infult thy duf t. 
Yet let a child with duty in arrear 
Say while he heaves a figh & drops a tear 
The tendereft of all Parents flumbers here. 

Capt. Enoch Woodruff. — 1786 Aged 44. 
Who feels the Wound a dying Friend im- 
parts 
When the last Pang divides two fond Hearts. 



LEGEND AND LITERATURE 



■f :■ 




IS THIS THE SIGN OF THE POT OF GOLD 

Kidd's Island, off Stony Creek, Connecticut 



MARGARET SCOVILLE DORMAN 



270 



LEGEND AND LITERATURE 



«v- 




WHERE THE CREW OF THE PIRATE SHIP FOUND SHELTER 
Cove at Kidd's Island as it now appears 

My name was William Kidd when I sailed, when I sailed, 
My name was William Kidd when I sailed, 
My name was William Kidd, God's laws I did forbid, 
And so wickedly I did when I sailed. 
***** 

Come all ye young and old, see me die, see me die, 
Come all ye young and old, see me die, see me die, 
Come all ye young and old, you're welcome to my gold, 
For by it I've lost my soul, and must die. 



IN comparison with the romance 
and the chivalry, and the daring- 
adventure of the old world, 
America has little in its history 
that can apparently be woven into 
folklore. There has been but little 
poetry in the making of this nation 
and there is hardly a legendary 
strain in it all, so intent were our 
forefathers in solving the serious 
economic problems. Other than a 
few superstitions and traditions, our 
records are those of men working 
doggedly for a purpose; sincere, 
persistent men who felt that the 
responsibilities of a new world 
rested upon their shoulders. 

Centuries, however, very fre- 
quently lower a cloud of mystery 



over the most commonplace histori- 
cal fact and it is very probable that 
in generations to come color and 
romance will begin to temper the 
hard statistical statements of to-day 
and that there will be a haze of 
mysticism lending enchantment to 
the records that are to us nothing 
more than data. The literature of 
a nation becomes great only when it 
is far removed from the present and 
pictures a life that is fascinatingly 
strange. The customs of a century 
ago are beginning to seem quaint 
to us; this element will develop 
through each succeeding genera- 
tion and sometime in the glorious 
future we shall probably all be 
characters over which several 



LEGEND AND LITERATURE 



planets will laugh at our oddities 
and cartoonists exaggerate our 
peculiar features and preposterous 
dress. 

There is one character in our his- 
tory to-day, however, who almost 
immediately stepped into the 
legendary, and so unique is his life 
and so weird the tale that William 
Kidd is indeed a distinguished his- 
torical personage. So susceptible 
are the people to the stories of his 
buried riches that every few months 
dispatches appear in the American 
newspapers telling of the discovery 
of a cave or a sunken well where 
it is believed the Kidd pots of gold 
are concealed. It is a fact that 
hundreds of people go to digging 
about their property during these 
periodical narrations. Scarcely does 
the tide retreat from the shores of 
Connecticut before credulous fisher- 
men overturn the rocks and peer 
into the crevices hopeful of spying 
the long lost treasure. With the 
ages separating to-morrow from to- 
day may we not expect this tale of 
mysterious wealth to find a place in 



due time equal to that now usurped 
by the old world legends? 

King of Buccaneers! What a title 
for a staid, respectable and re- 
spected business man to acquire: 
It goes to show what latent p< 
bilities lie in all of us waiting for 
circumstances to develop them. 
After Pope Alexander VI issued his 
proclamation dividing all newly- 
discovered lands in both East and 
West Indies between the crowns of 
Portugal and Spain — England, the 
Netherlands and France combined 
against them, giving a commission 
to any man who would fill a ship 
with armed men and prey upon the 
commerce of Spain and Portugal; 
these men were responsible to no 
one and divided their booty as they 
saw fit. It wasn't long before the 
seas swarmed with them and they 
were regarded as heroes; many men 
of rank joined them, one of them 
giving as his reason, without ap- 
parently realizing the humor of it, 
that "he wished as every honest 
man should do, to have withal to 
satisfy his creditors." The Eng- 




CIVILIZATION CLEARS THE TRAIL WHERE LEGEND SAYS THE PIRATES Fl KD 



272 



LEGEND AND LITERATURE 



lish papers were filled wilh admir- 
ing accounts of their exploits; they 
swaggered through the streets in 
their rich garments and spent their 
treasures very freely, which was 
doubtless one reason for their great 
popularity. 

In 1695, the buccaneers had so 
increased in the East and West 
Iudies and along the American 
coast that William III, King of 
England, summoned before him 
the Earl of Bellmont, Governor of 
New York, and told him that as the 
buccaneers were now in numbers 
sufficient to capture cities, rob 
palaces and cathedrals, extorting 
enormous ransoms, that they had 
become a menace to all trade, it 
was not safe for any nation to send 
a ship of treasure without a large 
convoy; that in Madagascar and 
other islands they had magnificent 
retreats, cleverly concealed where 
they spent their time in carousing; 
and that as their ships were the 
richest prizes that could then be 
taken on the high seas, he, with the 
aid of several noblemen, had formed 



a company to fit out a private expe- 
dition against them. In that way 
they would be checking the pirates 
and incidentally filling their own 
purses. The latter reason was 
probably the stronger, as the king 
was in great need of money, as were 
most of his nobles. So the com- 
pany was formed as a pirate expe- 
dition against pirates. The king 
wished the Earl of Bellmont to sug- 
gest the name of a man who could 
take command of the expedition. 
Through a friend who resided in 
the New World, but was then in 
London, William Kidd was recom- 
mended as just the man, having 
commanded as privateersman in the 
last war with France and knowing 
the seas frequented by the buc- 
caneers thoroughly. He was spoken 
of as a man of tried courage and 
integrity, having gained honor in 
many engagements. A vessel 
named the "Adventure" was pur- 
chased and fitted out at an expense 
of about fifty thousand dollars, all 
the members of the company con- 
tributing something, except the 




MODERN BUCCANEERS ERECT THEIR CABINS 



LEGEND AND LITERATURE 



king. He bought his share by loan- 
ing his royal name. Thus began 
the career of Captain Kidd, which 
was to end in loss of reputation and 
of life. While the names of other 
pirates much more cruel, whose 
crimes were worse and more num- 
erous have long since sunk into 
oblivion, Captain Kidd's name is 
familiar to almost every one in the 
United States. The whole New 
England coast and the islands of 
the Sound are all rich with legends 
of hiding-places of this "King of 
Buccaneers," and it has come about, 
not so much through what he did, 
as through the fact that he was 
backed by some of the greatest men 
in England. Naturally his arrest 
and trial created a tremendous ex- 
citement; and naturally also per- 
haps, the men who had given him 
his commission felt it necessary for 
their own reputations that his 
should be sacrificed. 

In 1696 Captain Kidd, armed with 
the royal commission, set sail from 
Plymouth for New York. The 
"Adventure" had an armament of 



thirty guns and a crew of eighty 
men. In New York the crew 
increased to one hundred and fifty- 
five men. He then started on his 
long trip around the Cape of G 
Hope to the Island of Madagascar. 
This island, larger than Great Brit- 
ain, had become an important ien- 
dezvous of the pirates. The natives 
were inefficient and had been treated 
with such cruelty that they kept out 
of the way of the pirates. In this 
retreat, so out of the way, the 
pirates had built forls and man- 
sions; from their trips they returned 
with plunder from the commerce of 
the whole world; they made slaves 
of prisoners and grew reckless with 
their power, as tyrants generally 
do, so that the natives combined to 
exterminate them and would proba- 
bly have succeeded but for betrayal 
by a woman. This narrow escape 
frightened them so that they com- 
bined for safety; the dwellings 
could only be approached by the 
most intricate paths in the dense 
forests and unless one was familiar 
with them it was like wandering fcr 




ON LEGEND GROUND Al KIDD S ESI S 



274 



LEGEND AND LITERATURE 



hours in a labyrinth. All 
along these narrow paths, 
large and very sharp thorns 
were planted, so it would 
be impossible for the na- 
tives, with their unshod 
feet, to get through. 

It took Captain Kiddnine 
months to reach this strong- 
hold of the pirates and as 
they had not captured a 
single prize on the way, 
money and provisions were 
about gone, and loud were 
the murmurings of the sea- 
men ; but here, too, they 
were doomed to disappoint- 
ment as the piratic vessels 
were off on a cruise, not 
one remaining in the har- 
bor. Captain Kidd had ex- 
ceeded his orders in leav- 
ing the waters of America, 
but doubtless thought that 
the great success he was 
so confident of achieving 
would cause his disobedi- 
ence to be forgiven, but 
failure would certainly 
bring ruin and disgrace. 
Hastily replenishing his 
stores, he set sail for Hin- 
dustan. He reached there 
four months after leaving 
Madagascar, but still with- 
out success. The discon- 
tent on the "Adventure" 
was now universal and the 
men were in a wretched 
condition; they had very 
few provisions, no means 
to purchase more and un- 
less they could capture a 
legitimate prize it would have to be 
steal or starve. 

Just here Captain Kidd met with 
the only good fortune he had before 
turning pirate. One day in sailing 
by a small island, they saw the 
hulk of a ship. It was a French 
vessel and was now a total wreck. 
Captain Kidd borrowed (?) gold of 
the crew and sailed to one of the 
ports on the Malabar coast, where he 




LEGENDARY KIDD S ISLAN 

purchased food enough to last for a 
few weeks. The East Indian seas 
were at this time filled with the 
commerce of the Mongol empire, 
ruled over by the Great Mogul. 
These vessels carried immense 
treasures and generally sailed in 
fleets. Captain Kidd passed several 
of these ships and doubtless looked 
on them with a wistful eye. His 
crew was very discontented and 



LEGEND AND LITERATURE 



275 





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RETING THE BURIED WEALTH 

doubtless could not understand the 
difference between plundering a 
few ship-wrecked Frenchmen and 
capturing- a richly-laden ship; but 
Captain Kidd at this time was not 
quite prepared himself to raise the 
the black flag, for he had been sent 
to punish the pirates, not to become 
one of them. His condition was, 
however, becoming desperate; 
starvation was imminent, and his 



crew were mutinous. It is 
impossible to . follow the 
reasonings \oi the human 
mind, but the struggle go- 
ing on in Captain Kidd's 
at this time was doubtless 
very tempestuous. He had 
no doubt that the company 
that sent him out would 
forgive the plundering of 
the wrong vessel if he 
brought home plenty of 
gold; on the other hand, 
if he failed he would be dis- 
missed a disgraced and 
ruined man. It was just 
at this time he learned 
that a fleet of the Great Mo- 
gul, freighted with the 
richest treasures, was soon 
to come out of the Red Sea, 
and he determined to cap- 
ture one of them. His dis- 
appointment was great on 
finding that out of the 
squadron of fifteen vessels 
several floated the flags 
of England and Holland. 
In his commission occurred 
this sentence: "We com- 
mand you at your peril, 
that yo\i do not molest our 
friends or allies, under 
any pretense of authority 
hereby granted." He faced 
a decisive moment. Should 
he turn pirate? The sight 
of so much treasure doubt- 
less decided him, for he 
made an attack on one of 
the vessels that was sep- 
arated from the rest, but 
was driven off by the war 
vessels that came rapidly to its aid. 
Captain Kidd, now driven to des- 
peration, attacked and captured a 
small native vessel, cruelly mis- 
using the crew trying to force a con- 
fession as to where they had hidden 
the gold. Ill treatment failed to - 
jectthem, and bleeding and almost 
helpless he turned them adrift. 

From this incident begins the 
career "of bold Captain Kidd as a 



G E N D 



T E R A T U R E 




ITS CAVERNED ROCKS ECHO TA1 



professional pirate. In the long- 
series of robberies which followed 
the most important was the cap- 
ture of the native vessel, "Quedagh 
Merchant." This vessel was valued 
at three hundred and twenty thous- 
and dollars at Madagascar, where 
he immediately took it. Here most 
of his crew deserted him, perhaps 
considering him not piratical 
enough, but at any rate giving 
color to his statements made at his 
trial, that he lost control of his 
crew and was helpless as far as 
their actions were concerned. 

It does not seem possible that a 
man who moved in the society that 
Kidd was entitled to as an honored 
merchant, could have enjoyed the 
shameless and cruel revelries of 
these most depraved creatures. He 
remained at Madagascar only long 
enough to recruit men to navigate 
his stolen vessel, and then sailed for 
the West Indies where he learned 
that the English government had 
heard of his piratical acts and had 
issued a proclamation offering par- 
don to all who had been pirates, 



eastward of the Cape of Good Hope, 
before the last day of April, 1699, 
excepting William Kidd and one 
other. The first thing he did was 
to dispose of his stolen vessel and 
purchased in its place a small sloop 
in which he started for New York, 
where he hoped for the protection 
of Earl Bellmont. However, all 
the powerful members of the com- 
pany that had started Kidd now 
felt that they must free themselves 
from suspicion of having been im- 
plicated in his robberies, so instead 
of getting protection from them he 
found that they had resolved to 
make a scapegoat of him. 

Not daring to enter New York 
Harbor until he heard from Earl 
Bellmont, he cruised around Long 
Island, and along the Connecticut 
shore, in his vessel of treasure 
which was to have made the mem- 
bers of the company forget how it 
was obtained. As Earl Bellmont 
was in Boston and had promised 
Captain Kidd protection if his 
claims to innocence could be 
proven, he followed him there and 




OF THE DARING SEA ROVERS DEEDS 



was arrested a week later. The 
small amount of treasure found on 
his vessel led to the belief that he 
must have buried great quantities 
of gold and jewels at the Thimble 
Islands and other places while he 
was cruising along the coast of 
Connecticut. After many months 
a vessel was sent from England to 
take him back for trial. Interest 
and excitement ran very high; 
some members of the company had 
been impeached for their connec- 
tion with Kidd and for the commis- 
sion they had given him. Captain 
Kidd became a political issue — one 
party desiring to hang him to prove 
the ministers guilty, too; the other 
party desiring to hang him to prove 
they had no connection with him. 

Truly, poor Captain Kidd was in 
dire straits. He stoutly maintained 
his own innocence and claimed, 
with a good show of truth, that the 
death of William Moore, which was 
charged against him, was an acci- 
dent; that he struck him with an 
iron bucket in quelling mutiny, and 
that if he had intended to kill him 



he would have used a knife or 
sabre. His story was very straight- 
forward, and in view of the fact 
that it could not be disproved, 
would seem to free him from blame 
in this matter. However, it was 
resolved that he was to die, and he 
was accordingly judged guilty of 
the murder of William Moore and 
sentenced to be hanged. He met 
his death at Execution Dock, May 
12, 1701. 

It is singular that while these 
events happened two hundred years 
ago there is still so much interest 
in Captain Kidd and his treasure. 
Probably the political complications 
gave him a prominence which his 
deeds did not warrant; whatever 
the cause, probably no other pirate 
ever set so many money-diggers at 
work. There are all sorts of tradi- 
tions and legends as to what bee. 
of his great wealth, most of the evi- 
dence pointing to his having buried 
it on the islands in Long Island 
Sound while waiting there for word 
from Earl Bellmont. However we 
may consider Captain Kidd, it is 



278 



LEGEND AND LITERATURE 



certain he was not quite as wicked 
and degraded as legend would lead 
us to believe. 

These events happened but little 
over two hundred years ago, and 
to-day are well grounded in our 
folklore. It is probable that the 
political complications gave promi- 
nence to the deeds, for Captain 
Kidd was neither more daring nor 
brutal than the other tradesmen of 
the times. In his defense it may 
be justly said that he was of greater 
moral strength than any other buc- 



caneer of the day and that he be- 
came largely a victim of circum- 
stances. The robber of the high 
seas was criminal by nature; his 
piratical treachery was inbred; but 
with Captain Kidd it was a quality 
of character driven to a dominating 
influence by conditions. 

Whether or not the booty of his 
rovings lies buried along the shore of 
Connecticut is merely a pretty enig- 
ma that will gather about it more 
perplexities as the centuries separate 
it from apparent historical fact. 




CONTEMPORARY AMERICANS NOW COMMUNE WITH 
NATURE WHERE PIRATES BURIED WEALTH 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 




A FOREST WALK BY DANIEL F. WENTWORTH 



^■<:;^-:^^#^ 



.,~ : ^. 





ALONG THE WAY 



BY 

HOWARD ARNOLD WALTER 

OF NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT 

Where tends this hard and toilsome way? 

It is the straight and narrow load 
That leads to God from man's abode. 

A cross my burden all the way ? 

Ay, 'tis a sign that thou wcmld'st feel 
Bayond thine own another's weal. 

Stands there no inn beside the way? 

Nay, would'st thou wish to dream awhile, 
And dear-bought hours with play beguile ? 

And if I faint along the way? 

Then shalt thou know as ne'er before 
His sorrow who did suffer more. 

Goes there no guide to point the way? 

Ay, One — the first to share thy woes; 
Thou can'st not think how near He goes. 

How shall I know where ends the way? 

Then, One whose face thou wilt recall 
Shall meet with thee and tell thee all. 

Then shall He lead henceforth the way? 

Ay, to a bright and holy place 

Where thou may'st see thy Saviour's face. 

Then to|my Lord what shall I say? 

Whisper* the love thou would'st express 
And learn His wondrous tenderness. 



THE 



LAST OF THE 



BEECHERS 



MEMORIES ON MY EIGHTY-THIRD BIRTHDAY 

BY 

ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER 

HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 



I WAS born in Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, February 22, 1822, and 
when four years old my father 
moved to Boston, and we lived 
there until I was eleven, whe.n we 
went to Cincinnati, in 1833, where 
my father became pastor of the 
Second Presbyterian Church and 
President of the Lane Theological 
Seminary, on Walnut Hills, three 
miles from the city. There were 
nine of us going at once — viz. : my 
father and mother, and Aunt Esther, 
who was the beloved aunt of the 
eleven children of my father. We 
went to Philadelphia, and were all 
quartered on the town somewhere 
for a week, as missionaries bound 
to a foreign land. Our names were 
Catharine, born in 1800, the oldest 
child; Harriet and Isabella, George, 
Thomas and James — the latter born 
in Boston and the youngest of the 
family. 

After a week in Philadelphia we 
chartered a big, old-fashioned stage, 
with four great horses, for Wheel- 
ing, Virginia, and spent a week or 
more on the way, crossing the 
Alleghanies, before ever a railroad 
was thought of, and enjoyed every 
minute of the way. At least we 
children did, with brother George 
on the box shouting out the stories 
he got from the various drivers, 
and leading us all in singing 
hymns and songs, in which we all 
joined. Every member of our 



family, so far as I can remember, 
began singing soon after birth; 
and for myself., I went to Lowell 
Mason's first juvenile class in Boston 
and learned to sing by note about 
as soon as I had learned to read — 
blessed be his memory. 

Arrived at Wheeling, we were 
distributed again for a week, be- 
cause the Ohio River was so low no 
boat could be had. But at last we 
were settled in a comfortable house 
on Fourth Street, Cincinnati, and 
my father began to preach, and my 
sisters organized a school for girls, 
and soon had teachers from the 
East of great tact and ability. I 
remember that every Monday morn- 
ing the whole school were required 
to give a report of some sermon we 
had heard on Sunday, and my 
sister Harriet conducted the ser- 
vice with a quiet fervor that was 
most attractive. I have still a 
charming little English edition of 
the Bible which she presented me 
on my twelfth birthday — a sacred 
relic. 

In about a year we moved to 
Walnut Hills, where the Seminary 
was located and where a pleasant 
house had been built for us in the 
midst of a magnificent grove of 
forest trees that ran between us 
and the Seminary, and one of my 
chief delights, I remember, was to 
climb to the very top of one and 
another of these trees and sway 




ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER, -K. 8o 



288 



THE LAST OF THE B EEC H ER S 




with the branches in a heav3 r wind. 
Soon my two brothers, Henry 
and Charles, came from college and 
entered the (theological) Seminary, 
and we were a big and happy 
family, till the anti-slavery discus- 
sions began by the students, became 
so serious that a body of them were 
determined to leave because the 
faculty, fearing they were neglect- 
ing their studies, said they must 
abate their zeal. This broke my 
father's heart, for he loved the 
young men as if they were his own 
sons, and had great hopes of what 
they were to do in evangelizing 
the West ; especially Theodore 
Weld and Henry B. Stanton, whom 
he declared to be the most gifted 
young men he had ever known. 



I can see him now, joining them 
in the little log house just opposite 
ours — pleading, remonstrating, with 
tears and almost with groans. I 
was but a child, but was in such 
sympathy with his distress that I 
never could forgive the young men 
for departing from such a loving 
guide and friend. 

Another remembrance of those 
Walnut Hill days is my father's 
fondness for taking aim at any live 
thing that came in his way. He 
always kept a double barreled shot 
gun in a corner of his study, loaded 
and ready for instant use, and once 
when a great flock of pigeons, with 
a mighty rush, lighted on our great 
forest trees, I ran out to enjoy the 
sport with him and when he brought 



THE LAST OF THE BEECHERS 



2 ■') 



down rive at first shot I hastened to 
pick them up — but oh the revulsion 
of feeling, when those tender eyes 
looked up to mine! I dropped the 
birds, and have always hated guns 
ever since, and never could under- 
stand why the masculine race could 
call hunting a sport. 

Another incident of this tragic 
time was seeing my brother Henry 
come out from the city with a pistol 
and begin to shoot at a mark on a 
big tree. He looked fierce and de- 
termined, and when he told me he 
had joined a company of one 
hundred young men to defend the 
Birnejr Press, which was threatened 
by a mob, I said: "But you wont 
kill anybody, Henry?" "I don't 
know about that," he replied. "I 
shall shoot if there is occasion." I 
said: "Oh well; but be sure and 
aim low, Henry; just hit the legs, 
so they can't run away." 

My father continued his pastoral 
work and preaching in the city, and 
drove down the three miles every 
day and did the marketing for the 
family as well — and often was so 
late in starting for an evening 
meeting that our white horse seemed 
like a flitting ghost to the passers- 
by ; and once the carriage, horse, and 
four people on their way to church 
slipped off a precipice and rolled 
down thirty feet over in the dark- 
ness. And when the teamster, 
whose big wagon had crowded him 
off the bank, called out to my 
father to know where he was and 
how he could get to him, the reply 
was from the depths: "Come the 
way I did." No one was seriously 
hurt but the faithful horse, who dis- 
appeared from history. 

My father was tried for heresy by 
the Presbytery under old Dr. Wil- 
son, the former pastor of his church, 
and well do I remember sitting in 
the choir gallery of the church listen- 
ing to the jolly comments of young 
men and maidens, led by my brother 
Henry, ? all on the proceedings 
below. It seemed a strange thing 



to me, even then, that ministers of 
the Gospel should be found fighting 
such a good man as my father, and 
I have never changed my mind. 

At sixteen I was sent back to 
New England, on account of the 
death of my mother, and that is 
the last of my living at home with 
my father, and I knew him only 
through letters and his occasional 
visits to the East. But I date my 
interest in public affairs from ti. 
few years between eleven and six- 
teen, when our family circle was 
ever in discussion on the vital prob- 
lems of human existence, and the 
United States Constitution, fugitive 
slave laws, Henry Clay and Missouri 
Compromise, alternated with free 
will, regeneration, heaven, hell and 
"The Destiny of Man," as John 
Fiske would have it. 

In the home of my sister, whose 
husband, Thomas C. Perkins, was 
an eminent lawyer in Hartford, 
Connecticut, I soon became ac- 
quainted with a young law student 
in his office, by the name of John 
Hooker. He was sixth in descent 
from Thomas Hooker, author of the 
first written constitution of the 
world, and founder of the Con- 
necticut Colony. Before I was seven- 
teen, I became engaged to him with 
the understanding that if either of 
us found we had made a mistake 
we were at liberty to choose else- 
where. But at nineteen I married 
him and went to live with his parents 
in the village of Farmington, August 
5, 1841, where we remained till the 
year 1853, when we moved to Hart- 
ford and established the colony 
Nook Farm. 

Of life at Nook Farm I have 
many delightful memories and can 
no better describe it than by quoting 
from the autobiography of my hus- 
band, who said: 

"In 1853 I purchased, with Hon. 
Francis Gillette, who had married 
my sister, a farm of a little over 
one hundred acres, lying just out- 
side of the limits of the city of 



290 



THE LAST OF THE B EEC H ER S 




JOHN HOOKER DESCENDANT OF THOMAS HOOKER 

In sixth generation from author of first written constitution known to the world 
Photograph taken in i860 at 54 years of age 



Hartford, on the Farmington road. 
It had belonged to William H. 
Imlay, who had held it for thirty 
years or more, and was called 
'Nook Farm,' this name having 
been given to it because the river, 
now called Park river, curved 
about the southern part of it in 
such a way as to leave some thirty 
or forty acres within the nook. At 
that time there was a comfortable 
farm house quite a distance in the 
interior, but no other dwelling 
house. The city limits were ex- 
tended a few years later and the 



whole farm taken into the city. It 
has now five city streets, well filled 
with city houses, the southern part 
containing several factories. 

"I built a house for myself on a 
street which we opened and called 
Forest street, Mr. Gillette occupy- 
ing for three or four years the farm 
house and later building a large 
and very pleasant house on the 
same street. The neighborhood 
where we lived still kept the old 
name of 'Nook Farm,' and that 
name remained a familiar one for 
many years, and has hardly yet dis- 



THE LAST OF THE BEECHERS 



2<jl 



appeared. The early comers were 
generally family or personal friends 
and we lived like a little society by 
ourselves — each of us making free 
of the others' houses, and each 
keeping open house, and all of us 
frequently gathering for a social 
evening or to welcome some friend- 
ly visitor, often some person distin- 
guished in political, literary or 
philanthropic life, who had come to 
some of our houses. 

"There was a curious thread of 
relationship running through our 
little neighborhood. As I have 
already stated, Mr. Gillette and I 
were the first settlers, and Mrs. 
Gillette was my sister. Soon after 
came Thomas C. Perkins, an emi- 
nent lawyer of the city, whose wife 
was sister of my wife. Then came 
Mrs. Stowe, another sister, who at 
first built a house on another part 
of the farm, but subsequently came 
to live close by us on Forest street. 
My widowed mother early built her- 
self a cottage next my own house. 
Elizabeth, daughter of my sister, 
Mrs. Gillette, married George H. 
Warner, and she and her husband 
settled close by us. Next came 
Charles Dudley Warner and his bril- 
liant wife, he being the brother of 
George H. Warner just mentioned. 
Joseph R. Hawley,then my law part- 
ner, but since a general in the war 
and senator in Congress, met at my 
house, and afterwards married, 
Harriet W. Foote, a cousin of my 
wife. They also settled in our im- 
mediate neighborhood. Rev. Dr. 
Nathaniel J. Burton and his wife 
were for two years members of my 
family, becoming family connec- 
tions by the marriage of my daugh- 
ter to Dr. Burton's brother. This 
daughter also settled close by us. 
Still later, Mark Twain (Samuel L. 
Clemens) built a residence near us, 
his wife being the daughter of our 
very intimate and much -loved 
friends, Mr. and Mrs. Langdon, of 
Elmira, N. Y. I ought not to omit 
William Gillette, then a boy growing 



up among us, the son of my sister, 
who has since become distinguished 
as an actor and playwright. " 

My interest in the woman ques- 
tion began soon after my marriage, 
when my husband, a patient young 
lawyer waiting for "business, invited 
me to bring my knitting work to 
his office every day, where he would 
read to me from his law books, and 
in the evenings I might read litera- 
ture to him, whose weak eyes for- 
bade his ever using them in the 
evening. For four years we kept 
on this even tenor of our way, and 
to it I owe my intelligent interest 
in public affairs and a certain disci- 
pline of mind — since I never at- 
tended school or college after my 
sixteenth year. 

Our first book at the office was 
Blackstone, of course, and on the 
flyleaf was written, in that clear, 
round hand, so significant of the 
man, the wonderful quotation from 
Richard Hooker, "the judicious" 
(so called by his contemporaries 
1553-1600): "Of Law there can be 
no less acknowledged than that her 
seat is the bosom of God, her voice 
the harmony of the world ; all things 
in heaven and earth do her homage, 
the very least as feeling her care, 
and the greatest as not exempt frcm 
her power." 

This was to be the key-note of 
his whole life, and with great en- 
thusiasm we read chapter after 
chapter till we came to that on the 
Domestic Relations and the recipro- 
cal duties of husband and wife. I 
shall never forget my consternation 
when we came to this pas- 
"By marriage the husband and wife 
are one person in law. that i<. the 
very being or legal existence of the 
woman is suspended during the 
marriage, or at least is incorpora 
and consolidated into that oi 
husband under whose wing, 
tection and cover, she performs 
everything. . . . The hus 
also by the old law might give his 
wife moderate correction. For as 



292 



THE LAST OF THE B EECH ERS 




HARRIET REECHER STOWE AUTHOR OF UNCLE TOMS CABIN 

Sister of Isabella Beecher Hooker 




HOME OF HARRIET BEECHER STOWE, IN HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 



THE LAST OF THE B EEC HERS 



*93 



he is to answer for her misbehavior, 
the law thought it reasonable to 
entrust him with this power of 
restraining her by domestic chas- 
tisement, in the same moderation 
that a man is allowed to correct his 
apprentices or children. . . . 
The civil law gave the husband the 
same or a larger authority over his 
wife: allowing him for some misde- 
meanors, 'flagellis et fustibus acriter 
verberare uxor em' (By whips and 
cudgels vigorously to punish a 
wife); for others, only ' modicam 
castigationem adhibere' (to use moder- 
ate whipping)." 

Looking up to my young lover's 
face, I said: "And this is your code 
that is to bring peace on earth, 
good will to men and harmonize 
the universe." 

Then followed discussion after 
discussion, till the subject was 
dropped as a hopeless mystery. 
The domination of man, the subjection 
of woman. My prevailing thought 
was contempt for that half of the 
human race that should submit to 
such degradation, and it was not till 
John Stuart Mill unfolded the evo- 
lutionary process in his noble book 
on "Liberty and the Subjection of 
Woman" — first that whicli is carnal 
and then that which is spiritual — that 
I began patiently to work with our 
great leaders, Lucretia Mott, Eliza- 
beth Cady Stanton and Susan B. 
Anthony — women to whom the civ- 
ilized world owes an unceasing debt 
of gratitude. 

My mind had long been disturbed 
with the tangled problem of social 
life, but it involved so many momen- 
tous questions that I could not see 
where to begin nor what to do. I 
could only protest in my heart, and 
leave the whole matter for God to 
deal with in his wisdom. Thus 
matters stood until the year 1861, 
when Anna Dickinson, then a girl 
of nineteen, came to Hartford to 
speak in behalf of the Republican 
party, particularly on its hostility 
to the extension of slavery. I shall 



never forget the dismay— I know 
not what else to call it— which I 
felt at the announcement of her 
first speech in one of our public 
halls, lest harm should come to the 
political cause that enlisted my 
sympathies, and anxiety about the 
speaker who would have to encoun- 
ter so much adverse criticism in our 
conservative and prejudiced city. 
It was certainly a most startling 
occurrence that here in my very 
home, where there had been hardly 
a lisp in favor of the rights of 
women, this girl should speak on 
political subjects and that, too, 
upon the invitation of the leaders of 
a great political party. Here was 
a stride, not a mere step; and a 
stride almost to final victory for the 
suppressed rights of women. My 
husband and I, full of anxiety and 
apprehension, but full, too, of de- 
termination to stand by one who so 
bravely shook off her trammels, 
went to hear this new Joan of Arc, 
and in a few minutes after she 
began we found ourselves, with 
the rest of the large audience, en- 
tranced by her eloquence. At the 
close of the meeting we went with 
many others to be introduced and 
give her the right hand of fellow- 
ship. She came home with us for 
the night, and after the family re- 
tired she and I communed together, 
heart to heart, as mother and daugh- 
ter, and from this sweet, grand 
soul, born to the freedom denied to 
all women, except those known as 
Friends, I learned to trust as never 
before the teachings of the inner 
light, and to know whence came to 
them the recognition of equal 
rights with their brethren in the 
public assembly. 

It was she who brought me to the 
knowledge of Mrs. John Stuart Mill 
and her remarkable paper on the 
"Enfranchisement of Women" in 
the Westminister Review, She told 
me, too, of Susan R. Anthony. .1 
fearless defender of true libel 
and woman's right of public 






294 



THE LAST OF THE B EECH ERS 



but I allowed an old and ignorant 
prejudice against her and Mrs. 
Stanton to remain until the year 
1864, when going south to nurse a 
young soldier, who was wounded in 
the war, I met Mrs. Caroline Sev- 
erance, from Boston, who was re- 
siding in South Carolina, where her 
husband was in the service of the 
government, who confirmed what 
Miss Dickinson had told me of 
Miss Anthony, and unfolded to me 
the whole philosophy of the woman 
suffrage movement. 

She afterwards invited me to her 



home near Boston, where I joined 
Mr. Garrison and others in issuing 
a call for a convention, which I at- 
tended and aided in the formation 
of the New England Woman Suf- 
frage Association. At this meet- 
ing, which I will not attempt to 
describe, 1 met Paulina Wright 
Davis, whose mere presence upon 
the platform, with her beautiful 
white hair and her remarkable dig- 
nity and elegance, was a most potent 
argument in favor of woman's par- 
ticipation in public affairs. I sought 
an introduction to her, and confess- 















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ISABELLA 



BEECHER HOOKER 

m. 50 



THE LAST OF THE B E E C H E R S 



'J': 






ing my prejudice against Mrs. Stan- 
ton and Miss Anthony, whom I had 
never yet seen, she urged me to 
meet them as guests at her home in 
Providence; and a few weeks later, 
under the grand old trees of her 
husband's almost ducal estate, we 
went over the whole subject of 
man's supremacy and woman's sub- 
jection that had lain so many years 
a burden upon my heart, and, sit- 
ting at their feet, I said: "While 
I have been mourning in secret 
over the degradation of woman, 
you have been working through 
opposition and obloquy to raise her 
to self-respect and self-protection 
through enfranchisement, knowing 
that with equal political rights 
come equal social and industrial 
opportunities. Henceforth, I will 
at least share your work and your 
obloquy." 

I became so interested that in 
1868 I wrote "A Mother's Letters 
to a Daughter on Woman's Suf- 
frage," which was published anono- 
mously in Putnam s Monthly. They 
seemed to be of some interest and 
it was popularly believed they were 
written by some one of the Massa- 
chusetts clique. 

. Still bright in my memory are 
the days back in 1869 when I had 
the honor of calling the first conven- 
tion in the State of Connecticut for 
discussing the question of women 
in government, and organized a 
state society under this title: "The 
Connecticut Woman Suffrage Asso- 
ciation and Society for the Study of 
Political Science, ' ' paying all the ex- 
penses of a two days' convention, 
in our then new and elegant 
opera house, all the speakers 
and the noble Hutchinson family 
of singers, out of the receipts. 
This practical organizing ability 
has stood me in good stead all 
these intervening years, and has 
enabled me, with the help of my 
husband, to work for thirty odd 
years for the enfranchisement of 

the women citizens of the United 



States through a proper interpreta- 
tion of the Constitution ot the 
United States as related to citizen- 
ship in the various states. That 
the day when Women People shall 
be recognized as responsible mem- 
bers of the body politic precisely 
the Men People now are is not so 
far off as it was in 1869, is the great 
comfort of my old age, while yet 
the degradation of my political 
classification with minors, criminals 
and idiots, is harder to bear than 
ever before, and rouses within me a 
storm of indignation that shakes my 
very soul of souls. 

I was much interested in the abo- 
lition movement, and with my sis- 
ter, Harriet, enjoyed the friendship 
of those grand men of the times of 
which William Lloyd Garrison was 
a leading power, but I felt that the 
emancipation of women must be 
the next great step in national 
progress and that it was as serious 
a problem as the negro question. 

My sister's book, "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin," which first appeared as a 
serial in an anti- slavery paper pub- 
lished in Washington, had such 
an influence in the abolition cause 
that it gave me an incentive to 
do the best I could to emancipate 
women. 

"Uncle Tom's Cabin" was written 
from the nursery. My sister s 
seventh child had just been born 
amid serious cares and distractions, 
the days of poverty not yet being 
over. It was published in book 
form in 1852 and brought her 
$10,000 at once and a yearly income 
for many years. Toward the end 
of her life however, she was unable 
to aid the benevolent objects which 
had greatly interested her. by reason 
of a failure of receipts from her 
books, the copyright having 

In 1870 I presented a bill to the 
Connecticut Legislature making 
husband and wife equal in property 
rights and persisted in its pass 
without avail through succe< 
legislatures until 1 S 7 7 . Governor 



THE LAST OF THE BEECH ER S 





TJJUxj cAw^a- 



From portrait taken at the age of 78 years 



Richard D. Hubbard was an inti- 
mate friend of my husband and my- 
self and had become much inter- 
ested in our cause. In his first 
message to the General Assembly 
he mentioned the injustice done to 
married women in respect to their 
property rights, and soon after re- 
quested Mr. Hooker to draft a bill 



for a public act remedying the in- 
justice. He spent some time con- 
sidering it and a draft was finally 
submitted to Governor Hubbard, 
who accepted it without change, 
except that section providing for 
direct conveyances and transfers 
of property between husband and 
wife, which he feared presented an 



THE LAST OF THE BEECHE, 



2( j1 



opportunity for defrauding credi- 
tors; this section was therefore 
stricken out. The bill was passed 
in 1877 and still holds its place in 
the statute book without material 
change. 

In the year 1871 I organized a 
National Convention in Washing- 
ton, at my own expense, for the 
purpose of calling the attention of 
Congress to the fact that women 
were already citizens of the United 
States under the Constitution, inter- 
preted by the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and only needed recogni- 
tion by that body to become voters. 
I opened a large volume for the 
signatures of women willing to sign 
the following declaration : 

''Declaration and Pledge of the 
Women of the United States con- 
cerning their right to and use of 
the Elective Franchise: We, the 
undersigned, believing that the 
sacred rights and privileges of citi- 
zenship in this Republic have long 
been guaranteed to us by the orig- 
inal Constitution of the United 
States, and that these are now made 
manifest in the Fourteenth and Fif- 
teenth Amendments, so that we can 
no longer refuse the solemn respon- 
sibilities thereof, do hereby pledge 
ourselves to accept the duties of the 
franchise in our several states so 
soon as all legal restrictions are 
removed. 

"And believing that character is 
the best safeguard of national liber- 
ty, we pledge ourselves to make the 
personal purity and integrity of can- 
didates for public office the first test 
of fitness. 

"And lastly, believing in God as 
the Supreme Author of the first 
American Declaration of Independ- 
ence, we pledge ourselves in the 
spirit of that memorable Act to 
work hand in hand with our fathers, 
husband and sons, for the main- 
tenance of those equal rights on 
which our Republic was originally 
founded, to the end that it may 
have what is declared to be the first 



condition of just government—/^ 
consent of the governed. ' ' 

And during the winter hundreds 
of autograph signatures, on little 
slips of white paper, came from all 
parts of the country, and were 
pasted into the volume, while. with 
tearful eyes we whispered: 

"A weapon that comes down as still 
As snowflakes fall upon the sod, 
But executes a freeman's will 
As lightning does the will of God. " 
— Lowell. 

Under this interpretation of the 
Constitution, which was well re- 
ceived by Congress, Miss Anthony, 
having been duly registered by the 
inspectors of election in her state, 
voted in 1872 for President and 
Members of Congress, and in 1873 
was arrested and held to trial before 
Judge Hunt of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, and fined $100 
and costs. This decision became a 
precedent, of course, and our new 
hopes and holy enthusiasm being 
blasted, we were obliged to fall back 
upon a Sixteenth Amendment to 
the Constitution, for which women 
had been petitioning ever since the 
year 1848. 

In 1888 I assisted in calling the 
first International Convention of 
Women and gave my first printed 
argument in favor of the constitu- 
tional rights of the women of the 
United States, and have been offer- 
ing this ever since, to any one 
who would consent to read the 
argument with thoughtfulness and 
candor. 

It is with gratitude to Governor 
Waller that I recall the year 
when he honored me by an appoint- 
ment to the Board of Lady Man- 
agers of the Columbian Exposition 
at Chicago. While it was my en- 
deavor at that time to represent my 
beloved state to the best of my 
ability. I took groat interest in 
the preparation of the "Univer- 
sal Litany" which was D9 
Cities' Day at the World's V 
It consisted of comparative sc 



298 



THE LAST OF THE B EECH ERS 



tions from the scriptures of different 
nations and I desired to prove by it 
that all religions tended toward the 
same ideal. I well remember Mayor 
Carter H. Harrison of Chicago and 
Mayor Gilroy of Philadelphia as 
they led the reading of the quota- 
tions from the Christian Bible, 
alternately with my own readings 
from other faiths. Believing that 
the Litany may be of some interest 
to contemporary thinkers, I give it 
in full at the close of this article. 

I give also my Confession of 
Faith, prepared in Boston in the 
winter of 1885, while studying the 
phenomena of Spiritualism and giv- 
ing parlor talks on the subject 
which were reported in the Boston 
Transcript from time to time. This 
statement was given in response to 
a question from one of the audience 
as to how my acceptance of Spirit- 
ualism had affected my religious 
belief. 

In the year 1892 a Connecticut 
Constitutional Convention was held 
in the city of Hartford, and I pre- 
pared and presented "A Memorial 
from the Connecticut Women's Suf- 
frage Association," stating that 
women are tired of being classed 
with minors, criminals and idiots, 
as proper subjects for disfranchise- 
ment and asking that the word male 
be stricken from Article 6, Section 
2, of the old Constitution. The Con- 
vention not only refused to hear my 
argument, but the committee to 
whom our memorial was referred, 
declined to give me a private hear- 
ing in their committee room, and 
subsequently declined to receive 
copies of the memorial and argu- 
ment, which I had printed by the 
thousand for the use of the Conven- 
tion in the hope that at least every 
member would carefully read it and 
vote to have it distributed all over 
the state, before the final vote was 
taken. 

This was a crushing blow, for it 
ended all hope of my living to see 
the women of my native state put. 



under the responsibilities of citizen- 
ship by the vote of honorable men. 

My lover husband has passed to 
the Great Beyond, and now I am 
myself awaiting the beckoning call 
to join him with glad heart, save 
for my continued disfranchisement. 

During the sixty years of our 
companionship, his sympathy that 
made the case his own, his power 
of "putting yourself in his place," 
and his unceasing devotion of 
time, talents and purse, to my 
work, made work a comparative 
pleasure, and I have it to record 
that owing to this I have never 
received a penny in compensation 
for any public work, but have been 
able, out of our moderate income, 
to put many dollars into the com- 
mon treasury. And better still, I 
am now leaving to my children and 
grandchildren an inheritance be- 
yond all price, in the noble words 
of our freedom poet, the sainted 
Whittier : 



And for the things Isee 
I trust the things to be 
That in the paths un trod 
And the long days of God 
My feet shall still be led, 
My heart be comforted. 

Others shall sing the song, 
Others shall right the wrong, 
Finish what I begin, 
And all I fail of — win. 



What matter I or they? 
Mine or another's day, 
So the right word be said 
And life be sweeter made. 



Hail to the coming singers! 
Hail to the brave light bringers! 
Forward I reach and share 
All that they do or dare. 

The airs of heaven blow o'er me, 
A glory shines before me, 
Of what mankind shall be, 
Pure, generous, brave and free. 

Ring bells in unreared steeples 
The joy of new born peoples ! 
Sound trumpets far off blown! 
Your triumph is my own. 



II 






HOME LIFE OF ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER 



BY 



ELLA BURR McMANUS 



Mrs. McManus is the daughter of the late Alfred Burr, distinguished for many years as the editor and owner of 
The Hartford Times, one of the most conscientious newspapers in this country. Since childhood, Mrs. McManus has 
been a loving friend of Mrs. Hooker— Editor 



THERE are few homes, com- 
paratively, where the indi- 
viduality of their owners is 
more obviously manifested 
than in that of Mrs. Isabella Beecher 
Hooker, the last surviving mem- 
ber of the famous Beecher family. 
Within recent years she has left 
her picturesque mansion on Forest 
street, in Hartford, Connecticut, to 
take up her abode in a pretty 
brick cottage on Marshall street, 
named after the late Governor 
Marshal Jewell, which is lined its 
entire length with trees — a constant 
source of pleasure to Mrs. Hooker, 
who is a lover of nature. 

The first indication of her per- 
sonality is seen in her front door- 
yard, crowded with shrubs and 
flowers up to the door steps, giving 
a cheery sense of welcome before 
the door is reached. 

Faithful Mary, widely known 
to visitors from many lands and who 
from childhood has lived with Mrs. 
Hooker, ushers you into the library 
on the left of the pretty hall. 

An interesting, miscellaneous col- 
lection of books occupies the open 
book-shelves on one side of the 
wall. Over the tapestry hung man- 
tel are two portraits in oil, one of 
Mrs. Hooker, painted while in her 
youthful bloom and beauty by the 
late Jared Flagg, father of the 
artist, Charles Noel Flagg, now 
residing in Hartford. The other 



portrait is of a dearly beloved and 
talented daughter who passed away 
in 1886. Mrs. Caroline Rogers of 
Albany, the artist who painted it, 
must have been inspired by a loving 
appreciation and memory of the 
rare and refined personality of her 
subject. It is not only a remarka- 
ble likeness in form and spirit but a 
picture as well as a portrait, by 
reason of its coloring, exquisite pose 
of the head and life-like expression. 

On the mantel are prettily framed 
photographs of the children and 
grandchildren of Mrs. Hooker. She 
enjoys seeing the faces of her family 
and those of her valued friends in 
the midst of her daily surrounding -. 
Among these photographs is one of 
her nephew, by marriage, William 
Gillette, the actor and playwright, 
between whom and Mrs. Hooker 
exists a strong tie of mutual interest 
and affection. 

Mrs. Hooker possesses a keenly 
appreciative but discriminating 
taste for the drama and believes 
that the stage, with its powerful 
object lessons, could become, under 
right management, one of the 
greatest edueatiomtl and moral 
tors of the age, and that persons of 
talent in that direction should 
enouraged. 

The large bay-window of the 
library is festooned with a luxur- 
iant vine of growing ivy softening 
the effect of a white marble bus 



3°° 



HOME LIFE OF ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER 



Henry Ward Beecher that faces the 
sunset. This valuable bust was 
presented to Mrs. Hooker by the 
late Mrs. Samuel Clemens, the wife 
of Mark Twain It was executed 
by Karl Gerhardt, a sculptor whose 
works are highly valued by Mr. 
Clemens, and is a striking likeness 
of Mr. Beecher, brought into relief 
by its background of ivy and ferns. 

Interesting photographs of some 
of Mrs. Hooker's old-time friends 
hang upon the walls, among them 
those of United States Senator 
Joseph R. Hawley and Anna Dick- 
inson. These portraits also include 
those of two brothers, James and 
Thomas Beecher; the former, a 
colonel in the first colored regiment 
organized during the civil war, and 
the latter a chaplain in a colored 
regiment, proving that Harriet 
Beecher Stowe did not stand alone 
in her family for interest and sym- 
pathy in the colored race. 

In the living room opposite the 
library are more books, flowers and 
ferns, and a marble bust of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, by Anne Whitney 
of Boston. And here also are oil 
paintings from the brush of Mrs. 
Stowe. Over the easy reading chair 
and low-hung burner are photo- 
graphs of Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stan- 
ton and Miss Susan B. Anthony, 
with whom Mrs. Hooker has shared 
the persistent bravery of their 
pioneer work for woman suffrage — 
a remarkable history by itself. 

A couch, easy chairs, a few an- 
tiques and a softly toned bit of 
tapestry complete the furnishing of 
this room, made doubly inviting by 
an open wood-fire invariably burn- 
ing in chilly weather. A biblical 
motto, in inlaid wood, taken from 
the Psalms, "While I was musing 
the fire burned," is part of the fire- 
place mantel. Sticks of drift-wood 
laid over the fire, draw every guest 
to the hearthstone with exclama- 
tions of surprise at the splendor of 
its green, gold and purple flames. 

Mrs. Hooker does not believe in 



placing rooms apart for formality 
and show. Furniture to her is in- 
tended for use and comfort, not 
display. The sunlight enters the 
broad windows, burners are hung 
low, affording abundant light for 
reading, and books, magazines and 
flowers upon the tables make all 
the rooms of her dwelling livable 
and home-like. 

The most distinctive room ex- 
pressing her individual tastes is the 
spacious dining-room. Its coloring 
is peculiarly soft and pleasing with 
wall paper, moldings, silken hang- 
ings and oriental rug of blended 
terra-cotta shades, verging upon 
old-rose. The room is lighted by 
two north and two south windows 
and a doorway opening into a vine- 
covered porch. 

And here Mrs. Hooker has placed 
many relics of the two distinguished 
families — the Beechers and the 
Hookers. The south end of the 
room is consecrated to the memory 
of the Rev. Thomas Hooker, leader 
and founder of the Connecticut 
Colony, to whose hand it is indebted 
for the drafting of the first written 
constitution of the world, and whose 
life formed an important part of the 
first settlement in Connecticut. In 
this collection of Hooker relics is a 
large, leather-bound note-book of 
the Rev. Thomas Hooker, begun in 
1623, in his own hand-writing, con- 
taining notes on the books he had 
read, and curious plans and out- 
lines of his sermons. It is an inter- 
esting heirloom and a valuable vol- 
ume for antiquarians. A quaint oil- 
painting of Mr. John Hooker's 
grandmother, and a photograph of 
himself overlooks the Hooker end 
of the large room. The handsome 
Chippendale sideboard holds inter- 
esting gifts and mementos to Mrs. 
Hooker, including a silver loving 
cup presented by the Connecticut 
Woman Suffrage Association on her 
eightieth birthday and one from chil- 
dren and grandchildren on the fifty- 
ninth anniversary of her marriage. 



HOME LIFE OF ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER 



3°" 



The Beecher part of the room has 
book shelves containing the pub- 
lished works of the different mem- 
bers of the Beecher family and por- 
traits of their authors hang over 
them. A parchment map of the 
United States, drawn by that de- 
cided genius, Catherine Beecher, at 
the age of fourteen, holds a promi- 
nent place upon the wall. The map 
is a model of remarkable drawing, 
lettering and coloring, picturing the 
ships of 1812 in Boston harbor on 
the margin and showing a technique 
so accurate that even the eyes of an 
expert would find difficulty in distin- 
guishing it from an engraving. As 
a connecting link between the two 
families in the center of the room 
hangs an oil portrait of the Rev. 
Lyman Beecher, the father of this 
family of world renowned geniuses. 
It was painted by Marchand of 
Philadelphia, for his own gallery. 
Neither the Hooker nor the Beecher 
families knew of its existence until 
after the death of the artist, when 
some of his paintings were sold. It 
is a fine likeness and a masterpiece 
in color treatment. 

The pictures in the house are of 
pleasing landscapes, Venetian views, 
foreign cathedrals, copies of figures 
from the old masters and favorite 
authors grouped effectively. Some 
of them are in the sunny bed-room 
of Mrs. Hooker, where nearly every 
article is a precious relic with a his- 
tory. Even there, a burner hangs 
over the bedstead to use for read- 
ing on wakeful nights, and the win- 
dows all command a view of blue 
sky and tall trees to greet the eyes of 
Mrs. Hooker upon awakening. 

In the midst of pictured land- 
scapes and historic portraits in the 
lower hall hangs an excellent fac- 
simile copy of the Declaration of 
Independence. The latter is a good 
example for American homes to 
follow, as it helps to keep alive the 
fire of patriotism. 

An upright piano, used by vis- 
itors and furnishing accompani- 



ments to the frequent family sing- 
ing of hymns, affords much enjoy- 
ment to Mrs. Hooker. She loves 
music as much as she does art and 
literature, and with her shining, 
silver hair and handsome face is a 
notable figure in the audience of 
all the best concerts given in 
Hartford. 

There are flowers in about every 
room in the house, roses and carna- 
tions, and a variety of wild flowers 
gathered by her on morning drives 
and arranged with artistic taste as 
she has an instinctive perception of 
harmonious color. 

Opening from the upper hall and 
nearly on a level with the tree tops 
of a pretty garden in the rear is a 
piazza thirty-six feet long and 
eleven feet wide, terminating in a 
large latticed alcove, making an 
attractive out-door resting place. 
It is fitted at one end with a gym- 
nastic apparatus for exercise in 
stormy weather. This large veran- 
da is much used by Mrs. Hooker, 
although she spends her summers 
in another pretty cottage at Nor- 
folk, Connecticut, where she derives 
much pleasure in entertaining 
friends, especially her dearly-loved 
grandchildren, whom she keeps 
with her during the summer, inter- 
ested in all their games, pursuits 
and studies, giving them birthday 
parties and allowing them the free- 
dom of her house. 

Her dining table, unpretentiously 
but daintily set with pretty silver 
and delicate china, always has an 
extra plate for the chance visitor 
who is often invited to dinner or 
luncheon, and who is never dis- 
turbed by the thought that the un- 
expected advent is made the cause 
of trouble or fussy changes. 

Many are the delightful social 
memories that arise from the cosy 
tea-table with its flowered tea cups 
and from the hearthstone of that 
drift-wood fire which friends, neigh- 
bors and celebrities have enjoyed 
together. 



302 



A N 



APPRECIA T I N 



It is a charming experience to be 
a guest in this natural yet cultivated 
household. Under the sympathetic 
interest and charitable judgment of 
its hostess, visitors reveal their 
higher selves. If there is a good 
trait in their character or the 
slightest talent inherent in their 
nature, these are quickly recognized 
by Mrs. Hooker, a rare quality 
which was also possessed by Mr. 
Hooker to an unusual degree. * From 
the first he was in full sympathy 
with his wife in her work for reform 
causes, the abolition of slavery, the 
race problem, the enfranchisement 
of women and in all progressive 
movements to uplift the human race. 

As for Mrs. Hooker, many untold 
incidents of her life reveal her great 
moral courage and unselfish char- 
acter, and her writings and speeches, 
although on different lines, show 
equal mental ability with that of her 
brothers and sisters. 

She has now partially retired 
from public life. Surrounded by 
companionship of her 
grandchildren, she is 
writing to promote 
reforms dear to her 
one in the city 



m- 



the love and 
children and 
engaged in 
some of the 
heart. No 
formally entertains more famous 
people than she, dispenses more 
hospitality, and gives more en- 
couragement to those who need it. 
Much could be said of her home 
life to prove that women engaged 



in the humanitarian interests of the 
day are as domestic and home-loving 
as those in private life; and also 
of her kindly deeds showing her 
ready sympathy and motherly 
nature. 

One instance, especially charac- 
teristic of Mrs. Hooker, took place 
in my early girlhood. I had been 
placed under her charge on the 
way to Washington, then a longer 
journey than it is now and before 
the introduction of drawing-room 
cars. In the car there was a frail 
and poorly-clad young mother with 
a crying baby. Nothing availed to 
pacify it. The mother became ner- 
vous in her vain attempt to quiet it, 
and the passengers impatient at 
its long-continued, wailing cries. 
Finally, Mrs. Hooker, noticing that 
the mother was powerless to help 
the poor child, went to her seat and 
gently said: "Let me take the 
baby. I may be able to help you." 
The mother placed the baby in Mis. 
Hooker's kindly arms. She took it 
to a seat near the stove and quietly 
rubbed its chilled limbs and little 
body, getting it thoroughly warm 
and soothing it to peaceful sleep, to 
the gratification of the passengers, 
the joy of the mother and the com- 
fort of the baby. 

Even in those earlier days Mrs. 
Hooker enacted her life's motto, 
"The World is my Country, to do 
Good is my Religion." 



in 



AN APPRECIATION 



BY 

FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER 



A SAYING so true that it has 
already passed into a proverb 
is that the people of the 
United States were composed 
of Saints, Sinners and the Beecher 
family, and my acquaintance with 



Isabella Beecher Hooker, the 
last of that distinguished American 
family, leads me to corroborate this 
statement. I know no grander type 
of the American gentlewoman 
to-day than Mrs. Hooker in her 



A N 



A P P R E C I A T I O N 



3°3 



eighty-fourth year. A woman who 
loves life and all living things, 
she has interpreted its meanings 
through several generations and 
now in the fullness and beauty of 
years throws her motherly arms 
about humanity regardless of its 
frailties. 

Early in life she found not only 
that to live is to learn, but that to 
learn is to live. Huxley said: "Sit 
down before a fact as a little child, 
be prepared to give up every pre- 
conceived notion, follow humbly 
wherever and to whatever abysses 
nature leads, or you shall learn 
nothing." Mrs. Hooker has done 
this. Not that she has allowed her- 
self to be misled into the byways of 
thought, for this has never been 
characteristic of a Beecher; rather 
that she has sent her mind on a 
voyage of discovery to seek what- 
ever truth may be found, no matter 
how lowly or even dangerous the 
errand, that it may return to her the 
facts as they exist. 

She has not been, as good Dr. 
Isaac K. Funk says, afraid over- 
much of being fooled, nor under- 
much; she has realized that we 
may be as greatly deceived by be- 
lieving too little as believing too 
much, and that the worst kind of 
credulity is sometimes seen in in- 
credulity. "Every faculty recog- 
nizes truth up to the faculty's de- 
velopment, and up to that level the 
whole domain of truth is credible 
truth." 

In our Emersonian literature 
there is no truism truer than that 
which so well says: "Of no use to 
the world are those men who study 
to do exactly as was done before, 
who never understand that to-day is 
a new day. ' ' Mrs. Hooker has never 
been a mere spectator of progress, 
or a plagiarist of yesterday; she 
has herself been an integral part of 
of evolution. With the achieve- 
ments of the last century she has in 
all things kept pace and at many 
times led the way. Years have not 



burdened because she has been 
master of self and has forced all 
obstacles to clear the way. The 
road to her is never impassable; 
neither is it hedged by thickets or 
rough with bruising stones. In the 
far distance there is darkness and 
at times it hangs just ahead; she 
flashes her own intelligence into 
the murky clouds and, in the dense- 
ness, her vision perceives the wind- 
ing path and its milestones, and the 
earth is again bathed in golden light. 

She knows no creed, and no color, 
and no nationality. Her patriotism 
is as broad as the universe. "The 
world," she says, "is my country; 
to do good is my religion." She 
loves her fellow travelers with true 
Christian socialism. The super- 
natural to her is merely natural, 
and seems mystical only as it is 
shrouded in misunderstanding. 

Dear mother of humanity! Her 
heart overflows with sympathy 
for all conscientious effort and she 
raises her forceful hands only 
against sham and hypocrisy. Then 
with a vigor that fires the soul, she 
denounces the willful deeds of evil 
but never the perpetrator. Mrs. 
Hooker is not vacillating; she has 
the Beecher courage of her convic- 
tions; there is not a weak line in her 
countenance and her voice resounds 
against impurity and injustice. 

In politics this same breadth of 
character is again seen. Party 
politics are of little interest to Mrs. 
Hooker, for she sees that politics 
involve mathematical calculations 
in which there is more than on 
way to reach the solution of com- 
plicated problems. Men have vari- 
ous methods of computation, but 
they are all intended to bring the 
same results — namely, a practical 
system of government that ap- 
proaches the ideal just as nearly as 
possible without extinguishing itself 
in the theoretical. 

Mrs. Hooker seems to have been 
endowed by nature with the judicial 
faculty, and this faculty found the 



3°4 



A N 



APPRECIATION 



best training and exercise during 
the years of the study of law whicn 
she shared with her husband. This 
enabled her to present such an 
argument to Congress on the con- 
stitutional rights of the women citi- 
zens of the United States as to 
warrant the assertion of Susan B. 
Anthony that Mrs. Hooker was the 
soundest constitutional lawyer in 
the country. She interprets law as 
an endeavor to promote good rather 
than to punish evil, and she fre- 
quently quotes the "Preamble" to 
the United States Constitution in 
proof of this and as a tribute to 
the great wisdom of the founders of 
this Republic. 

"We, the people of the United 
States, in order to form a more 
perfect union, establish justice, in- 
sure domestic tranquility, provide 
for the common defense, promote 
the equal welfare and secure the 
blessings of liberty to ourselves and 
our posterity, do ordain and estab- 
lish this constitution for the United 
States of America." 

The component elements in our 
individualities seem to me much 
like chemical qualities in which the 
Master Chemist brings out certain 
forces in one individuality and 
other forces in another individ- 
uality. In Mrs. Hooker he has de- 
veloped the power of seeing accu- 
rately. This is shown in her concep- 
tion of art, which to her is simply 
that which inspires emotions 
through illustration, but the illus- 
tration must speak for itself in no 
uncertain tone. Our indebtedness 
to the Roman Church is often a 
theme with her, because of its gifts 
of wonderful cathedrals filled with 



beatific paintings of saints and 
martyrs and the celestial music 
which such themes have always 
inspired. The old masters must 
have made the Hebrew Scriptures 
and the New Testament a constant 
study, and that is the reason she 
thinks why — when all uneducated 
in art as she was on her first visit 
to the great galleries of Europe — 
she found herself at home with 
Raphael and Perugino and Muril- 
lo, Correggio and Leonardo da 
Vinci. 

In music, the same holds true to 
some extent. Worship is best ex- 
pressed in song, and the harmonies 
of the ' 'Choir Invisible" must have 
been the inspiration of Beethoven 
and all the great masters of musical 
composition. Mrs. Hooker's enjoy- 
ment of these is intense and consti- 
tutes one of the chief pleasures of 
her life. 

Great good woman that she is, 
Mrs. Hooker is still growing and 
always will grow, even though she 
steps from an octogenarian to nona- 
genarian or even centenarian, and 
whenever she exchanges worlds to 
rejoin her noble family, she will 
still, no doubt, hope to see realized 
on earth the grand vision set forth 
in her favorite passage from Tenny- 
son: 

And so these twain upon the skirts of Time 

Sit side by side, full summed in all their 
power, 

Dispensing harvest, sowing the To-be, 

Self reverent each and reverencing each, 

Distinct in individualities, 

But like each other ev'n as those who love. 

Then comes the statelier Eden back to men ; 

Then reign the world's great bridals, chaste 
and calm, 

Then springs the crowning race of human- 
kind. 



THE SUPERFLUOUS BLOSSOMS ON A FRUIT TREE ARE MEANT TO ■ 

SYMBOLIZE THE LARGE WAY IN WHICH GOD LOVES TO DO 

PLEASANT THINGS 

Henry Ward Beecher 



CONFESSION OF FAITH 

BY 

ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER 

APRIL 14, 1885 

1. I Believe in one great first cause of all things, whether of mind or matter, soul or 
body — the Creator in whom we live and move and have our being as incarnated souls, and 
whom the nations and peoples of the earth have worshipped as the great "Sky Father" since 
time began. 

2. I believe that the whole creation of mind and matter " groaneth and travaileth in 
pain together until now," and always has groaned in these travail-pains, which were and are 
the birth-pains into a more glorious life, even the new heaven and new earth wherein dwelleth 
righteousness, and that according to the deeds done in this body will these pains be length- 
ened or shortened in the life to come. "If thy right hand offend thee, cut it off; " it is better 
for thee to enter into spirit life maimed, than, having two hands, to go into hell (hades, or the 
world of spirits), into fire that never shall be quenched, "where their worm dieth not and 
their fire is not quenched," which means that when the spirit molecules have set toward sel- 
fishness, all the days of our incarnation, they will keep to their drift eternally, when disrobed 
of the flesh, except the tide be turned toward holiness by some power greater than ourselves 
and more loving. In the God of the Hebrew and the Christian, the Buddhist and the 
Mahometan alike we may recognize the all-wise, tender, brooding Mother Spirit of the 
Universe, under whose providential discipline, called evolution by the scientist, and fore-ordi- 
nation and decrees by the theologian, all souls shall at last reach their culmination and become 
creators in their turn. For by the depths of the love we bear our own children, by our capacity 
for self-sacrifice, not only for those we love, but for those who are not our own, but only of 
our race or country, or even of the family of man, we may take hold of our ultimate destiny, 
and know for a certainty what we shall be when the ages of the future shall have wrought 
upon us as the ages of the past have done. " Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it 
doth not yet appear what we shall be." 

3. I believe that matter, not less than spirit, is permeated by the Divine presence, 
which, working in all things according to the law of its being, whether material or spiritual. 
is bringing to pass the wonders of creation which we behold, and of whose infinity in moments 
of inspired vision we catch a glimpse. In all this the Eternal One would not be alone, and 
could not, by the very nature of benevolent being. Hence we, His offspring, are called each 
in our way, according to our ability, to join in this glorious work of creating a new heaven 
and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness. And by so much as we join hands 
hearts with the disembodied souls who have fought the good fight and finished tneir c 
here below, and hold communion with them on these great themes, we sh.ill be 
strengthened and encouraged in the redemptive work to which we are all consecn 
whether we know it or not, by the great, divine Over Soul whom we reverently call 
And in the end we too shall become mediators, everyone, between God and man 

mind and matter, between spirit and body, like unto Jesus of Nazareth, the acher. 

prophet and prince of the later centuries. Anno Domini, the year of our Lord, we 
day of our lives. Even so, come Lord Jesus, come quickly. Amen. 



THE UNIVERSAL LITANY 

SELECTED BY ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER AND RECITED 
AT RELIGIOUS SERVICE OF ALL NATIONS AT THE 
COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION IN CHICAGO IN 1893 

Egyptian — He has made all that is and without him nothing that is hath been made. — 
Book of the Dead, B. C. 1400. 

Christian— All things were made by him, and without him was not anything made that 
was made. — John i. 3. 

Jewish— For thou lovest all things that are and abhorrest nothing that thou hast made; 
for never wouldst thou have made anything if thou hadst hated it. But thou sparest all, for 
they are thine, oh, thou lover of souls. — Wisdom of Solomon, xi. 24. 

Christian — Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we 
should be called the sons of God. Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet 
appear what we shall be, but we know that when he shall appear we shall be like him, for we 
shall see him as he is. — I. John iii. 1-2. 

Chinese — My doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity. Recompense unkindness with 
kindness and injustice with justice. What you do not wish done to yourself do not do to 
others. — Confucius, B. C. 551. 

Christian — All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to 
them, for this is the law and the prophets. — Jesus Christ. 

Buddhist — The water falls on all creatures, on herb, bush and tree, and each draws up 
to its own leaf and blossom according to its own special need. So falls the rain of the law on 
the many-hearted world. — Buddha, B. C. 627. 

Christian — Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets. I am not come 
to destroy, but to fulfill. — Jesus Christ. 

Hindoo — There is one living and true God; everlasting, without parts or passion, of 
infinite power, wisdom and goodness, the maker and preserver of all things. He is one and 
he is beyond description. His glory is so great that there can be no image of him. He is 
the incomprehensible spirit who illumines all and delights all; from whom all proceed; by 
whom they live after they are born and to whom all must return. No vision can approach him, 
no language can describe him, no intellectual power can comprehend him. — Vedas, B.C. 1500. 

Christian — One God and father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all. — Paul. 

Hindoo— He whose heart is pure and good, who is without pride, who loves every soul 
as his own, who behaves uniformly to every one with kindness, who wishes to do good and 
has abandoned vanity in his heart, resides with the Lord of life. — Purana, B. C. 1500. 

Christian— Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord or who shall stand in his holy 
place? He that hath clean hands and a pure heart, who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity 
nor sworn deceitfully. He shall receive the blessing from the Lord and righteousness from 
the God of his salvation. — Psalm xxiv. 3-5. 

Moslem— Every good act is charity. Giving water to the thirsty is charity. Putting the 
wanderer into the right path is charity. A pleasant look is charity. A man's true wealth is 
the good he does in the world. When he dies mortals will ask what property he has left 
behind him, but angels will inquire what good deeds hast thou sent before thee? — Mohammed, 

Christian — I was hungry and ye gave me meat, thirsty and ye gave me drink, naked and 
ye clothed me, sick and in prison and ye visited me. Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the 
least of these ye have done it unto me. Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord. — Jesus Christ. 

Chinese — The truly great man is he who does not lose his child heart— Mensius, B. C, 312. 

Jewish — The world is saved by the breath of the school children. — Talmud, B. C. 

Christian — Suffer little children to come unto me and forbid them not, for of such is the 
kingdom of God. — Jesus Christ. 






AT CLOSE OF DAY I KNELT 



A 



A SONNET BY 

HOWARD ARNOLD WALTER 

OF NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT 



T CLOSE of day I knelt for evening prayer. 

Gray stars emerging from the golden glow 

Watched from afar and yearned me tho't to show 
Their depth of sympathy. I looked to where 
But now the sun adown the rainbow stair 

Of sunset splendor slipped away ; and lo ! 

The sky shone silver, and the hills of snow 
Gleaming thro' purpling mists were lustrous fair. 

My prayer unwhispered, long into the west 

My gaze inclined. Upon my heart there fell 
The peace of angels; till, the sacred spell 

Dissolved, I gave my weary limbs to rest. 

No prayer ascended from my lips that night 
For God had talked to me, and all was light. 



MARK TWAIN — HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY 

This "Autobiography "of Mark Twain is reprinted from a little pamphlet issued thirty-three years ago, found 
by chance by a New York book collector. So rare is it that when it was submitted for inspection to Harper <fc Brother, 
the publishers of Mark Twain's works, a representative of the house said that they had no record of it. Mark Twain 
himself examined the pamphlet with much interest, smiled, and said: "Yes, I believe I did write it, but I had quite 
forgotten all about it." The autobiography as presented herewith is reproduced by courtesy of the New York Times, 
having been featured in that publication some time ago. The sketches of the former Hartford humorist are al»o 
reproductions from that publication— Editor 



TWO or three persons having 
at different times intimated 
that if I would write an auto- 
biography they would read 
it when they got leisure, I yield at 
last to this frenzied public demand 
and herewith tender my history. 

Ours is a noble old house, and 
stretches a long way back into an- 
tiquity. The earliest ancestor the 
Twains have any record of was a 
friend of the family by the name of 
Higgins. This was in the eleventh 
century, when our people were 
living in Aberdeen, County of Cork, 
England. Why it is that our long 
line has ever since borne the mater- 
nal name (except when one of them 
now and then took a playful refuge 
in an alias to avert foolishness) in- 
stead of Higgins, is a mystery 
which none of us has ever felt much 
desire to stir. It is a kind of vague, 
pretty romance, and we leave it 
alone. All the old families do 
that way. 

Arthur Twain was a man of con- 
siderable note — a solicitor on the 
highway in William Rufus' time. 
At about the age of thirty he went 
to one of those fine old English 
places of resort called Newgate, to 
see about something, and never re- 
turned again. While there he died 
suddenly. 

Augustus Twain seems to have 
made something of a stir about the 
year it 60. He was as full of fun as 
he could be, and used to take his 
old sabre and sharpen it up, and get 
in a convenient place on a dark 



night, and stick it through people 
as they went by, to see them jump. 
He was a born humorist. But he 
got to going too far with it, and the 
first time he was found stripping 
one of these parties the authorities 
removed one end of him and put it 
upon a nice high place on Temple 
Bar, where it could contemplate the 
people and have a good time. He 
never liked any situation so much 
or stuck to it so long. 

Then for the next two hundred 
years the family tree shows a suc- 
cession of soldiers — noble, high- 
spirited fellows, who always went 
into battle singing, right behind the 
army and always went out a-whoop- 
ing, right ahead of it. 

This is a scathing rebuke to old 
dead Froissart's poor witticism that 
our family tree never had but one 
limb on it, and that that one stuck 
out at right angles, and bore fruit 
winter and summer. 

Early in the fifteenth century -\ve 
have Beau Twain, called "the 
Scholar." He wrote a beautiful, 
beautiful hand. And he could imi- 
tate anybody's hand so closely 
that it was enough to make a 
person laugh his head off to see it. 
He had infinite sport with his talent. 
But by and by he took a contract to 
break stone for a road, and the 
roughness of the work spoiled his 
hand. Still, he enjoyed life all the 
time he was in the stone business. 
which, with inconsiderable inter- 
vals, was some forty-two years. In 
fact, he died in harness. During 



3io 



MARK TWAIN— HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY 



all those long years he gave such 
satisfaction that he never was 
through with one contract a week 
till the Government gave him 
another. He was a perfect pet. 
And he was always a favorite with 
his fellow-artists, and was a con- 
spicuous member of their benevo- 
lent secret society, called the Chain 
Gang. He wore his hair short, had 
a preference for striped clothes, 
and died lamented by the Govern- 
ment. He was a sore loss to his 
country, for he was so regular. 

Some years later we have the 
illustrious John Morgan Twain. He 
came over to this country with Co- 
lumbus in 1492 as a passenger. He 
appears to have had a crusty, un- 
comfortable disposition. He com- 
plained of the food all the way over, 
and was always threatening to go 
ashore unless there was a change. 
He wanted fresh shad. Hardly a 
day passed over his head that he 
did not go idling about the ship 
with his nose in the air, sneering 
about the commander, and saying 
he did not believe Columbus knew 
where he was going to or had ever 
been there before. The memorable 
cry of "Land ho!" thrilled every 
heart in the ship but his. He gazed 
a while through a piece of smoked 
glass at the penciled line lying on 
the distant water, and then said: 
"Land be hanged — it's a raft." 

When this questionable passenger 
came on board the ship, he brought 
nothing with him but an old news- 
paper containing a handkerchief 
marked "B. G."; one cotton sock 
marked "L. W. C"; one woolen 
one marked "D. F.," and a night 
shirt marked "O. M. R." And yet 
during the voyage he worried more 
about his "trunk," and gave him- 
self more airs about it, than all the 
rest of the passengers put together. 
If the ship was "down by the head, ' ' 
and would not steer, he would go 
and move his "trunk" further aft, 
and then watch the effect. If the 
ship was "by the stern," he would 



suggest to Columbus to detail some 
men to "shift that baggage." In 
storms he had to be gagged, because 
his wailings about his "trunk" 
made it impossible for the men to 
hear the orders. The man does not 
appear to have been openly charged 
with any gravely unbecoming thing, 
but it is noted in the ship's log as a 
"curious circumstance" that albeit 
he brought his baggage on board 
the ship in a newspaper, he took it 
ashore in four trunks, a queensware 
crate, and a couple of champagne 
baskets. But when he came back 
insinuating in an insolent, swagger- 
ing way, that some of his things 
were missing, and was going to 
search the other passengers' bag- 
gage, it was too much, and they 
threw him overboard. They 
watched long and wonderingly for 
him to come up, but not even a 
bubble arose on the quietly ebbing 
tide. But while every one was 
most absorbed in gazing over the 
side, and the interest was momen- 
tarily increasing, it was observed 
with consternation that the vessel 
was adrift and the anchor cable 
hanging limp from the bow. Then 
in the ship's dimmed and ancient 
log we find this quaint note: 

"In time it was discouvered yt 
ye troublesome passenger hadde 
gonne downe and got ye anchor, 
and toke ye same and solde it to ye 
dam sauvages from ye interior, 
saying yt he hadde founde it, ye 
sonne of a ghun. " 

Yet this ancestor had good and 
noble instincts, and it is with pride 
that we call to mind the fact that 
he was the first white person who 
ever interested himself in the work 
of elevating and civilizing our 
Indians. He built a commodious 
jail and put up a gallows, and to his 
dying day he claimed with satisfac- 
tion that he had had a more restrain- 
ing and elevating influence on the 
Indians than any other reformer 
that ever labored among them. At 
this point the chronicle becomes 



MARK TWAIN—HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY 



3" 



less frank and chatty, and closes 
abruptly by saying that the old 
voyager went to see his gallows 
perform on the first white man ever 
hanged in America, and while there 
received injuries which terminated 
in his death. 

The great-grandson of the "Re- 
former" nourished in sixteen hun- 
dred and something, and was known 
in our annals as "the old Admiral," 
though in history he had other 
titles. He was long in command 
of fleets of swift vessels, well armed 
and manned, and did great service 
in hurrying up merchantmen. 
Vessels which he followed and kept 
his eagle eye on always made good 
fair time across the ocean. But if 
a ship still loitered in spite of all he 
could do, his indignation would 
grow till he could contain himself 
no longer — and then he would take 
that ship home where he lived and 
keep it there carefully, expecting 
the owners to come for it, but they 
never did. And he would try to 
get the idleness and sloth out of 
the sailors of that ship by compel- 
ling them to take invigorating exer- 
cise and a bath. He called it "walk- 
ing a plank." All the pupils liked 
it. At any rate, they never found 
any fault with it after trying it. 
When the owners were late coming 
for their ships, the Admiral always 
burned them, so that the insurance 
money should not be lost. At last 
this fine old tar was cut down in the 
fullness of his years and honors. 
And to her dying day, his poor 
heart-broken widow believed that if 
he had been cut down fifteen min- 
utes sooner he might have been 
resuscitated. 

Charles Henry Twain lived dur- 
ing the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, and was a zealous 
and distinguished missionary. He 
converted sixteen thousand South 
Sea Islanders, and taught them 
that a dog tooth necklace and a pair 
of spectacles were not enough cloth- 
ing to come to divine service in. 



His poor flock loved him very, very 
dearly; and when his funeral was 
over, they got up in a body (and 
came out of the restaurant) with 
tears in their eyes, and saying, one 
to another, that he was a good 
tender missionary, and they wished 
they had some more of him. 

Pah - go - to - wah - puketekeewis 
( Mighty Hunter-with-a-Hog-Eye ) 
Twain adorned the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and aided Gen- 
eral Braddock with all his heart to 
resist the oppressor Washington. 
It was this ancestor who fired 
seventeen times at our Washington 
from behind a tree. So far the 
beautiful romantic narrative in the 
moral story books is correct; but 
when that narrative goes on to say 
that at the seventeenth round the 
awestricken savage said solemnly 
that that man was being reserved 
by the Great Spirit for some mighty 
mission, and he dared not lift his 
sacrilegious rifle against him again, 
the narrative seriously impairs the 
integrity of history. What he did 
say was: 

"It ain't no (hie) use. 'At man's 
so drunk he can't stan' still long 
enough for a man to hit him. I 
(hie). I can't 'ford to fool away 
any more am'nition on him." 

That was why he stopped at the 
seventeenth round, and it was a 
good, plain, matter-of-fact reason, 
too, and one that easily commends 
itself to us by the eloquent per- 
suasive flavor of probability there is 
about it. 

I always enjoyed the story-book 
narrative, but I felt a marring mis- 
giving that every Indian at Brad- 
dock's Defeat who fired at a soldier 
a couple of times (two easily growa 
to seventeen in a century) and 
missed him, jumped to the conclu- 
sion that the Great Spirit was re- 
serving that soldier for some grand 
mission; and so I somehow feared 
that the only reason why Washing- 
ton's case is remembered and the 
others forgotten is, that in his the 



312 



MARK TWAIN— HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY 



prophecy came true, and in that of 
the others it didn't. There are not 
books enough on earth to contain 
the record of the prophecies Indians 
and other unauthorized parties have 
made; but one may carry in his 
overcoat pockets the record of all 
the prophecies that have been ful- 
filled. 




I will remark here, in passing, 
that certain ancestors of mine are 
so thoroughly well known in history 
by their aliases that I have not felt 
it to be worth while to dwell upon 
them, or even mention them in the 



order of their birth. Among these 
may be mentioned Richard Brinsley 
Twain, alias Guy Fawkes; John 
Wentworth Twain, alias Sixteen- 
String Jack; William Hogarth 
Twain, alias Jack Sheppard; Ana- 
nias Twain, alias Baron Munchau- 
sen; John George Twain, alias Cap- 
tain Kydd, and then there are 
George Francis Train, Tom Pepper, 
Nebuchadnezzar, and Baalam's 
Ass — they all belong to our family, 
but to a branch of it somewhat dis- 
tantly removed from the honorable 
direct line — in fact, a collateral 
branch, whose members chiefly 
differ from the ancient stock in 
that, in order to acquire the 
notoriety we have always yearned 
and hungered for, they have got 
into a low way of going to jail in- 
stead of getting hanged. 

It is not well, when writing an 
autobiography, to follow your an- 
cestry down too close to your own 
time — it is safest to speak only 
vaguely of your great-grandfather, 
and then skip from there to your- 
self, which I now do. 

I was born without teeth — and 
there Richard III had the advantage 
of me; but I was born without a 
humpback, likewise, and there I 
had the advantage of him. My 
parents were neither very poor nor 
conspicuously honest. 

But now a thought occurs -to me. 

My own history would really 
seem so tame contrasted with that 
of my ancestors, that it is simply 
wisdom to leave it unwritten until 
I am hanged. If some other biog- 
raphies I have read had stopped 
with the ancestry until a like event 
occurred, it would have been a 
felicitous thing for the reading pub- 
lic. How does it strike you? 



THE TOMB OF ADAM — I DEEM IT NO SHAME TO HAVE WEPT OVER 
THE GRAVE OF MY POOR DEAR RELATIVE — NOBLE OLD MAN; 
WEIGHED DOWN BY SORROW AND DISAPPOINTMENT, HE DIED BEFORE 
I WAS BORN— SIX THOUSAND BRIEF SUMMERS BEFORE I WAS BORN- 
LET US TAKE COMFORT IN THE THOUGHT THAT HIS LOSS IS OUR 
ETERNAL GAIN Samuel Langhorne Clemens 



THE POWER OF SONG IN AMERICAN LIFE 

FOSTERING THE LOVE OF MUSIC IN THE CHILD-MIND IS ONE 
OF THE GREATEST DUTIES OF CONNECTICUT'S PUBLIC SCHOOL 
SYSTEM BRIEF REMARKS REGARDING TECHNICAL METHODS 



BY 

FRANCIS E. HOWARD 

SUPERVISOR OF MUSIC IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN BRIDGEPORT; VICE-PRKSIDENT 
OF THE CONNECTICUT ASSOCIATION 

In Number Two, Volume Eight, of The Connecticut Magazine, Professor Howard presented an interesting 
contribution on the subject, " Is Music an Art or a Science," calling especial attention to the poetry in music, and 
its enriching and beautifying influence on life since the days when man first learned love and sorrow and worship. 
Herewith is presented another phase of the subject, with especial attention to technique. Both writings were origi- 
nally embodied under one title, " Voice culture as exemplified in schools and vested choirs," and read before a con- 
vention of the State Teachers'" Association — Editor 



THE love of song is to-day one 
of the great traits in Ameri- 
can character. It is an im- 
portant omen for the future, 
as songs are outbursts of optimism 
and only from an optimistic people 
can a* truly great nation spring 
forth. As music is one of the im- 
portant subjects in comtemporary 
thought, this article will speak 
somewhat of the technical side of 
voice culture. 

Speech and the ability to read 
and write are useful to you whether 
you are fond of talking, reading and 
writing or not, but if you do not 
like music it is of no use to you at all. 
To create and foster love of music 
should then be the aim of teach- 
ing it in our schools, and the litera- 
ture we use, the manner of develop- 
ing skill in sight-singing, every- 
thing should work toward that end. 
Furthermore, the way to develop 
the power to sing is to keep at it. 
Note the delight of children in 
their growing skill and strength in 
mental or bodily exercises ; watch a 
group of well-trained choir boys 
engaged in singing, fully aware 
that they are daily improving in 
beauty and power of tone and skill 



in reading. It shows that practice 
in singing along correct lines in 
and of itself begets a love of music. 

Now, about the training of the 
child-like voice in vested choirs 
and in schools. The choir boy of 
course has more practice in a week 
than, as a school boy, he gets in a 
month. This develops the power 
and brilliancy of his tone quite 
rapidly. Boys, however, should not 
enter upon choir work, as a rule, 
before the age of ten years, for up 
to that age, or thereabouts, the 
voice should be used very lightly. 
The same rules of management 
apply to choir singers and to public 
school singing. Suppose, as a 
basis for deductions, I call your 
attention to a few physiological 
facts. 

First, the larynx grows rapidly 
until the age of six years, when the 
vocal bands attain the length which 
they retain until the age of puberty 
is reached. At that time the gen- 
eral physical changes which I 
place in the entire person are ac- 
companied by a more or less rapid 
growth of the larynx, so that the 
vocal bands of the male become 
twice as long as in boyhood, and 



3^4 



THE POWER OF SONG IN AMERICAN LIFE 



the vocal bands of females increase 
their length one-third.' There are, 
of course, corresponding changes 
in the thickness, breadth and gen- 
eral strength of the vocal bands. 
The one point, then, which empha- 
sizes itself to us is the small size 
and weakness of the vocal bands in 
childhood. 

It is also true that the laryngeal 
walls, the cartilages of the larynx, 
are, in childhood, lacking in rigid- 
ity, as may be easily understood 
when we recall the danger of that 
dread disease, croup, to which all 
young children are exposed. Death 
in this disease is occasioned, pri- 
marily, by the collapse of the walls 
of the larynx. Now, as already 
pointed out, while the vocal bands 
do not increase in length from six 
years of age on, to the period of 
voice mutation, yet there is a con- 
stant gain in structural firmness of 
the laryngeal cartilages, and this, 
together with the increased elastic 
power and strength which each year 
brings to the vocal bands of the 
children, accounts for the constant 
gain in the tonal strength of child- 
ren from the age of six. 

Bearing these facts in mind, it is 
just as easy for one person as for 
another to deduce a safe rule for 
the use of the child voice in sing- 
ing — viz,, the voice must be used so 
lightly that injurious physical 
strain of the weak and delicate 
organs is impossible. But here we 
are confronted by the fact that, 
however familiar we may be with 
the physiology of the voice, it is 
only through experimental knowl- 
edge that we are able to determine 
whether the voice is being strained 
or not, during singing. In a normal 
throat, however, if all the parts con- 
cerned in tone production are acting 
in a normal, healthy manner, the 
resultant tone must be good. In 
childhood, as in adult life, bad 
tones, whether nasal, or guttural, 
or possessing other disagreeable 
qualities to an offensive degree, are 



the result of ill adjustment or wrong 
action of the functions. In other 
words, a good tone is healthy, and 
a bad tone unhealthy, and as the 
doctor tells by your symptoms the 
particular disturbance from which 
you are suffering, so the teacher by 
the color of the tone must deter- 
mine the particular disturbance 
from which the singer is suffering. 
Having set forth these general 
premises, we may now consider the 
child voice practically, and those 
rules which have been deduced by 
the experience of specialists in this 
line. 

The trainers of boy choirs in Eng- 
land and on the continent have for 
years understood and practically 
carried out good principles in the 
training of boys' voices. These 
principles are equally applicable to 
the voices of girls. They and we 
to-day speak of a child as possessing 
two voices. The one is called the 
chest voice — a purely technical 
name which is applied to a tone 
rather thick, usually coarse, and 
which is produced evidently by 
very full and strong vibrations of 
the vocal bands. Whenever little 
children sing loudly, they use this 
voice, the height of compass to 
which they may carry this voice 
depends on several conditions. 
First, the age of the pupil. A child 
of six years of age will carry the 
thick voice as high as "E," fourth 
space, but, as they grow older, they 
find more and more difficulty in 
using this voice in high pitches. 
Then, again, children who have 
light, firm, fluty voices, use the 
chest voice with great difficulty, 
possibly because there is more firm- 
ness in the cartilages of the larynx 
than is possessed by others whose 
voices, while sounding stronger, 
are evidently produced from weaker 
throats. The loud voice, so com- 
monly known in the schoolroom and 
so foolishly admired, is really, in 
most cases, a voice which is pro- 
duced by vocal bands which are less 






THE POWER OF SONG IN AMERICAN LIFE 



3»5 






elastic, strong, and much more 
easily injured than are the vocal 
bands of those who have much 
lighter voices. 

As children grow older, they will 
find more and more difficulty in 
using the thick voice on the upper 
notes of their compass. For in- 
stance, while children of six years 
of age carry the thick tone as high 
as "E," with apparently little exer- 
tion, children of ten years of age, 
unless spurred by great urging, will 
cease to use it at <4 C," and girls 
and boys approaching the age of 
mutation can hardly carry above 
"G"or"A." 

The other voice, technically called 
the head voice, is light in body, 
fluty in character, and utterly de- 
void of what is called the reed qual- 
ity of tone. It is evidently pro- 
duced by the vibration of the sub- 
stance of the vocal bands. How 
large or how small a portion is 
purely a matter of conjecture, for 
we know little, except conjecturally, 
of the action of the vocal bands. 

Now, one conclusion, and one 
only, has been reached by special- 
ists in the training of boys' voices. 
It takes the form of two statements: 
First, those who, while paying very 
little attention to the theoretical 
consideration of registers, declare 
that boys must use the upper regis- 
ter almost entirely, and must take 
great care to sing lower tones soft- 
ly; and those who frankly say that 
boys must be required to use the 
head register alone. As a matter 
of fact, they agree for as before 
said, it is impossible to tell, even 
when a bo}' has been trained en- 
tirely in the head register, whether 
or not, when he sings at pitches 
below "F," first space, he uses 
exactly the same mechanical action 
of the vocal bands as at higher 
pitches, and it does not matter if 
the tone is easily produced and is 
good in quality. 

The sole criterion, then, in train- 
ing children's voices is the charac- 



ter of the tone. The tone which is 
generally accepted as being the 
only one for children to use, which 
is physically safe and beautiful in 
quality, is the head tone. It may 
be said that, while the conservatism 
of bad habits, and popular, unthink- 
ing demand for heartiness in sink- 
ing, or the lack of thoughtful criti- 
cism on the part of principals, 
school superintendents and others, 
are obstacles in the way of securing 
good tones from children, yet, when 
the habit of using the voice in the 
right way is once fairly formed, 
both the mental perceptions and 
physical sensations form the 
strongest assurances of its contin- 
uance. There is no teacher who 
has had experience in training 
either school children or choir boys 
in the use of the head voice but 
knows that it is an easy voice and 
one which his pupils enjoy using. 
So far as the general public are con- 
cerned, they may be slow to recog- 
nize the value of this light voice, as 
compared with the more boisterous 
singing which seems to excite their 
admiration — whether because they 
love noise or because they suppose 
children to be happier the louder 
they shout, I do not know. But, 
as long as the criticism of the ele- 
ment in any community is favor- 
able — and it always will be to the 
class of singing which will be se- 
cured when children use their voices 
properly — the general public will 
very soon acquiesce. 

It will be the thought of nearly 
all teachers — it is the commonly- 
expressed thought of teachers to- 
day — that this matter of securing 
from children good tones in singing 
necessarily requires the use of many 
voice training exercises, and the 
more or less method especially 
adapted to this end. On the con- 
trary, the whole secret of the child- 
voice lies in securing a light, easy 
motion at the vocal band. The 
matter of tone-placing, and a dczen 
other things which are more or less 



316 



THE POWER OF SONG IN AMERICAN LIFE 



important, need concern us very 
little. Moreover, there is great 
homogeneity in the structure of the 
resonance cavities in childhood. 
There is great physical homoge- 
neity in every respect among 
children. And the use of special 
exercises to secure the proper use 
of the voice, or, as we usually say, 
for training the voice, are neces- 
sarily only small in scope and few 
in number. If good position is 
maintained, breathing habits will 
attend to themselves. If the voice 
is used lightly, if the mouth is 
opened properly — that is, if it 
assumes the proper position for 
"E," when we wish the pupil to 
sing "E"; if it assumes another 
position, and the right one, approxi- 
mately, for "Ah," when we wish to 
sing "Ah," and so on through the 
various forms which constitute our 
vowel sounds in song— most condi- 
tions for voice use in singing will 
be fulfilled. Elaborate systems of 
voice culture are entirely out of 
place in the school-room. The voice 
should be used properly in sing- 
ing every song and every exercise. 
No special exercises are needed, ex- 
cept as a kind of vocal tonic. 
Every chorus director knows the 
value of vocalizing a page or two of 
music during the course of re- 
hearsal. It sets up good singing 
action and good tone ideas, which 
carry themselves over into the sing- 
ing of words by the chorus. Just so 
in the school-room. The use of 
some voice exercises at the begin- 
ning of a singing lesson will be 
found to set up a good standard of 
tone in the mind of the pupils. But 
the voice of the child does not lend 
itself to extended training. 

In this condition it may be said 
that, where it is desired to bring 
about the change from the use of 
the so-called thick voice to the use 
of the head voice, it may be neces- 
sary to adopt certain stringent rules 
in regard to the amount of power 
which shall be used; it may be 



necessary to require the very softest 
of tones, and it may also be neces- 
sary to limit the range, as, for in- 
stance, to "E," first line, below 
which the voice shall not be car- 
ried; yet these rules will be found 
capable of great relaxation when 
once the habit of using the voice in 
the right way is formed. There is 
nothing intrinsically wrong in sing- 
ing low, if the voice is used lightly, 
without physical strain, and the 
resultant tone is satisfying to the 
musical ear. It is nonsense to say 
a child must not sing at that pitch 
at all. However, the ease with 
which children break into the thick 
voice at lower pitches is an element 
of great danger when music is 
taught by unskilled teachers. 

In conclusion, let me say that 
music in the public schools, after 
all, should be musical, and that the 
finest results, as far as tonal beauty 
goes, that have ever been attained 
by skillful choir trainers with their 
boys, or any skillful teachers in dif- 
ferent schools of the country, are 
none too good for every teacher 
and every school in the land. To 
get good singing from children re- 
quires a little knowledge and a good 
deal of taste, and the exercise of 
faculties that are possessed, actively 
or latent, by nearly every teacher. 

There is no mystery about good 
singing. It is easier to sing right 
than to sing wrong, as it is easier 
for water to run down hill than up. 
Consider the subject in the sim- 
plest way possible, and do not get 
hold of some puzzling detail and 
magnify it. Take it for granted 
that your children, on the whole, 
prefer to do a thing in the right 
way. Do not get excited at unthink- 
ing criticism, which often proceeds 
from a desire to keep busy or ap- 
pear wise. Hold on your way firm- 
ly, steadily, good-naturedly, and 
then whatever the future may bring 
of good to school music in our coun- 
try you may be sure you have done 
your share. 



CUSTOMS OF BURYING THE DEAD 

"CITIES OF THE SILENT " ESTABLISHED IN THE YEAR 

TWO HUNDRED BODIES WERE FORMERLY INTERRED 

IN THE HIGHWAYS FUNERALS AMONG THE ROM 

TOOK PLACE AT NIGHT BY TORCHLIGHT NOTES 

BY 

MARY L. D. FERRIS 

AUTHOR OF MANY LITERARY CRITICISMS AND EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN AUTHOR DU1 
PUBLICATION BY THE SOCIETY OF AMERICAN AUTHORS 



HEARSE means simply a har- 
row. The harrows used in 
the Roman Catholic 
churches — frames with 
spikes — for holding candles, are 
called, in France, herses. These 
frames, at a later period, were cov- 
ered with a canopy, and lastly were 
mounted on wheels. A newspaper 
of 1799 says: "It is in contempla- 
tion to bury on hearses instead of 
bearing on the shoulders. This 
certainly will be an excellent sub- 
stitute for bearers. It is to be 
hoped that no ancient prejudices in 
favor of an old custom will prevail 
against propriety and expedience." 

The passing bell was rung to 
scare away evil spirits, who lurked 
about the dying, to pounce on the 
soul while "passing from the body 
to the resting place." 

Black, used as mourning, was a 
Roman custom borrowed from the 
Egyptians. 

The use of candles at funerals is 
also the relic of an ancient Roman 
custom. 

Cemetery properly means a sleep- 
ing place. The Jews used to speak 
of death as sleep. The Persians 
called their cemeteries "The Cities 
of the Silent." The Greeks felt it 
unlucky to pronounce the name of 
death. 

Coroner means the Crown Officer; 



in Saxon times it was his duty to 
collect the crown revenues; next to 
take charge of crown pleas; but at 
present to uphold the paternal so- 
licitude of the crown by searching 
into all cases of sudden or suspic- 
ious death. 

But is this law ? 
Ay, marry, is't; crowners quest law. 
—Ham let. 

The Cypress, or funeral tree, was 
dedicated to Pluto by the Rom. 
because, when once cut, it never 
grew again. 

Pall comes to us from the Latin 
pallium , a square piece of cloth 
used by the Romans to throw over 
their shoulders. 

The custom of appointing men of 
prominence as pall - bearers, is 
another legacy from the Romans. 
Julius Caesar had magistrates as 
pall-bearers; Augustus Caesar had 
senators. The poor were carried 
on a plain bier on the shoulders of 
four men. 

Under Christianity, cremation 
gradually disappeared from Europe. 
Burial became universal, as more 
expressive of the truth held so 
precious. 

The preparing of a body tor burial 
was formerly not done by hired 
persons, but was esteemed ■ work 
of love, done for friend bv friend. 



3i8 



CUSTOMS OF BURYING THE DEAD 



and by the charitable for the poor 
and stranger. 

Funerals take place by day, the 
Christian death being full of light, 
not darkness; though the word 
means a torchlight procession (from 
the Latin funis — a torch), and 
funerals among the Romans took 
place at night by torchlight, that 
magistrates and priests might not 
be violated by seeing a corpse, and 
so be prevented from performing 
their sacred duties. 

Again, it is to the Romans that 
we owe the funeral banquet. They 
not only feasted the friends of the 
deceased, but also distributed meat 
to the persons employed. 

Carriages at funerals were not 
used in the United States until 
about 1830, and then were not popu- 
lar. 

Except in unusual cases, no fun- 
eral took place on Sunday. In case 
of a death from smallpox, a con- 
stable preceded the body to warn 
those who had not had the disease. 

Gloves, rings, etc.. are called the 
" valedictories of the dead." 

Bodies were placed in the grave 
with their faces upward and feet to 



the East, in token of the resurrec- 
tion at the coming again of the Sun 
of Righteousness. 

The custom of burying the dead 
in grounds set apart for that pur- 
pose was not established until the 
year 200. Prior to that date the 
people were interred in the high- 
ways, and ancient tombs can still 
be seen in the roads leading to 
Rome. 

Flowers at funerals date from the 
Jews, "whose ancient custom it was 
as they went by the way with their 
corpses, to pluck every one a blade 
or two of grass, as who should say 
they were not sorry as men without 
hope, for their brother was but so 
cropt off and should spring up 
again." 

"When sad Electra o'er Orestes' urn, 
Scatters sweet flowers." 

' 'When old Anchises calls the Roman youth 
To strew sweet lilies on Marcellus' tomb." 

"In the south when a pure maiden dies, 
An imitative chaplet, virgin-white, 
Of roses is suspended o'er her pew, 

Now vacant in the lonely village church ; 
An emblem meet of that immortal crown 
Which virgin innocence shall wear in 
Heaven." 



u 



BY 



KATHARINE GILMAN GROU 



He climbed the steep ascent to Fame 
With plodding steps and slow, 

And chiseled on the heights his name 
Through effort none could know. 



His comrades in Life's busy mart 
Of ceaseless toil and ruck, 

With timid hearts and bated breath 
Implored the great god, Luck. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



AMERICAN MIND DESTINED TO DOMINATE HUMAN 

POWERS OF THE EARTH ILLUSTRATED BY STUDIES 

OF THE BRAINS OF INTELLECTUAL PERSONS, OF 
INDIVIDUALS OF VARIOUS RACES AND OF CRIMINALS 



BY 

EDW. ANTHONY SPITZKA, M.D. 

FELLOW IN ANATOMY AND ASSISTANT DEMONSTRATOR OF ANATOMY, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, 
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT (COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS, NEW YOKK CITY) 

There is no historical research that fascinates with more wonderful revelations than tracing the evolution of the 
human mind. It cannot be doubted that a better understanding of our mental mechanism would enable us to control 
it for greater achievements. In this remarkable article The Connecticut Magazine presents a* briefly as possible 
the results of the years of investigations by Dr. Spitzka, one of the most distinguished anthropological scholars in this 
country. Dr. Spitzka believes that the future American brain is to dominate the human powers of the earth. His 
investigations are soon to be published in book form. By agreement with Dr. Spitzka, the sole rights for the publica- 
tion of the following article are granted to The Connecticut Magazine, the original manuscript and original draw- 
ings being in possession of this publication, having been secured immediately after their exhibition and reading before 
the meeting of the American Anthropological Association, with Section H of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, fifty-fourth annual session, held at Philadelphia (December 29, 1904)— Editor 



M 



Y chief object in addressing 
you upon this topic is to 
indicate — not the entire 
scope of so vast a subject — 
but rather, certain of the problems 
which at the present time seem 
most important in the study of 
the human brain. The many inter- 
esting themes presented to us in 
the field of physical anthropology, 
notably the mechanical and physi- 
cal advantages and disadvantages 
of Man's erect attitude and the dif- 
ferentiation of the foot and hand, 
while demanding no little attention 
in the study of the evolution of our 
species, are all surpassed in their 
importance by the correlative bear- 
ings of these and other factors on 
the development of Man's great 
brain. So decidedly is Man the 
44 brain-animal," so notable is the 
synchronous development of the 
hand and the intellectual faculties, 
that in whatever way we deal with 
anthropology in its narrower 
sense — with Man's morphology, 



with racial differences, with mental 
products and the faculty of lan- 
guage as well as all other manifes- 
tations of human intelligence — we 
needs must give to this the most 
marvelously constructed organ that 
measure of attention which it de- 
serves. Anthropologists have, I 
think, long appreciated the fact 
that in their craniological investiga- 
tions they have but dealt with a 
bony case, without whose precious 
contents only a few facts of mor- 
phological value could be obtained. 
But if our knowledge concerning 
Man's brain is so far from com- 
plete; if in our anthropological col- 
lections there are a hundred or ■ 
thousand skulls for a single brain 
(and that by no means always a 
well-preserved one) it seems to 
that — with the great progress n. 
in our understanding of the wi 
ings of the human brain — anthro- 
pologists particularly should c\ 
erate in the effort to obtain for sys- 
tematic study a large number of 



320 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



brains representative of the various 
races, of the sexes and of individ- 
uals of known mental capacity, be 
that of an inferior or a superior 
kind. Brain-studies of anthropolo- 
gical interest are not numerous, 
and yet there is involved a question 
ever uppermost in the mind of the 
thoughtful evolutionist and pro- 
gressive morphologist ; what Hux- 
ley termed the "ascertainment of 
the place which Man occupies in 
Nature and his relation to the Uni- 
verse of things." And in the com- 
parison of Man with other animals, 
his erect attitude and his great 
brain afford us the most fascinating 
topics for investigation. Under the 
sway of the laws of Natural Selec- 
tion, the evolution of Man has been 
the culmination of a constant strug- 
gle to overcome environmental dis- 
advantages; it has been by adapta- 
tion that Man has maintained and 
improved his means of existence; it 
has been by competition that, despite 
certain disadvantageous morpho- 
logical modifications, a high degree 
of vitality, culture and civilization 
has been attained ; for thus it is that 
the lowest savages are those of New 
Guinea, Australia and other regions 
long isolated from the strife and 
struggle which has characterized 
the advance of civilized Man in 
Europe, Asia and Northern Africa. 
The underlying principle, the most 
important agency at work in the 
evolutionary process, has been that 
concentration and steady growth 
which we are able to trace through 
the vertebrate series from the 
oesophageal nerve-ganglia arranged 
about the primitive cephalic stomach 
of the lowest vertebrate (the lam- 
prey, for example) to the great 
human brain. This biologic princi- 
ple of cephalization it was which de- 
termined the development of that 
magnificent and most complex of all 
the bodily organs. In the stages of 
the evolutionary growth of our 
species the antagonism between this 
principle of cephalization and that of 



alimentation has been favorable to 
the former and therefore to brain- 
growth, and the differences in brain- 
size and brain-power are the most 
manifest distinctions, not only be- 
tween animals higher or lower in 
the scale, but also amongst men. 
Brain-power signifies culture, civil- 
ization, superiority, progress. The 
direction in which we should pursue 
our investigations thus becomes 
clear and Mankind may be ren- 
dered valuable service by the soma- 
tologist who, in cooperation with 
the physiologist and the clinician 
strives to lay bare the secrets of 
the brain in order that the develop- 
ment and guidance of the mental 
powers of all men and women 
* worth while' may some day be con- 
ducted to a perfect, or nearly per- 
fect, consummation. With the re- 
cent advances in our knowledge of 
the workings of the central nervous 
system, we have come to recognize 
that, as Sir Michael Foster said:* 
"all the rest of physiology will 
shrink into a mere appendage of 
the physiology of the central nervous 
system," and the brain is the most 
important part of that system. 

What, it may be asked, has been 
accomplished by morphologists in 
the special domain of the somatic 
anthropology of the brain? To 
review the history of its develop- 
ment were to cite the work of a 
great host of investigators, among 
which the names of Huschke, 
Broca, Retzius, Giacomini, Cun- 
ningham, Wilder, Manouvrier and 
Waldeyer stand preeminent. Some 
of the many problems arising from 
prior attempts at investigation have 
been solved satisfactorily; other 
questions stand in pressing need of 
attention, and, in some of their 
phases at least, can only be resolved 
by painstaking study of the brain 
itself. The contemptuous remarks 
which I shall now quote (I have for- 
gotten their source) : ". . . That 
we cannot conceive of how such 

♦Report of British Association, 1897. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



3 21 



examinations of the brain can do 
anything toward settling the ques- 
tion of the relationship of mind and 
matter, between the thing which is 
chained to earth by gravitation and 
the thing which, scorning the earth 
and its physical laws, rises up to 
the realm of immortality and 
God . . . " — such remarks, I 
say, are of the most self-stultifying 
kind and merely obscure with hazy 
phraseology the real purpose of 
such investigations. The quotation 
just given portrays a tendency to 
altogether reject the truths of brain- 
anatomy and physiology, and it ex- 
emplifies the one-sidedness of one 
school of psychologists. On the 
other hand, there is an equally one- 
sided tendency among another 
group of psychiatrical investigators 
who concern themselves not at all 
with modern psychology. Between 
these two extremes there is the 
happy middle ground of systema- 
tized, generalized and schematized 
neurology and psychiatry in which 
the improved methods of physio- 
logical psychology prevail and find 
most useful application in clinical 
work. And the clinical psychiatrist 
looks to the somatologist, the physi- 
ologist and the psychologist for the 
facts which he requires for the 
generalization and systematization 
which this branch of science so 
sadly lacked before. 

Cerebral Localization 

The ideas of the phrenologist Gall, 
however ridiculous they may now 
seem in the light of a century's 
progress in science, were neverthe- 
less destined to become metamor- 
phosed into the modern principles 
of cerebral localization. The evolu- 
tion of the doctrine was an exceed- 
ingly slow one, for not until twenty- 
five years after Marc Dax first 
demonstrated the interdependence 
of speech-disturbance with disease 
of a particular region in the left 
frontal lobe, did Broca, in 1863, 
succeed in presenting the subject in 



systematic form. Attempts to dis- 
credit the doctrine continued until 
Hitzig and Fritsch, then Munk, 
Meynert and Ferrier disposed of 
practically all antagonism thereto. 
Cerebral localization as a firmly- 
established doctrine continues to be 
amplified and systematized by con- 
tributions from many sources, and 
important results should be ex- 
pected from morphological studies 
of brains of the various races, sexes 
and individuals with marked mental 
traits. The researches of the many 
investigators in cerebral localization 
have furnished us with a topo- 
graphical map of the somaesthetic 
sense and association-areas of the 
brain, which, if not complete, at 
least affords a good working plan 
by means of which we may assist in 
the work of perfecting knowledge 
concerning our thought apparatus. 
My own researches in cerebral 
somatology have been concerned 
chiefly with the human brain. 
Having had the particularly good 
fortune of acquiring exceptional 
human brains, I naturally devoted 
special attention to questions sug- 
gested by hitherto controverted 
propositions, such as the signifi- 
cance of brain weight and of sur- 
face morphology in their relations 
to the intellect and to race, and also 
to the question of brain-heredity — 
hitherto unanswerable because the 
requisite material was not at hand. 
Incidentally, the acquisition of t 
very good series of brains of mur- 
derers led me to scrutinize more or 
less closely the more widely her- 
alded views concerning the alleged 
relations of brain-structure am! 
crime. In the short time at my 
disposal I can only endeavor to 
present in sketchy outline the prin- 
cipal aims and most significant re- 
sults of my own investigations, to- 
gether with those of others pursuing 
similar lines of research. 

First let me explain briefly the 
methods of examination employed. 



322 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



for instance in those cases where I 
have had the opportunity of remov- 
ing and preserving the brain itself. 
When possible, I take a plaster cast 
of the entire head, body measure- 
ments, particularly of the head, 
supplemented by cyrtometric out- 
lines of the head-form; similar 
measurements and outlines of the 
skull when bared of the scalp, intra- 
cranial measurements, and, if possi- 
ble, the making of an endo-cranial 
cast. The brain itself is carefully 
weighed immediately after removal 
and immersed in a mixture of 
formalin and water with enough 
common salt to bring the specific 
gravity of the fluid up to 1.036 — so 
that the brain will neither float nor 
sink and hence not become flattened 
or otherwise distorted. Cotton is 
placed on the bottom of the vessel 
as a matter of precaution. I always 
inject pure formalin into the ven- 
tricular system by means of a needle 
syringe passed into the infundi- 
bulum. If possible, the cerebral 
arteries are also injected. The re- 
sults of such procedures are excel- 
lent even with brains which by the 
older methods and with less useful 
preservatives were apt to become 
hardened in a fragile, distorted and 
shrunken condition. With the 
brains of men which it was my 
privilege to examine immediately 
after death by electrical execution, 
the results were superb. 

The further examination of the 
brain consists in observations on 
the changes in weight and volume 
during various periods of time, re- 
moval of the investing membranes 
and the division of the brain into its 
principal parts, measurements and 
drawings made by the aid of the 
stereograph. Such stereographic 
drawings are, in most cases, pre- 
ferable to photographs and permit 
the making of certain projection 
measurements which I will pres- 
ently detail. In the comparison of 
human brains one of the chief diffi- 
culties to contend with lies in the 



inadequacy of most former attempts 
to express morphological differences 
in exact terms, and however irk- 
some and tedious a row of statis- 
tical figures may be to the anatomi- 
cal investigator, one cannot help but 
feel how necessary it has become 
to resort to exact expressions of size 
and form. The number of observa- 
tions which I have to offer for your 
consideration may be few; the 
amount of material may as yet be 
too small, but the least one can do 
is to attempt to formulate some 
such system of measurement. 

Similar to the difficulties exper- 
ienced by craniologists in their en- 
deavors to agree upon a suitable 
horizontal plane and system of 
measurements for the skull, the 
anatomist who devotes attention to 
the human brain finds it extremely 
difficult to devise a practical scheme 
of cerebral measurement. The 
simplest procedure in brain ex- 
amination, viz., that of weighing 
the brain, is fraught with a multi- 
tude of troublesome variations in 
the weight of the investing mem- 
branes, the amount of blood and 
cerebro-spinal fluid, the level of 
section separating the brain from 
the spinal cord, and so on. Further- 
more, one deals with an organ of 
soft consistency, one that more 
rapidly suffers from post-mortem 
decay than any other part of the 
body, and hence is most difficult to 
preserve in the natural form and 
size after removal from the skull. 
These disturbances may at times 
be obviated by hardening the brain 
in situ, necessitating a careful and 
painstaking injection of the arteries 
of the head, or else a partial expos- 
ure of the brain with subsequent 
immersion in the preservative. But 
such procedures are rarely per- 
mitted or permissible, and the brain 
anatomist usually considers him- 
self fortunate enough to obtain the 
brain under any circumstances to 
do with it whatever he can to pre- 
serve its original form and size as 



THE DEVELOPMENT OE MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



323 



best he may. And, while anthro- 
pologists have had to direct more 
attention to the skull because less 
perishable, particularly to its outer 
form, in the absence of the precious 
organ which this bony case con- 
tains, an endocranial cast gives a 
most satisfactory reproduction of the 
brain-form and size and in not a few 
instances may we judge of the com- 
plexity and general development of 
the gyral surface configuration. But 
whether we have the brain or only 
the cast, the importance of carrying 
out systematic measurements of a 
large number of well-preserved 
brains of the two sexes, of the races 
and of individuals of high and low 
mental capacities has long been 
appreciated by anthropologists, and 
the recent appointment (August, 
1904) of a Commission for Anthro- 
pological Investigations of the 
Brain in the German Anthropologi- 
cal Association (Professors Wal- 
deyer,,His and Ranke) and a simi- 
lar committee in the Association of 
American Anatomists (Drs. Wilder, 
Hrdlicka and Spitzka) is most sig- 
nificant and encouraging. 

Now, although a number of sys- 
tems of measurement have been 
proposed, not all have stood the test 
of time and critics, For my own 
part, I find those measurements 
best which can be reduced from 
absolute to relative values, wherein 
some unit of length (preferably the 
maximum cerebral length) is used 
as a basis of expression rather than 
so many inches or centimeters. 
Hence, I prefer to use centesimals 
of the length of the cerebrum, that 
such records may be found useful 
by other workers in the same field. 
Of course any method of measure- 
ment cannot be well employed ex- 
cept on brains which have not suf- 
fered distortion in the process of 
hardening. 

I will only call your attention to 
one or two methods which readity 
afford a means of understanding the 
relative exoanse — be it a prepon- 



derance or a reduction — of the I 
or special cortical areas of one 
as compared with the other, or of 
one brain as compared with another 
brain. 

Brains of Intellectual Persons 

In a former contribution* I have 
already expressed in general tei 
the objects and results of investiga- 
tions on the brains of notable men 
and women. I will not fatigue you 
with a recital of the facts which 
show that persons possessing great 
intellectual capacity, persons ex- 
celling in the creative arts, the 
sciences and in human affairs in 
general, are apt to have heavier, 
larger brains, than those of the 
ordinary population. At all events, 
this fact is shown in the compara- 
tive tabulation of a large number of 
ordinary brain-weights with a list 
now containing no such of sane 
and intellectually eminent persons. 
(See Figure 1 at close of article). 
Nor will I detail here again those 
evidences of morphologic super- 
iority in surface configuration, com- 
plexity and area of certain cortical 
territories which have been demon- 
strated in such brains. What I 
particularly wish to bring to your 
attention concerns some of the 
more recent and novel observations 
made by the writer on a series of 
brains of — 

Eleven intellectually eminent 
men. 

Ten brains of ordinary, aver;, 
healthy men who committed murder 
and were executed therefor. 

Eight brains of non-European 
races, comprising Eskimos, Jap- 
anese and Papuans. 

Of course many other brains of 
whites, negroes, etc., have been 
studied by me, but those mentioned 
above have been subjected t 
more extended examination and 
record. 



*"A Study of the Brain of the late M.i or T. W. 
Powell." A»trru,iH Anthrofielerisi i^. S«] 
4, October- Decern bfr, 1 g 14. 



3 2 4 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



To the brains of Major Powell, 
the two Doctors Seguin (father and 
son), Major J. B. Pond and George 
Francis Train, I have just* had the 
privilege to add reports of studies 
of the brains of six eminent scien- 
tists and scholars belonging to that 
brilliant coterie which at one time 
made Philadelphia the acknowl- 
edged medical and scientific center 
of America. Professor E. D. Cope 
stands forth as one of the world's 
greatest paleontologists. Professor 
Joseph Leidy was a recognized 
leader of Natural Science who, 
while he developed many new facts, 
described new forms and deduced 
new laws, yet had that rare faculty 
of conveying to others — in simpli- 
fied and systematized form — those 
fundamental principles of biology 
so difficult for the ordinary student 
to grasp. Dr. William Pepper 
stands in the first rank among clini- 
cians and men of affairs. Professor 
Harrison Allen exhibited not a little 
aptitude in the direction of com- 
parative anatomy and zoology, and 
would doubtless have achieved 
much more in science had not his 
conscientious devotion to an active 
practice (largely gratuitous) inter- 
fered therewith. An untimely 
death prevented the name of Dr. 
Andrew J. Parker from becoming 
as famous among cerebral mor- 
phologists as was indicated by his 
valuable and original contributions 
to the Academy of Natural Sciences 
in Philadelphia. We are dealing, 
therefore, with a series of brains of 
men notable in many ways. 

I may here say a word as to the 
legitimacy of the demands of 
science for more such brains. In- 
vestigations of this kind are chiefly 
hampered by the objections of the 
relatives of the deceased. Under 



♦"Report of a Study of the Brains of Six Eminent 
Scientists and Scholars belonging to the American An- 
thropometric Society; together with a Brief Descrip- 
tion of the Skull of One of Them. 1 ' (Specimens, draw- 
ings and charts.) Eighteenth Session of the Association 
of American Anatomists, Philadelphia, Pa., December 
27, T904. To be published by the Wistar Institute of 
Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia. 



the prevailing circumstances it is 
indeed difficult to request the per- 
mission of the afflicted family for 
the removal, preservation and study 
of the brain. The very suggestion 
of an autopsy is looked upon with 
horror; yet it is a sentimentality 
prejudicial to all progress in this 
line of scientific research. An 
anatomical examination of this kind, 
conducted with expert hands, no 
more violates respect for the body 
of the deceased than does the em- 
balming process. To me the 
thought of an autopsy is certainly 
less repugnant than I imagine the 
process of cadaveric decomposition 
in the grave to be. The only good 
reason for the popular dislike for 
autopsies — viz., mutilation of the 
body — no longer obtains with our 
modern perfected methods. The 
skull-cap and scalp can be replaced 
in such a way that only a searching 
examination will reveal what was 
done. It is a legitimate claim of 
science, I repeat, for knowledge of 
great value may be gained. 
Throughout the history of medicine 
knowledge of disease has been ob- 
tained only through the study of 
processes and the results of the 
disease as revealed after death. 
When this is understood by a 
greater number of people, not only 
medicine, but anatomy and anthro- 
pological science as well, will reap 
a benefit which in its turn will 
surely be useful to the world. All 
honor, therefore, to those who had 
the courage to be pioneers in the 
establishment of such associations 
as the Mutual Autopsy Society of 
Paris, the American Anthropome- 
tric Society, and the Cornell Brain 
Association. The value of such 
methods of collecting the requisite 
material has been repeatedly urged 
by anatomists and anthropologists, 
notably Bischoff, Waldeyer, Manou- 
vrier, Retzius and Wilder. When I 
mention the names of such gen- 
iuses as Huxley, Herbert Spencer, 
Tyndall, Marsh, Bunsen, Lecky, 






THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 325 



Mommsen, Tennyson, Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes, vonMoltke, Ben Butler, 
Meissonier and Rosa Bonheur — all 
persons who have died in the last 
decade — and tell you that not one 
of their brains has been preserved, 
the immensity of this loss to science 
must be plain to you all. 

Had I sufficient time at my com- 
mand, I would render here a report 
upon the most notable findings in 
the brains of these members of the 
Anthropometric Society, particu- 
larly with reference to their large 
size and weight, the good develop- 
ment of the language areas, and the 
generally redundant parieto-occipi- 
to-temporal association area, of 
which Flechsig has treated from 
the standpoint of myelogenetic 
development and Dr. C. K. Mills 
and others from that of the clini- 
cian. I cannot do more now than 
to point out, for instance, certain 
remarkable contrasts between the 
brain of Joseph Leidy, the mor- 
phologist, and Professor Cope, the 
paleontologist, as well as certain 
facts relating to the cerebro-cere- 
bellar ratio and to the development 
of the callosum in its relations to 
certain mechanisms of the mind. 

In the comparison of the mesal 
aspects of the two brains we find 
that the ratio of the frontal area is 
to the cuneusprecuneus area as fol- 
lows: 



J. Leidy, 


66 


34 


Cope, . 


73 


27 


In most brains it is . 


70 


: 30 



Recalling now the functions of 
the two great association areas 
under discussion, the surmise that 
we have here a true somatic expres- 
sion of naturally endowed superior- 
ity of the powers of conception of 
the concrete in the one brain, and 
of remarkable powers of thought 
in the abstract in the other brain, 
were one which past experiences in 
cerebral localization seems to justi- 
fy. Cope was more creative and 
constructive, philosophic and forma- 



tive than Leidy; Leidy was a far 
keener observer of things, quicker 
at seeing analogies and compari- 
sons, coupling his multitudinous 
observations and systematizations 
in a superior manner. Leidy was a 
good visualizer, and possessed good 
powers of memorizing and recalling 
visual impressions. He excelled in 
his abilities as a microscopist, as 
shown by his monumental work in 
parasitology and helminthology, re- 
cently compiled by Joseph Leidy, 
Jr.* But Cope, I take it, busied 
himself much more with abstract 
generalizations, though I wish by 
no means to imply that his observa- 
tional powers were in any way de- 
fective. I merely wish to empha- 
size in what way these two men 
were so differently endowed by 
Nature. I had been led to search 
in this direction by my findings in 
the brain of Major J. W. Powell, 
concerning whom I once knew 
nothing, but whose great parieto- 
occipito-temporal association area 
(particularly in the right or prepon- 
deratingly sensory half) led me to 
venture the presumption that this 
redundancy probably corresponded 
to a superior ability to register and 
compare the impressions in the 
visual, auditory and tactile spheres 
which together form the concept 
sphere. That Major Powell's inti- 
mate friends and co-workers cor- 
roborated, in general, these pre- 
sumptions, was indeed gratifying, 
and I trust that the similar venture 
in the case of Cope and Leidy and 
the others meets with like approval. 

Cerebro-Cerebellar Ratio 

The cerebro-cerebel lac ratio of 
weight is expressed by the weight 
of the cerebrum as compared with 
that of the cerebellum, the latter 
being taken as =t. By "cere- 
brum" is really meant part of the 
diencephalon as well, the division 
of the parts being made by a cut 

♦ Smithsonian Miscellaneous Coltr> XI VI 

IQ04. 



326 



THE DEVELOPMENT OE MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



passing just cephalad of the pons 
and between the pre- and post- 
gemina. A glance at the list shows 
that while in ordinary men the ratios 
cluster around — 

i : 7-5 

among the eminent men it is fully 
a unit higher — that is to say, the 
cerebrum, or essential thought -appara- 
tus is relatively more massive, while 
the somatic organ of motor co-ordination 
remains relatively (though not abso- 
lutely) reduced. 



ELEVEN EMINENT MEN. 

I : 9.0 

Q.O 
9.O 



TEN ORDINARY MEN. 



9:0 



7.0 



8.2 

8.1 



7-7 

7-4 

7-4 
7-4 
7-3 
7-3 
7.0 



Callosum 

Before I state certain interesting 
results of special studies on the 
form and size of the callosum in 
various brains, permit me to intro- 
duce some remarks concerning the 
prevailing ideas about the relative 
importance of white and of gray 
matter. So much has been said of 
the gray matter and its constituent 
nerve-cells that the very notable 
researches of Flechsig and his co- 
workers in the field of myelin- 
development is often overlooked. 
Were it not for the manifold con- 
nection of such cells with each other 
as well as with the periphery by 
means of the millions of fibers, such 
a brain were as useless as a multi- 
tude of telephone or telegraph sta- 



weight 
powers 
as has 
billion 



tions with all inter-connecting wires 
destroyed. The bulk of the white 
matter in the brain (I speak of 
normal brains only) therefore signi- 
fies elaborated gray matter, and 
hence, the significance of brain- 
in relation to the mental 
; for even though there be, 
been computed, over nine 
cells in the cortex, their 
weight is probably less than one per 
cent of the total brain-weight. The 
bulkier axone influences the brain- 
weight figure far more. But if 
there is a still more intricate inter- 
connection of nerve cells, out of 
proportion to their usual number, 
as it were, by means of untold num- 
bers of additional association neu- 
rones, the mass of white matter 
must necessarily be greater. So 
characteristic is this preponderance 
of white matter in the brain of Man, 
and so needful is such an elabora- 
tion and amplification of the cere- 
bral architecture to the workings of 
the human mind, that it is only 
necessary to glance at the cross- 
sections of the brains of lower 
animals as compared with that 
of Man while we pause to think 
that, after (see figure IV) all, it is 
this enormous co-ordination of the- 
separate units of thought and ac- 
tion which constitutes the somatic 
basis of the highest mental func- 
tions. And in the Mammalian 
series, as we ascend from the small- 
brained Marsupial with its very few 
neo-pallial (equivalent to the cal- 
losal) fibers intermingled with those 
of the dorsal or hippocampal com- 
missure to the great callosal commis- 
sure which the brain of Man exhib- 
its, we may perceive an indication 
of the elaboration of at least one 
division of the great complex of 
association systems; I refer now to 
the bilateral coordinations exclu- 
sively. But beyond the fact that 
the fibers of the callosum connect 
like regions in the two hemispheres 
little more is said in our books, and 
yet nearly every case of deficiency 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



32 



or disease of this structure is at- 
tended by more or less profound 
weak-mindedness if not downright 
idiocy, not to speak of hemiparetic 
and other affections. And the ex- 
amination of the brains of these 
notable men, possessing large ca- 
pacity for doing and thinking much 
more than their fellows, shows the 
converse to be quite as true. (See 
figure III). Compared with ordinary 
men, individually and collectively, 
they have larger callosa. The callo- 
sum of Joseph Leidy exceeds in cross- 
section area that of any other on 
record and is approximately twice 
the average size. (See figure II). 
Here again, then, we have an index 
in somatic terms of the distinction 
between brains of geniuses or of 
talented men and of persons of only 
ordinary abilities. ' 

Race Brains 

One subdivision in the somatic 
anthropology of the brain concerns 
the correlation of the intellect of 
the various races with brain-struc- 
ture. The intellectual characters 
of the races exhibit remarkable 
differences; capacity and aptitude 
for learning are variable ; and since 
these are but expressions of cerebral 
activity they naturally lead to at- 
tempts at explaining them in terms 
of correlated anatomical differences. 
But despite the fact that many of 
the exotic races are rapidly becom- 
ing impure or even extinct, not 
much activity has been shown in 
the collection and description of the 
brains of races. It is really dis- 
tressing to contemplate the fact 
that there exists no description of a 
single North American Indian s brain, 
and careful inquiry has so far failed 
to show that half a dozen are pre- 
served at all. And yet, even the 
meager accounts on record up to 
the present time seem to show that 
there exist typical distinctions be- 
tween the brains of different races. 
That such distinguishing features 
have not yet been definitely estab- 



lished is due entirely to the lack of 
sufficient brains. (Ses figure V). 
For a while, at least we must be con- 
tent to say that there is something 
in the "cerebral physiognomy "- 
I may use that metaphoric term — 
which seems at times quite as ex- 
pressive in the brains of the inferi- 
orly-equipped races when compared 
with those of the highly intellectual 
as the dull, stupid vacuous outer 
physiognomy of the half-witted in- 
dividual differs from the bright, 
animated, forceful and energetic 
look in the face of the vigorous 
thinker and talented genius. (See 
figure VI). 

Now, although the brains of all 
races of Man are constructed upon a 
common pattern, the outer cerebral 
appearances of the Eskimo, for ex- 
ample, differ from those of the 
white man, and both of these differ 
radically from that of the Papuan. 
When more brains have been ac- 
cumulated we may be able to desig- 
nate more accurately wherein these 
differences consist. Among the 
race-brains which I have studied, 
those of Eskimos have been of con- 
siderable interest to me. Seven 
Eskimo brains have been described, 
though it is probable that three of 
these, reported by Cbuzinski in 
Paris, are not pure Eskimos but a 
mixture of Eskimo and Dane com- 
monly called "Greenlanders. " The 
four brains in the Anatomical I 
oratory of Columbia University are 
those of unquestionably pure Eski- 
mos from Smith's Sound: : 
were : Kis/n/, Nooktah % Ahtun^-ahna- 
koah and Avid (or Ahmeea)i\ % all 
Commander Peary's party. One 
these brains was described by 
Hrdlicka, the other three by my- 
self. It may not harm to 
here a moment to allude to some 
of the traits of the Eskimo ' 
of their possible correlations 
certain features of the architecture 
of the brain. For a long tinv\ 
you may know, the Eskimo* were 
regarded as a low, degraded n 



328 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



savage, incapable and uncouth. I 
have no patience with writers who 
still persist in so calumniating 
them. I prefer to consider them a 
quick-witted, capable race, exhibit- 
ing remarkable aptitudes and in 
general possessing considerable in- 
tellectual power. That seems to be 
the testimony of the best and most 
observant travelers, and I also 
largely credit the mute testimony 
of the brains themselves. Among 
their most notable traits I may in- 
stance their remarkable skill in 
carving ivory figures of birds, quad- 
rupeds, marine animals and even 
the human figure and face, always 
displaying considerable individuali- 
ty in conception and intelligent per- 
ception. Their ability to execute 
maps and drawings, too, is quite 
remarkable and has served many an 
explorer. But like the drawings 
of their Mongolian cousins, these 
have but one defect, being faulty 
in perspective. Nevertheless, to 
me as a brain-anatomist, it is most 
interesting to find in their brains a 
superior degree of development of 
those regions which correspond to 
the faculties just mentioned. The 
sense-areas and the association- 
areas which have to do with vision, 
audition, motor innervation and 
tactile impressions are greatly de- 
veloped. I mean by this a superior 
development of the concrete con- 
cept area in some of its parts. That 
part of the callosum which connects 
these regions in the two halves of 
the brain is of correspondingly 
large caliber. The whole brain, 
contrary to preconceived notions, 
is large and finely constructed. The 
brain of Kishu, a very intelligent 
Eskimo, is of a kind that any phi- 
losopher and leader of men might 
be proud to possess. That the Eski- 
mo has a large and highly-organ- 
ized brain is not to be wondered at 
when we consider how through the 
many centuries the individuals of 
this race have been put to the most 
severe trials in their struggle for 



existence. In the long run they 
have succeeded in devising ways 
and means of overcoming the diffi- 
culties of maintaining, life in a 
region which has often brought 
disaster to the whites who ventured 
to explore it. The doctrine of the 
44 survival of the fittest" and the 
transmission of this eminent fitness 
to the offspring through many gen- 
erations is remarkably well exem- 
plified in the story of this race. 
With most of the tropical races, 
living at ease, amid great plenty of 
food and with much leisure time 
for quarreling amongst themselves, 
the story is quite different; but be 
that as it may, more brains, I re- 
peat, are needed to substantiate our 
views. Not only should such inves- 
tigations be carried on amongst the 
purer races, but among the mixing 
races as well. And nowhere in the 
world is the mixture of races — 
chiefly the Teutonic, Celto-Roman 
and Slavonic — going on so actively 
as in this country, tf we may judge 
from the present indications of the 
formation of an American Family of 
the Aryan Race, the conditions gov- 
erning the population of this conti- 
nent seem to have been peculiarly 
advantageous to the preservation 
and restoration of the best types, 
characterized by greater energy, 
motility and culture. We may 
therefore expect to find bigger and 
better brains here, and researches 
of this kind should be encouraged 
by a greater accumulation of the 
requisite material. 

Criminal Brains 

If I now speak of the brains of 
criminals before an anthropological 
association, it is not because I am 
one of those who regard so-called 
** criminal anthropology" as such a 
sub-division of true anthropology. 
The term "criminal anthropology" 
does not correctly convey the real 
meaning of this auxiliary to foren- 
sic medicine. The study of crim- 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN'S GREAT BRAIN 



329 



inals by anthropological methods — 
anatomically, physiologically, etc — 
does not necessarily tend to estab- 
lish a criminal "type" nor to 
describe crime as equivalent to 
infantilism, epilepsy, atavism, gen- 
ius (!) or anything else maintained 
by the Lombroso school. Many 
criminals show not a single 
anomaly in their physical or mental 
make-up, while many persons with 
marked evidences of morphological 
aberration have never exhibited the 
criminal tendency. Every attempt 
to prove crime to be due to a consti- 
tution peculiar only to criminals has 
failed signally. It is because most 
criminals are drawn from the ranks 
of the low, the degraded, the out- 
cast, that investigators were ever 
deceived into attempting to set up 
a "type" of criminal. The social 
conditions which foster the great 
majority of crimes are more needful 
of study and improvement; by such 
means only can crime be made less 
prevalent — among the sane, at 
least. Society wrongs neither the 
criminal nor itself if criminals were 
studied as individuals and not as a 



"species." From the study 
known normal brains we have 
learned that there is a certain range 
of variation of structural charac- 
ters. No two brains are exactly 
alike, and the greatest source of 
error in the assertions of Benedickt 
and Lombroso has been the finding 
of this or that variation in a crim- 
inal's brain and maintaining such to 
be a characteristic of the "criminal 
constitution" — unmindful of the 
fact that like variations of structure 
may and do exist in the brains of 
normal, moral persons. It were as 
justifiable to set up a "criminal 
brain-type" as to speak of an 
"insane brain - type" ; and the 
classes of criminality are quite as 
numerous as the kinds of insanity. 
In criminals demonstrably sane in 
life I have failed thus far to find any 
cerebral characteristic ascribable to 
an alleged "criminal constitution," 
and I am confident that, as hereto- 
fore, the classification of criminals 
must rest upon the observation of 
each individual criminal together 
with his antecedent history and his 
mental and physical make-up. 



FROM THE BEGINNING MAN WAS MEANT TO BE AT THE HEAD OF 
CREATION -THERE IS NO POSSIBILITY OF A HIGHER BRING THAN 
MAN HIMSELF — IN THE STRUCTURE OF MAN THERE IS A CON- 
SUMMATION WHICH SHOWS THAT HE IS THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE 
FORM OF THE SERIES WHICH BEGINS WITH THE FISH 

Louis /. A\ . :'. 



H 



R 



ILLUSTRATING 

RECENT 

BRAIN STUDIES 

BY 

DR. EDW. ANTHONY SPITZKA 



FIGURE I 



Drawing by Dr. Edw. Anthony Spitzka 





1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


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«s.\f050\ \tl50\ \f250\ ]/35d[ ■ \M({ \l55(\ \t65$ \l75& \fS5^ \/950\ \205o\ 



Chart showing the relatively greater number heavier brains among the (ioo) "emi- 
nent men" (see solid line) as compared with the distribution of the ordinary brain-weights 
of the combined series (1334 cases) of Bischoff, Retzius, Marchand and Topinard— Tab- 
ulated for convenience in comparison on the bases of 100 cases. — [Reprint from Figure 32, 
American Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. 5, No. 4—1903. pg. 597.] 



FIGURE II— Reduced exactly one half 



Drawing by Dr. Edward Anthony Spitzka 




OUTLINE DRAWINGS OF THE CROSS-SECTION OF THE CALLOSUM 01 

PROFESSOR JOSEPH LEIDY, MORPHOLOG1ST 

DR. EDWARD C. SEGUIN, NEUROLOGIST 

A LABORER, WHITE 

A NEGRO 




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FIGURE V— Reduced to % original size of drawing 



Drawing by Dr. Edw. Anthony Spitzka 



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BRAIN OF HELMHOLTZ (after photo of cast by Hausemann) 

BRAIN OF PAPUAN FROM BRITISH NEW GUINEA ; specimen in Anatomical Laboratory at Columbia 

University, New York 
BRAIN OF GORILLA (D. 658, Mus. Roy. Coll., Surgeons of Eng.) 




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TOBACCO CROP IN CONNECTICUT NEARLY READY TO HARVEST 

THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 

"A TRUE HISTORY OF TOBACCO WOULD BE THE HISTORY 

OF ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LIBERTY " IN COLONIAL 

DAYS IT WAS THE MONEY OF THE COUNTRY MIN- 
ISTERS' SALARIES WERE PAID IN TOBACCO ARTICLE 

BY 

E. H. JENKINS, Ph.D. 

DIRECTOR OF THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL STATION 
NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT 



TOBACCO is an American 
plant. By far the larger 
number of species of the 
genus Nicotiana are indig- 
enous to this Continent, and it was 
by the early explorers of America 
that the "weed" — or the "blessed 
herbe" — was introduced into Eu- 
rope. 

Wherever the early explorers 
went in America they found the 
natives smoking the leaves of to- 
bacco in pipes of various shapes. 
The large number of pipes, differ- 
ing in material and workmanship, 
taken from the prehistoric mounds 
of the Mississippi Valley prove the 
still greater antiquity of this prac- 



tice. Among the aboriginal tribes, 
smoking was an essential feature of 
much of their religious and other 
ceremonials, and it still plays a 
great part in these observances. A 
most interesting description of the 
very elaborate ceremonies con- 
nected with the presentation of the 
"Pipes of Fellowship" among the 
Omahas — a solemn service which 
bound two men of different gens, 
"by a tie equal in strength and obli- 
gation to that between father and 
son" — has been given by Miss Alice 
Fletcher in a publication of the 
Harvard Peabody Museum. 

The tobacco pipe has from the 
earliest times stood as a symbol of 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



337 




TOBACCO PLANTS IN SEED BEDS READY TO TRANSPLANT 



peace and good fellowship. The 
4 'peace-pipe" of the Indian has 
passed into proverbial use, the 
party going to present the "Pipes 
of Fellowship" among the Omahas 
is safe from all attack, and even 
among warring Indian tribes, the 
red pipestone quarry has been held 
as neutral ground. Marquette, 



writing in 1662, says of the calumet 
or peace-pipe, "It is the most mys- 
terious thing in the world. The 
scepters of our kings are not so 
much respected, for the Indians 
have such a reverence for it that 
one may call it the god of peace 
and war, and the arbiter of life and 
death. One, with this calumet. 




SETTING AND WATERING TOBACCO PLANTS BY I'HE 01 D Ml I'HOD 



33* 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



may venture among his enemies, and 
in the hottest battles they lay down 
their arms before this sacred pipe." 
But to the Old World, tobacco 
brought not peace, but a sword. 
It was first introduced into Spain 
somewhere about 1560. Nicot, the 
French ambassador to Portugal, for 
whom the botanical genus Nicotiana 
is named, sent the seed to Queen 
Catharine de Medici, declaring it to 
be an "herb of a peculiarly pleas- 
ant taste, good, medicinally, in 



tious smoker who set the fashion 
and made it popular. 

The use of tobacco spread with 
marvelous rapidity throughout 
Europe and Asia. It was at first 
prized as a decorative plant, but its 
alleged medicinal virtues probably 
contributed more than all else to its 
widespread use in the first fifty 
years after its introduction. Dis- 
eases of all sorts baffled medical 
skill, the rumors and experience of 
great plagues terrified all men, and 



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SETTING TOBACCO PLANTS BY MACHINERY 



THE NEW METHOD 



fevers and other diseases. " It was 
known in France as the "Herb of 
the Grand Prior," the "Queen's 
Herb, " or the " Medicinal Herb." 
A cardinal, Prosper Santa Croce, 
introduced tobacco into Italy, where 
it was called the "Herb of Santa 
Croce." 

Ralph Lane, John Hawkins and 
Sir Walter Raleigh, are each cred- 
ited with the introduction of tobacco 
into England in 1586. Certain it is 
that Sir Walter was the first ostenta- 



here was a new herb from a far 
country for which great things were 
claimed and which certainly had 
remarkable potency when taken 
internally. 

"Nicotiana, though it have beene 
but a while knowne in France, yet 
it holdeth the first and principale 
place among Physicke herbes, by 
reason of his singular and almost 
divine vertues, such as you shall 
heare of hereafter," says a chroni- 
cler, writing in 1606. 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



339 




YOUNG TOBACCO PLANTS WELL STARTED IN THE FIELE 



First introduced as medicine, it 
almost immediately came into com- 
mon use as an article of luxury, a 
sedative and a narcotic. 

Soon followed the abuse of it, 
first by the smoker and then by the 
moralist. 

That "most high and mighty 
Prince, James, by the Grace of God, 
King of Great Britain, Defender of 
the Faith," et cetera^ issued a "Coun- 
terblaste to Tobacco," a state paper 
which has added much to the gaiety 
of nations. 

Of smoking, the Defender of the 
Faith says: "It is a custom loath- 
some to the eye, harmfull to the 
braine, dangerous to the lungs, 
and in the black stinking fume 
thereof nearest resembling the hor- 
rible Stygian smoke of the pit that 
is bottomless. It is like hell in the 
very substance of it, for it is a 
•stinking, loathsome thing and so is 
hell." 

It would seem as if the Defender 
of the Faith must have been indulg- 
ing in something like a Wheeling 
■stogy, which answers well to this 
picturesque description. 

The evils following the use of 
tobacco soon called for the notice 
of both Church and State. Popes 



issued bulls against it, and in 1634 
the Czar forbade its use in Russia. 
The reason for this edict is said to 
have been that several destructive 
fires in Moscow had been started 
by careless, smoking Muscovites. 
Thus began the dismal stories of 
the "hired man's pipe." Priests 
and sultans in Turkey and Persia 
declared the use of the weed a sin 
against their holy religion. But in 
spite of all, its use has become com- 
mon in almost all lands. 

No plant has been so spoken 
against; no plant has spread so fast 
or so widely in cultivated lands, no 
other has been so constantly affected 
by legislation, has paid so large a 
share of the expenses of govern- 
ment, nor, with possibly one or two 
exceptions, is used today by so 
large a number of the human race. 
These facts show the economic im- 
portance of the crop; They are not 
introduced as any defense of the 
use of the weed, for discussion of 
that matter is not contemplated 
here. 

There are to-day two views re- 
garding the physiological effects of 
tobacco, which have not materially 
changed since the days of Ben John- 
son and "Every Man in His 



34° 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



Humor," and are not likely to be 
changed either by citation of facts 
or of arguments. Quoth Bobadil: 
"By Hercules! I do hold it and 
will affirm it, before any prince in 
Europe, to be the most sovereign 
and precious weed that ever the 
Earth tendered to the use of man." 
"By Gad's me!" rejoins Cob, "I 
mar'l what pleasure or felicity they 
have in taking the roguish tobacco! 
It is good for nothing but to choke 
a man and fill him full of smoke 
and embers." 

Space does not allow any notice 
here of the very interesting history 
of tobacco raising in this country. 
"A true history of tobacco," says 
Mr. Moncure, quoted by John Fiske, 
"would be the history of English 
and American liberty." 

In the early colonial days of Vir- 
ginia, tobacco was the money of 
the country. The minister's salary 
was paid in tobacco, and so were 
fines for harboring Quakers. In 
1620, ninety young women of re- 
spectable character were brought to 
Virginia, each charged with the cost 



of transportation, amounting to 120 
pounds of tobacco — a debt cheer- 
fully discharged, no doubt, by the 
men who married them. 

Coming now to our own state, we 
find that tobacco was raised as early 
as 1640, and an act was passed re- 
stricting its use, under penalty, to 
that grown in the colony. A few 
years later we find the legislature 
attempting to diminish its consump- 
tion by statute, without, however, 
limiting in any way the production 
or trade in it. This law forbade all 
under the age of twenty and all not 
addicted to the habit, from using it 
without a physician's certificate 
that the use would be beneficial. 

It is stated that at no time prior 
to 1801 did the annual product of 
the Connecticut Valley altogether 
exceed 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 
Previous to 1833, a kind of tobacco, 
heavy and strong and not suited for 
cigar wrapper, called shoe-string 
tobacco, was raised here, but in 
that year, B. P. Barber of East 
Windsor introduced the broad-leaf 
variety from Maryland, which is 




TOBACCO FIELD ABOUT THE MIDDLE OF JULY 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



341 



admirably suited for cigar wrappers, 
has been raised in the Connecticut 
Valley ever since, and has a world- 
wide reputation. It was not until 
1845 that tobacco was grown in the 
Housatonic Valley. 

Although the market tobacco of 
the world comes from only one or 
two botanically distinct species, the 
number of agricultural varieties 
which are raised is very large and 
all of these come under a few dis- 
tinct types of leaf, depending on 
the use which can be made of them. 

Our Connecticut tobacco is well 
fitted for only one thing, and that is 
for cigar wrappers. 

A cigar has three parts — the 
"filler," which is the main interior 
part of the cigar; the "binder," 
which is a part of a single leaf 
wrapped about the filler to hold it 
in shape, and the "wrapper," a 
strip of a single leaf which covers 
the whole and gives it its "style." 

The wrapper is all that is seen of 
the cigar. 

The filler should give to the cigar 
its flavor and character in taste — the 
best fillers coming from Cuba — and 
the binder should be a thin leaf of 
any color. Very special require- 
ments have to be met by the 
wrapper. It must be thin, so that 
a pound of leaf will wrap a large 
number of cigars; it must be strong 
and elastic, so that it can be 
wrapped tightly and smoothly about 
the cigar; it must be light in color, 
at present, to meet the perfectly 
unreasonable whim or fashion of 
smokers; it must burn well, without 
charring or "coaling" on the 
cigar — a thing which is sure to im- 
part a bad taste to it; it must leave 
a firm ash which will not flake off 
and thus be a nuisance to the 
smoker; and lastly, it must be free 
from flavor. The filler should alone 
impart flavor to the cigar. If Con- 
necticut wrappers are not neutral 
they are quite sure to give a flavor 
which is not relished by many 
smokers. 



To produce such a leaf as thi 
the problem before the grower. In 
no other crop which we raise is the 
profit determined so largely by the 
quality, as distinguished from the 
quantity of the product. No other 
crop is grown on land so unfertile 
naturally, none requires such 
abundant fertilization, scarcely any 
is so expensive to raise, so exposed 
to almost complete destruction dur- 
ing growth and curing, none may 
be such a great financial success or 
such a dismal failure as this 
wrapper-leaf tobacco crop. 

More than eight thousand acres 
of land in this state are each year 
planted to tobacco, yielding a crop 
of over fourteen million pounds and 
bringing not far from two million 
dollars yearly in cash to the 
growers. 

The "New England Havana" and 
"New England Broad-leaf" have 
long commanded higher average 
prices than any other domestic 
cigar wrapper leaf, with one ex- 
ception. At present there is raised 
in the Gadsden County district of 
Florida a Sumatra type of wrapper 
leaf which is sold for much higher 
prices than our Connecticut leaf. 
It is packed so as to imitate as 
closely as possible the imported 
Sumatra, and does not appear in 
the trade as Florida-grown tobacco. 

In the fall the Connecticut 
grower prepares his seed beds, pro- 
tecting them on sides and ends by 
boards higher on one side than the 
other, so that the cover will slope 
like a roof and shed rain. The soil 
of the bed is well fertilized and 
worked over. About the middle 
March the seed, which retains 
vitality for eight to twelve yea 
mixed with moist vegetable DO 
(the "punk" from decayed a; 
trees is the "correct" thing), 
"started" in a warm place, 
when the sprouts appear, is sown in 
the beds, which are then cov< 
with either glas^ s.ish or with c< I 
cloth. Airing, covering, ' 



342 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 





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SPEARING AND LOADING TOBACCO FROM THE FIELD 



and weeding the beds, as the exi- 
gencies of the weather and soil re- 
quire, take such time as can be 
spared by the careful grower from 
fertilizing and fitting his fields, 
until planting time, late in May or 
during June. 

The field is fitted for tobacco with 
rows about three and a half feet 
apart and the plants are set eigh- 
teen or twenty inches apart in the 
tow. Formerly the setting and 
watering was all done by hand, but 
now most growers use a tobacco 
planter drawn by horses, which does 
better and quicker work than is 
possible in the other way. The 
plants are pulled from the well- 
watered seed beds by hand and put 
in baskets, from which two boys sit- 
ting on the machine feed them in as 
wanted. The machine opens the 
drill, waters it, sets the plants 
firmly and covers the roots. Then 
comes the hungry cut-worm, at 
night, and eats off the leaves or the 
stems of the plants and sometimes 
does enormous damage. The cut- 
worms are brown "caterpillars" 
which hatch out in the soil all 
through the spring and eat the first 
green things they find. Sometimes 



it is necessary to put Paris green on 
every plant — eight to nine thousand 
plants to an acre — and always the 
plants killed by the worms must be 
immediately reset, which often 
necessitates going over the whole 
piece three or four times. The 
wire-worm and flea-beetle also have 
the disgusting habit of chewing 
tobacco. 

The cultivator must be kept 
going, partly to keep down weeds, 
but more to keep the moisture in the 
soil in time of drought. It should 
be said, however, that tobacco, al- 
though a rank, leafy plant, will 
withstand drought better than most 
farm crops. As the crop approaches 
maturity, perhaps from the middle 
of July on, the care and the anxiety 
increase. Each plant must be 
"topped" by removing the ter- 
minal bud, and the quality of the 
crop depends on the judgment with 
which this is done. The suckers 
must later be removed. There is 
always a chance that a passing 
squall may bring- a patter of hail 
with it, which would ruin the whole 
crop. Sometimes the tobacco 
worm — a most disgusting looking 
reprobate — appears in large num- 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONN AC 7 /CUT 







A TYPICAL CONNECTICUT TOBACCO BARN 



bers to feed on the leaves, and has 
to be "hand-picked." 
" Then follows harvest. As soon 
as the leaf is ripe it must be cut at 
once. Error in judging- of the right 
time to harvest, or delay in cutting 
when that time has come, will 
damage greatly the quality of the 
crop. Harvesting in early August 
is hot work and it is heavy work. 
On the average more than twelve 
tons of green tobacco have to be 
cut, strung, hauled to the barn and 
hung up in it, from every acre of 
land. More than nine tons of this 
weight passes as water vapor out of 
the doors and ventilators during the 
curing process. 

Then follows another anxious 
time. The leaf must go through a 
drying and fermenting process, 
during which it takes on the char- 
acteristic brown color of the cigar 
wrapper. If it dries rapidly the 
leaf remains more or less green and 
can never be "brought to color." 
If it does not dry fast enough, as 
when continuous wet, foggy weather 
intervenes, the leaves may be at- 
tacked by "pole-burn," which ruins 
them utterly. In rare cases it has 
happened that a barn filled with 
-sound tobacco, worth several thous- 
and dollars, has been attacked by 
this dreaded microbe disease and 
utterly ruined within forty-eight 



hours, so that it could only be 
shoveled up from the ground and 
used as manure. 

It is a common feeling that the 
year's work is done with harvesting, 
but the wise grower stays by his 
curing barns instead of attending 
August horse trots, and is on the 
alert, day and night, until the cur- 
ing process is complete. He must 
watch the weather and the leaf, 
anticipate the coming of storms, 
guard against high, drying winds, 
and be ready in a crisis to put arti- 
ficial heat in his barns to help the 
drying. This is best done by wood 
or charcoal fires, or furnaces. 

At last the cure is complete, and 
the looked-for "tobacco storm" has 
come, with several days of rain, or 
of damp, foggy weather. The barn 
is opened, and gradually the leaves, 
which have been husky and brittle 
before, by absorbing moisture from 
the air, become as soft, pliable and 
elastic as a kid glove. The tobacco 
is taken down, the leaves pic 
from the stalk and packed smoothly 
in bundles covered with paper. 
Then, for the first time, can the 
grower safely judge of the sue 
of his year's work and the m< 
value of his crop. 

What remains is either to sort the 
crop himself or to sell his crop "in 
the bundle" to the dealer, who sorts 



344 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



it, ferments it and prepares it for 
market. 

A good yield of tobacco is eigh- 
teen hundred pounds to the acre, in 
the bundle, and the prices paid last 
year ranged perhaps from thirty- 
five cents, for broad leaf, down- 
wards; the average for good crops 
being perhaps from eighteen to 
twenty-two cents per pound. 

A few words should be said about 
the leaf after it has left the farm. 
It is not by any means at that time 
a finished product, ready for manu- 
facture. It is rather the raw mater- 
ial. The dealer examines every 
leaf, sorts the whole crop by size, 
color and quality, often making fif- 
teen grades and sometimes many 
more. The leaves are then tied by 
their butts into bunches or "hands" 
of from twelve to twenty leaves. 
In this condition the leaf is sticky 
to the touch — "gummy" — and if 
rolled on a cigar and smoked, has a 
very rank, raw taste. To remove 
this gum, and otherwise improve 
its quality, the tobacco must be 
fermented. Regarding the nature 
of fermentation, there has been and 
still is, an interesting discussion 
going on. Suchsland, in Germany, 
claimed to have isolated the bac- 
teria which cause the fermentation 
of tobacco; to have secured choice 
species of microbes from Havana 
leaf, and inoculated with them the 
inferior Baden tobacco and thus to 
have secured in the subsequent fer- 
mentation a great improvement in 
flavor. Others have described and 
named bacteria which they isolated 
from fermenting tobacco. 

Dr. Loew, formerly of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, 
on the other hand, asserts that bac- 
teria have nothing whatever to do 
with the process; that they cannot 
even live in the fermenting bulk or 
case if the tobacco is not too wet to 
ferment properly. He claims that 
the process is begun and carried on 
by certain chemical ferments, ox- 
idases, which are found in all to- 



bacco and which, under proper con- 
ditions of heat and moisture, cause 
the oxygen of the air to unite with 
certain things in the leaf, thus 
destroying the "gum," and work- 
ing other chemical changes, and 
by this means heating the whole 
bulk. 

Tobacco growing is an old-estab- 
lished branch of farming in the 
Connecticut and the Housatonic 
valleys. It is not to be expected 
that discoveries, new methods, or 
new varieties of tobacco will sud- 
denly revolutionize an art which is 
a century old. Nevertheless, none 
realize more than our successful 
growers that competition in this as 
in every other business is keener 
than ever, that the tastes of the 
trade, however unreasonable, must 
be met by the grower, and that in 
the general advance of agricultural 
science and art, time-honored 
methods of fertilizing, cultivating^, 
curing and fermenting tobacco may 
have to be replaced by others which 
have proved their greater value. ; 

Ten years ago a number of lead- 
ing tobacco growers, with this in 
mind, established the Connecticut 




HANGING TOBACCO IN THE CURING BARN 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



345 




A CONNECTICUT TOBACCO PLANTATION UNDER SHADE 



Tobacco Experiment Company, 
"bought a field at Poquonock, well 
suited to tobacco growing, put up 
a. curing barn, and asked the Con- 
necticut Agricultural Station at 
New Haven to co-operate in experi- 
mental work designed to determine 
the best methods of raising, curing 
and fermenting tobacco. Ever since 
that time this work has been car- 
ried on. The plan of the experi- 
ments has been made by the Sta- 
tion, the expense has been^for the 
most part met by the Station, and 
the practical work of raising and 
curing the crops has been under the 
care of a successful grower^of to- 
bacco, Mr. John A. DuBon of Po- 
quonock. The results of these 
twelve years of experimenting have 
"been widely published and are a 
valuable contribution to our knowl- 
edge of these matters. Particularly 
"helpful have been the experiments 
with fertilizers, which were carried 
out on the same plan and on the 
■same land for five years and which 
answered some of the questions 
regarding fertilizers which were 
waiting for solution. 

The chief competitor of Con- 
necticut wrapper-leaf is tobacco 
raised in Sumatra, which, in spite 
of a custom duty of one dollar 
and eighty-five cents per pound, 
is imported to the amount of nine 
million pounds yearly. This leaf 
is smaller and very much lighter 
than our domestic leaf, and, in 
consequence, a single pound of 
it will wrap several times as 
many cigars. The wrapper is 
also more smooth and glossy 



than that made from our Connecti- 
cut leaf, though it has a bitter, 
unpleasant flavor. 

Encouraged by successful trials 
in Florida, the Agricultural Station, 
in co-operation with the Division of 
Soils of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, made a trial 
in 1900 to see if Sumatra leaf of 
good quality could be raised in this 
state. The plan followed was to 
raise the crop under a light shade, 
which protected it from flying 
insects, wind and hail, secured more 
uniform temperature and water sup- 
ply to the growing crop, and a 
thinner leaf. One-third of an acre 
was covered with a frame nine feet 
high supporting a cheese cloth 
shade. The plants were set only a 
foot apart, were not topped, the 
leaves were picked separately as 
they ripened and were strung on 
strings to cure, instead of curing on 
the stalk. The cured tobacco \v:is 
fermented in the bulk, needing only 
six weeks for the process, and the 




A VIEW SHOWING 1H1 ARBORS WITH 
TENT RRMOV 1'P 



346 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



finished leaf was then submitted to 
leading experts. 

The reports of these experts were 
most flattering, many of them de- 
claring that the quality of leaf was 
fully equal to that of imported 
Sumatra. But the Station, report- 
ing on this crop in 1900, said: "It 
remains to be seen whether such 
tobacco can be economically raised in 
Connecticut; raised on a consid- 
erable scale at a profit. To deter- 
mine this will probably require 
some years of experiment. 

"We would strongly urge farmers 



the opinion of the writer) can it be 
until the leaf has passed from the 
dealer to the manufacturer, and has 
been worked into cigars and tested 
by the consumer. The verdict of 
all three is needed to fully deter- 
mine the value of this new grade 
of wrapper leaf." 

Other voices prevailed, however. 
It was proclaimed that a new and 
immensely profitable business in- 
terest had been established in Con- 
necticut. Companies were formed 
to get rich without delay, land 
prices went up, the landscape was 




STRINGING AND HANGING SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO 



not to undertake to raise Sumatra 
tobacco under shade at present in 
anything more than a very small 
way, and purely as an experiment, 
which will not seriously cripple 
them, even if it is a complete 
failure." 

The co-operation of the Station 
and Department ceased at the end 
of the first year, but both continued 
experimenting independently. 

In reporting on the second crop, 
in 1901, the Station said: "Finally, 
the real value and the standard 
price for Connecticut Sumatra has 
not yet been established, nor (in 



dotted with the white tents of the 
Sumatra advance guard, and the 
boomer boomed. But the echoes of 
his booming had hardly ceased to 
reverberate in the popular science 
columns of magazines, when there 
was a pause and silence fell. The 
leaf had passed from dealer to man- 
ufacturer, had been worked into 
cigars and tested by the consumer 
and neither dealer, manufacturer or 
smoker wanted any more of it. 
They all had their prejudices, and 
the leaf was obviously lacking in 
strength and "finish" ; its flavor was 
often bad, and it was clear that the 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECT J CUT 






?•* *~~w H^hH 






GIRLS EMPLOYED IN THE SORTING ROOM 
OF A TOBACCO WAREHOUSE 

business of growing and handling it 
had yet to be learned. So the 
prophecies failed, the tongues ceased 
and the companies vanished away, 
entailing great financial losses. I 
still believe, however, that there 
may be a fair profit in some type of 
shade-grown tobacco, when the 
business of raising and handling it 
has been learned. We are still 
working at it, but it should be 
remembered that new industrial 
enterprises come not by the beating 
of tom-toms, but by careful study 
and experiment. Shady things, like 
Jonah's gourd, which grow in a 
night, are likely to vanish as quick- 
ly as they came. 

The Station has also done some 
experimental work in the fermenta- 
tion of tobacco. The present 
method is to pack the tobacco, 
after sorting and sizing, into cases, 
tier them up in the warehouse, let 
them lie from four to six months 
or more, with the trembling hope 
that the leaf will be found, in the 
fall, well-fermented and sound, not 
decayed, musty or mouldy, as too 
often happened. There was no op- 
portunity to watch the course of the 
fermentation or to do anything if it 
was going wrong. By the other 
method, universally used in Florida, 
Sumatra and elsewhere, the tobacco 
is piled up in "hands" on a low 
platform, very evenly in a heap, 
called a "bulk," five feet wide, six 
or seven feet high, and as long as 
is necessary. This is covered with 



blankets and then with rubber 
cloth. The air of the room where 
this is done is kept quite damp and 
at a temperature or trom seventy- 
five to ninety degrees Fahrenheit. 
The temperature within the bulk, 
shown by ingeniously contrived 
thermometers which can be read 
by a telephone connection without 
disturbing them, rises at the rat 
ten degrees in twenty-four hours, 
and when it reaches one hundred 
and twenty-five to one hundred and 
thirty degrees the bulk is made over 
in another place, the tobacco being 
shaken out and cooled in the pro- 
cess. 

In this second bulk the heat r 
more slowly and a longer time 
elapses before it is necessary to 
turn it. Usually the second turn- 
ing is enough, and in about six 
weeks' time, instead of six months, 
required by the old process, the 
fermentation is done and the leaf 
may be "cased down" to age a while 
in a room at about sixty- five to 
seventy degrees. This method in- 
volves more work than the old way, 
but has these three great advan- 
tages: a saving of several months 
in the time required, a uniform fer- 
mentation through the whole n 
of tobacco — whereas the tobacco 
next the sides of cases had to be 
"re-sweat" under the old meth 
and, most important of all, a reduc- 
tion to the minimum of all chance 
of damage to the tobacco in the 
fermentation. Much of the d m; ge 
to cased tobacco comes during the 
time when it lies cold, waiting 
the turning of the seas< ns to bring 
it warmth and start the tenru I 
tion. But there is no such waiting 
in the bulk. Moreover, the | 
cess can be followed from 
-dav, and any defect in its I 
of wetness or dryness imm 
corrected. This method, or > 
modification of it, will, we 
in time supplant the old metl 
which is at present chiefly ns 



348 



THE GROWING OF TOBACCO IN CONNECTICUT 



Another line of work in which the 
Division of Plant Industry of the 
United States Department of Agri- 
culture are now working-, with good 
prospect of success, is in the im- 
provement of the crop, in yield, in 
uniformity, in quality and in resist- 
ance to disease by the careful selec- 
tion and breeding of seed. When 
one considers what wonderful 
changes have been wrought in 
wheat, corn, sugar beets and other 
crops, by such work, he cannot 
doubt the possibility of good results 
with tobacco. 

Regarding the profits of tobacco 
growing, the most diverse opinions 
prevail, some believing it to be ex- 
tremely profitable, others holding 
that it exhausts the land and finally 
leaves the grower in poverty. 



Whether the business is profita- 
ble or ruinous depends wholly on 
the soil on which it is raised and 
the business ability of the grower. 
It has been raised continuously for 
forty years on some fields in the 
state and the quality of the leaf is 
better to-day than it was at first. 
But unless the soil is well suited to 
the crop, and unless the farmer 
knows his business, understands 
business methods, is keen to see his 
opportunities, and devotes himself 
wholly to his work, he cannot make 
money in growing tobacco — or in 
anything else. 

No Connecticut tobacco farmers 
have become rich in the business, 
many have made utter failure, a 
fair proportion are making a com- 
fortable living for their families. 



PASTORAL 



REVERIE 



BY 

JOHN H. GUERNSEY 

I was settin' by the winder, on a hottish afternoon, 

When the music of the mower was a-minglin' with the tune 

Of a locust in the maple that was waitin' for a breeze, 

An' the robins was a-hidin' from the heat among the trees ; 

The pullets was a-pantin' to the tinkle of a bell 

That was chimin' from the alders for a shady little spell ; 

There wasn't much a-doin', 'cept the bees along the lot 

Where the clover grows a-plenty with the sweet forget-me-not. 



An' I looked a-down the valley where the medders rolled along, 

An' the bendin' grain an' grasses hummed a happy harvest song, 

An' a head o' rye kep' noddin', like another that I knew 

When the noddin' follered "poppin'," an' the love was creepin' through; 

An' the noddin's been a keepin' as the harvests come an' go, 

When the medder's white with daisies, or the medder's white with snow; 

Tho' the sun ain't alius shinin' we're as happy when he's hid, 

An' I'm feelin' sort o' thankful that she nodded when she did! 




SEAL OF THE CITY OF BRIDGEPORT 

Designed by Julian H.Sterling 



RIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



SECOND PART OF DESCRIPTIVE ARTICLE ON THK 
BUILDING OF ONE OF CONNECTICUT'S L\R(,}V| 
CITIES HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF LEADING EVENTS 



JULIAN H. STERLING 



THE growth of Bridgeport 
since 1836, when the city was 
incorporated, to the present 
time, has been phenomenal. 
The reasons for such growth are 
various but the general prosperity 
is due largely to the manufacturing 
interests and all that they imply. 
The present-day population is a 
new species, and many speak a 
strange tongue. The mills have 
given employment to many wage 
earners and have drawn in great 
numbers from the Slavonic races. 
These are simple, honest and indus- 
trious, yet there are many inhabi- 
tants in the city of Bridgeport with 
a background illuminated with an 
illustrious ancestry. 

The god of commerce held sway 
previous to 1836, when the shipping 
interests were paramount. There 
was no railroad then between 



Bridgeport and New York, and 
commercial transactions were car- 
ried on either by steamboat or 
packet. Beside the coasters, there 
was a West India trade and whaling, 
and not a few ships plied between 
this harbor and foreign ports, 
to this time the harbor and the 
Pequonncck River possessed pic- 
turesque attractions that have Ion- 
since disappeared. On either ban^ 
of the river stood well-kept home 
steads, and as far north as B 
shire Mill seafaring vessels « 
built; this was the head of naviga- 
tion. 

Above the present "Lumber 
Street" many ships of large ton: 
were const ructed and launched, and 
at Moore's ship yard (now Gr< g 
coal yard) were built many notable 
merchantmen. To-day, by reas 
of the city's system of sew... . 



35© BRJ DGEPO RT — A STORY OF PROGRESS 




By Courtesy of The 
VIEWS OF BRIDGEPORT HARBOR Marigold-Fonter Printing.Co. 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGREl 






the extending of property lines out 
from either side of the river to the 
channel, the once broad harbor is 
contracted to a sort of canal, not 
wide enough for a good-sized steam- 
boat to turn in or a vessel of 
any great proportions to navigate. 
Rolling mills, lumber and coal 
yards, gas works and slaughter 
nouses flank the river, and together 
with the various sewers which 
empty into it, have changed the 
once beautiful water scope, into a 
polluted drain for a progressive 
manufacturing city, and pictur- 
esqueness has been sacrificed 
to prosperity. With the devel- 
opment of the railroad, the steam- 
boat and the trolley lines, the ship- 
ping interests, except in a few in- 
stances have become almost extinct. 
The complexion, as well as the 
aromatic flavor of the harbor, has 
become so completely altered that 
biennially it is promised that appro- 
priations are to be forthcoming 
from Congress to dredge the harbor 
and restore its naturally bracing 
sea air of long ago. Unfortunately, 
the promises are political and 
flourish just preceding the election, 
and, with the harbor, are so nar- 
rowing down that in a few years we 
may have neither one or the other. 
However, "with the march of em- 
pire" pastoral beauty must be sac- 
rificed to the more material; these 
changes are inevitable and what is 
lost in picturesqueness is gained to 
the advantage of business interests. 
However inartistic these moderniz- 
ing influences may be they are at 
least indicative of growing pros- 
perity. 

In a preceding article I reviewed 
much of the early history and there- 
fore merely refer to it now. From 
the beginning of Stratfield in 1691 
afterwards Newfield until 1800, and 
then the town of Bridgeport until 
1836, the church figured largely in 
the government. It is from the 
strong characters of many of these 
old churchmen that the foundation 




352 BRIDGEPORT— A S T O R Y OF P R O G R E S S 




THE FIRST HARBOR LIGHT WAS A LANTERN 
Hung from the end of a mast 



,o, , By Courtesy of 
10 44 Bridgeport Standard 



was laid. The names of families 
prominent in the history of Bridge- 
port from its birth are still identi- 
fied with its affairs, and it is both 
instructive and entertaining to fol- 
low some of these strains of Colon- 



ial "blue-blood" down to the pres- 
ent time. 

The first church was the[Stratfield 
meeting house established in 1691. 
It is from this little church and its 
small band of settlers that Bridge- 




THE FIRST LIGHTHOUSE 1855 

Taking off the keeper in a storm 



By Courtesy of 
Bridgeport Standard 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRE 



353 



nn 




THE BERKSHIRE MILL AND BRIDGE 
Head of navigation and first seat of commerce 



By Coorl 

Bridget '•" standard 



port developed. Some of them that 
may be recalled are: Richard 
Hubbell, Mathew Sherwood, David 
Sherman, Samuel Bardsley, Isaac 
Wheeler, John Odell, Samuel 
Gregory and Jacob Sterling. This 
society thrived and grew until forty- 
six householders replaced the first 
meeting house in 17 17 by a more 
pretentious edifice, which stood 
upon the northwest corner of North 
and Park avenues, where it re- 
mained until 1835. Afterwards the 
parish meeting house was trans- 
ferred to the corner of Bank and 
Broad streets and has ever since 
been known as the First Congrega- 
tional Society. 

The descendants of the first set- 
tlers have always been identified 
with the First Congregational Socie- 
ty. To belong to a family which 
has earned well deserved respect, 
to be able to look back upon fore- 
fathers who have lived well and 
bravely, to know that before you 
existed your father, grandfather, 
and his father before him, who 



spoke for freedom and pleaded the 
cause of the people — this is indeed 
a sacred birthright. An inheri- 
tance of money may or may not be 
a desirable thing, but an inheri- 
tance of character, an ancestry 01 
generous, true hearted men who 
did justly and loved mercy — this is 
a thing that kings might covet. 

In investigating old records and 
tracing the evolution of Bridgeport, 
I have very naturally gathered 
much regarding the Sterling family 
which may be of interest in this 
writing. Following Jacob Sterling, 
and his son Stephen, both of whom 
were prominent in the affairs of the 
First Congregational Society, came 
Abijah Sterling, born in 1745. He 
became an influential figure in the 
society and at the first meeting 
the Borough of Bridgeport, in 1^ 
he presided as moderator. He hail 
fought in the American Revolution 
as a captain and had won distinc- 
tion. He was a tall, spare, indefa- 
tigable man, ot sagacity, acute 
and strong moral sense. He was 



354 B RI DGEP ORT—A S T O R Y O F P R O G R R S S 




BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRE 







BRIDGEPORT POST-OFFICE AND CUSTOM HOUSE 

Corner Broad and Cannon streets— Site of old St. John's Church — The government has just cnmpletl 
addition to this building costing about $100, "co, to accommodate the increasing re. 



justice of the peace, an umpire in All of these were members of the 

all disputes, and the general pacifi- First Congregational Society and 

cator. Notable among Captain together with such men as Major 

Abijah Sterling's compeers were Aaron Hawley, Stephen Summers, 

Amos Hubbell, Joseph Lacy, John William De Forest, St 

S. Cannon, Salmon Hubbell, Lam- roughs, Daniel Sterling and I 

bert Lockwood, Isaac Hinman, Sterling, they serin to have not 

Isaac Sherman and William Peet. only looked after the spiritual we! 



356 BRID G EPORT—A STORY OF PROGRESS 




FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH 



By Courtesy of The 
Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 




ST. JOHNS EPISCOPAL CHURCH 
Corner Fairfield and Park avenues 



By Courtesy of 
Bridgeport Standard 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OB PROGRE 






fare of the community, but the gov- 
ernment as well. 

A dozen years after the town of 
Bridgeport was incorporated came 
the War of 1812. British men-of- 
war stood off the harbor and threat- 
ened this community, Black Rock 
and Fairfield. Because of the 
blockade the little band of inhabi- 
tants in Bridgeport became short of 
flour. The only way to secure this 
staff of life was from New York. 
No coaster dare venture from the 
harbor for fear of British cannon, 
but in the emergency Daniel Ster- 
ling, son of Captain Abijah Sterling, 
volunteered to man a yawl with a 
picked crew and row sixty miles to 
New York for flour. The boat 
made its escape from Bridgeport 
harbor in the night-time. After 
ten days the weary oarsmen came 
back with a boat load of flour 
and attempted to make the harbor 
under the shadows of night but 
were discovered and fired upon. 




by Courtesy ol Brfdgepi i B 
THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 
Corner State street and Myrtle avenue 




M 



WASHINGTON PARK METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



358 



B RIDGEP ORT—A STORY OF PROGRESS 




By Courtesy of The Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

BUILDING 
Corner Main and Gilbert streets — Erected in 1891 at an 
expense of $150,000 — Chauncey M. Depew, orator at 
laying of corner stone 



The boat was repeatedly endan- 
gered, but no one was injured and 
the flour was safely landed. This, 
exploit exasperated the British and 
they turned their fire upon Grover 
Hill, Black Rock, where a tem- 
porary fort had been flung up. 
Subsequently, a party of mariners- 
landed and marched to Fairfield, 
where they burned the town hall 
and entered the famous old Benson 
Inn. One of the officers drew his 
sword and struck the old hotel clock 
across the face, exclaiming, "We 
stop time!" The blow disfigured 
the dial, cut off the minute hand and 
stopped the works. Landlord Ben- 
son said, "Let that clock always 
stay as it is. It marks the time a 
British officer ceased to be a gen- 
tleman. " That identical clock still 
stands in the old Benson Inn in 
Fairfield. It has -come down 
through generations, and is wor- 
shipped as one of the household gods. 
It stands in the great hallway, its 
face cleft, and one of its hands cut 




HOME OF THE SEASIDE CLUB 
Corner State and Lafayette streets 



By Courtesy of The 
Marigold-Foster Printing, Co. 



BRIDGEPORT—A STORY OF PROGRE, 



5 35'> 




By Courtesy of Th 
BRIDGEPORT PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDING 






be 

N 

2 

Oi 



off, just as it stopped ninety-three 
years ago. After the War of 1812 
Daniel Sterling- went to sea and be- 
came master and owner of a num- 
ber of ships. He sailed between 
New York and Liverpool, and after 
the battle of Waterloo in 1814 he 
ade a number of trips to Russia. 
On one of these voyages Captain 
Sterling was accompanied by his 
wife, a daughter of Colonel Agur 
Judson of Huntington. She was 
the first American woman to visit 



Archangel, Russia, and the in:.. 
tants made much of her and pre- 
sented her with a number or" gifts. 
These have been treasured and are 
to-day in the collection of relics in 
the building of the Fairfield County 
Historical Society. 

When the year 1836 arrived, C 
tain Daniel Sterling, ':•■ 
his inheritance from his fat] 
Captain Abijah Sterling, was 
of the largest land owners of the 
town. He had also made a fortl 



3 6 ° 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



as a ship owner and was one of the 
leading men of the place. He had 
built a hotel on Main street, front- 
ing Wall street; he was one of the 
incorporators and directors of the 
Connecticut Bank ;' he was treasurer 
of the First Congregational Society, 
and as his father before him had 
been instrumental in making "New- 
field" the town of Bridgeport, he, 
the son, labored to make it a city. 
, Captain Daniel Sterling inaugur- 
ated the movement and was one of 
the original incorporators; in recog- 



side Park. His wife was president 
of the Soldiers' Aid Society, which 
raised funds for the soldiers' 
monument. Mrs. Sterling laid the 
cornerstone, and General Joseph R. 
Hawley delivered the oration, and 
at the dedication of the monument 
in 1876 the oration was by Mayor 
Sterling. 

Mayor Sterling secured for the 
city the first steam fire engine. It 
was named by the Common Council 
"D. H. Sterling No. 1." The name 
remains over the doors of the fire 




By Courtesy of The Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 
FIRST COURT HOUSE — -NOW CITY HALL 
On State street — Erected in 1855 



nition of this he was chosen mayor 
in 1837. His son, Daniel H. Ster- 
ling, succeeded his father as treas- 
urer of the First Congregational 
Society, and retained that office 
until his death, March i, 1877. He 
also succeeded his father as a 
director in the Connecticut Bank 
and afterwards became president of 
the bank, which office he held until 
his death. During the years 1860- 
61-62 he was thrice elected mayor 
and was known as the war-mayor. 
He was influential in the erection 
of the soldiers' monument at Sea- 



engine house on John street to-day. 
This steamer was the nucleus of the 
present superior fire system which, 
with its steam trucks, fire bells, and 
general apparatus, stands second to 
none in the state of Connecticut. 

It was my pleasure as the only 
son of D. H. Sterling to design the 
seal of the city of Bridgeport, which 
was adopted by the Common Coun- 
cil in 1873 and has ever since been 
affixed to all official documents. 
The original design is in possession 
of the Fairfield County Historical 
Society. 



BRIDGE PO RT— A STORY OF PROGRES, 



Y> 




CAPTAIN DANIEL STERLING 

It was with the advent of the rail- 
road that Bridgeport's great indus- 
trial growth began. By the year 
1840 the old Housatonic railroad 
was finished; in 1848 the Naugatuck 
road, and in 1849 the New York 
and New Haven was in operation. 
It was then that Bridgeport jumped 
from her swaddling clothes and by 
rapid strides advanced to man's 
estate. The railroads gave a tre- 
mendous impetus to all forms of 
business enterprise, and many im- 
portant industries were started. The 
prosperity of the railroad, however, 
has been even greater than that of 
the city, until to-day it may be 
truthfully said the railroad can 
get along without Bridgeport, but 
Bridgeport cannot get along with- 
out the railroad. Alfred Bishop, 
the contractor who built these lines 
of transportation, made a fortune 
thereby, and came to Bridgeport to 
reside. 

During the eighteen 'forties 
various religious denominations 
erected churches and to these have 
been added others until to-day there 
are fifty-six. From the first church 
with forty-six families we now have 



a city of nearly ninety thousand 
inhabitants. From the original 
list of three hundred dollars the 
grand list of 1905 is sixty-five mil- 
lions; the excise revenue alone 
$426,000 annually. 

Other marks ot advancement dur- 
ing the 'forties were the establish- 
ment of Bunnell's mills at North 
Bridgeport, the paper mills, 
Berkshire flour mills, the rope walk 
and the big stone carriage factor v 
by Hubbell and Haight In the 
city proper was started Tomlinson 
and Woods carriage factory, the 
Harral and Calhoun saddlery shop, 
Motts carriage factory, Fenolon 
Hubbell's furniture factory, spt 
and axle companies, and vari 
lesser industries. 

In the 'fifties several notable men 
became distinguished in the com- 
munity, among them Rev. Nathan 
iel Hewit. Previous to this the 
South Congregational Church bad 
been founded as an cffshcot from 
the First Congregational Society. 
The latter was afterwards called 
North Church because of its loca- 
tion north of the South Church. 




D A.NIEL ii. s r E K i IN< 



3 62 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 




REV. DR. NATHANIEL HEWIT 

Dr. Hewit was pastor of the South 
Church and his creed gradually 
assumed that of the Presbyterian 
faith with the result that he with- 
drew from the South Church, fol- 
lowed by a large proportion of the 
congregation. Among Dr. Hewit's 
adherents was John Brooks, a 
wealthy captain of steamboats, who 
gave largely toward a fund to con- 
struct a church which was erected 
on Myrtle avenue and called "Dr. 
Hewit's church." Afterwards it 
was called the First Presbyterian 
Church, and the edifice was pro- 
vided with a spire that was taller 
than any in the city. Captain 
Brooks, when coming up the Sound 
on his steamboat, always directed 
Ms pilot to "steer by Dr. Hewit's 
spire." This tall spire exasperated 
the South Church people It 
reached nearer to the firmament 
than the old wooden South Church 
steeple and so Deacon Sherwood 
Sterling and his cousin, Deacon 
George Sterling, each gave one- 
third, the society the other third, 
towards a new building. It was 



early in the 'sixties before the new 
South Church was completed. Sher- 
wood Sterling was a grandson of 
Captain Abijah Sterling. He was 
elected mayor in 1847 and '48. For 
sixteen years he was representative 
to the General Assembly and was 
president of the City National Bank 
at the time of his death in 1869. 
Deacon George Sterling was also a 
grandson of Captain Abijah Ster- 
ling and he founded and endowed 
"The Sterling Home," which stands 
on West Prospect street, an institu- 
tion of great value to the city. 

After Dr. Hewit died the Pres- 
byterian Church was burned, some 
said according to the orthodox, but 
Captain Brooks believed diiferently 
and was the first to give generously 
towards the handsome stone edifice 
erected on State street and known 
as the ' ' First Presbyterian Church. ' ' 

In 185 1 a move was made by P. 
T. Barnum to develop East Bridge- 
port. At first this was a complete 
failure. In my preceding article I 
casually mentioned Barnum's influ- 
ence on early Bridgeport. In 1851 







CxENERAL WILLIAM H. NOBLE 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OR J- ROOK p. 



3*3 




PORTRAIT OF P. T. BARNUM 



ltv Coortesj ><i The 
Marigold 



Barnum had gained notoriety as a 
showman. He had exhibited "Joice 
Heath, the Fiji Mermaid," "the 
Woolly Horse" and'* Captain John 
Smith's club," all of which he 
makes mention in his book "Strug- 
gles and Triumphs." Having ac- 
quired some money, he decided to 
invest in real estate in Bridgeport. 
He purchased from William H. 
Noble the undivided half of his 
father's — Birdsey G. Noble — estate, 
which consisted of the land that 
practically comprised East Bridge- 
port.']' This land was divided by 
streets into squares and the streets 
named after the families of both 



Barnum and Noble. Barnum in- 
duced Haight and Hubbell to put 
up a large carriage factory in 1 
Bridgeport, and then entered into • 
contract with the Jerome CI 
Company to equip a factory in Bast 
Bridgeport with one thousand op- 
eratives. In the meanth&e he de- 
veloped his circus and museum and 
the country rang with the name of 
"Barnum, the Prince of Showmen. *' 
In the midst, apparently of all this 
wealth, Barnum failed. It was dis- 
covered that he had placed all his 
property in the name of his w 
Charity Barnum, and that the car. so 
of his failure was owing to the 



3 6 4 



B RI DGEP O R T—A STORY OF PROGRESS 




STATUE OF P. T. BARNU: 



By Courtesy of The Marigold -Foster Printing Co. 
AT SEASIDE PARK 



Jerome Clock Company. East 
Bridgeport, because of the failure, 
was seriously set back. 

However, in 1856, the Wheeler & 
Wilson Sew T ing Machine Company 
removed from Watertown to East 
Bridgeport and started the plant 
which has grown until its propor- 
tions to-day are enormous. This is 
what made East Bridgeport. Then 
came the skilled mechanics and 
homes, stores and churches were 
erected. Then followed the Union 
Metallic Cartridge Company, the 
Repeating Arms Company, the 
Bridgeport Brass Company, the 



silk factory, the Silver Steel 
Works, the Hotchkiss Company, the 
Howe Sewing Machine Company, 
and a score more of industries. The 
horse railroad was started in East 
Bridgeport by Nathaniel Wheeler 
and as president of the Wheeler & 
Wilson Company, ably seconded by 
such men as Elias Howe, who built 
the Howe sewing machine factory in 
East Bridgeport, and Hotchkiss 
Sons, and Frank Armstrong, as well 
as the Glover Sanford Sons and A. 
C. Hobbs, soon transformed East 
Bridgeport from a barren waste into 
the beautiful city it is to-day. 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 365 




BARNUM INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND HISTORY Brldgejort^undart 

Home of the Fairfield County Historical Society and the Bridgeport Scientific Society 



In the 'fifties the water company 
was started, and so was the gas 
works. The latter was situated in 
the harbor above East Washington 
avenue, and John Tarbox was the 
superintendent. The old gas com- 
pany was an important institution; 



there was the gas-house cannon fired 
on all occasions on the smallest 
pretext, the gas-house Fountain 
Hose Company, the gas-house 
double-ripper which won fame and 
victories coasting during the winter 
season, the gas-house flag and 'the 







THE BRIDGEPORT HIGH SCHOOL 
On Congress street 



1U Coun - 
Bridgeport Standard 



3 66 



B RTDG EPORT—A STORY OF PROGRESS 




NATHANIEL WHEELER 

gas-house gong. That plant is now 
closed and at the present day the 
city is supplied by the west end 
plant. 

Politically, Bridgeport has gained 
wide influence. The first state sena- 
tor, in 1833, was Philip A. Cannon, 
the present occupant of the honor is 
Allen W. Paige. The first repre- 
sentative to the General Assembly 
was General Enoch Foote, in 1822. 
In 1889 the city and town govern- 
ments were consolidated. In 1691 
the first schoolhouse was erected. 
In 1876 it was, voted to consolidate 
the old school districts under one 
system and establish the free public 
schools. April 12, 1876, a board of 
education was chosen with James 
C. Loomis, president, and Daniel 
H. Sterling, vice-president. The 
estimated value of school property 
to-day, including land and build- 
ings, is $1,250,000. 

To properly set forth the history 
of Bridgeport during the War of the 
Rebellion would require a volume 
by itself. The city government was 
in the control of the Republican 
party, and at the head was Mayor 
Daniel H. Sterling, who held the 



reins with firm and judicious hands 
during those trying days. He 
raised over his private residence an 
American flag the day Fort Sump- 
ter surrendered. That flag re- 
mained night and day, summer and 
winter, and through the darkest 
hours of the war, to cheer all those 
who believed in the stars and 
stripes. After the Grand Army had 
established its post here, that old 
flag was presented to that organiza- 
tion and remains among the war 
relics of the post. 

No story of Bridgeport would be 
complete without a reference at 
least to Elias Howe. No eulogy or 
praise loftier than the highest 
thought could maintain the rever- 
ence for his memory which the 
patriotic citizens of Bridgeport hold 
sacred. Elias Howe, inventor of 
the Howe sewing machine, and who 
originated the idea of placing the 
eye in the point of the needle, came 
to Bridgeport and built the Howe 
sewing machine factory in East 
Bridgeport. Because of the patent 
he held, all sewing machine 
manufacturers paid royalty to 
him. He rapidly amassed a great 




By Courtesy of The Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 
SOLDIERS' MONUMENT AT SEASIDE PARK 



BRIDGEPORT—A STORY OF PROGRESS 



|6l 




ELIAS HOWE, JR. 

fortune, and bought "Iranistan," an 
immense tract of land once the 
home of P. T. Barnum, and pro- 
posed to build a palace upon the 
site of the oriental villa called 
<l Iranistan" burned ten years ear- 
lier; but the civil war broke out 
and Elias Howe, instead of build- 



ing his palace, enlisted as a common 
private in the Seventeenth Connec- 
ticut Regiment. His pride was his 
luxuriant hair, and this he hurried- 
ly cut off; he slept in straw with his 
company in camp at Seaside Park 
and then when the regiment 
marched away he stood with his 
comrades shoulder to shoulder in 
line, carrying his musket and haver- 
sack, the people of Bridgeport won- 
dering why he preferred to be a 
private rather than an officer. 
William H. Noble was colonel, and 
the regiment met much hard ser- 
vice. Colonel Noble was promoted 
to general for bravery, and Elias 
Howe with the rest endured the 
hardships of the campaign. At 
length the government failed to pay 
off the soldiers at the front. The 
war had embarrassed the funds, but 
Elias Howe sent back here to 
Bridgeport and from his own pri- 
vate bank account drew out the 
money to pay off the Seventeenth 
Connecticut Regiment in full, offi- 
cers and men, while other regiments 
remained unpaid. These monthly 
payments Elias Howe continued for 




VIEW IN WASHINGTON PARK 



Nlarlgi 



368 B RI DGEPORT—A S T O R Y O F P R O G R E S S 




By Courtesy of 
Bridgeport Standi 



VIEW ON CEDAR CREEK, MOUNTAIN G ROVE CEMETERY 



many months, contributing over a 
million dollars, which in those days 
was a great fortune. He was 
offered a commission, but declined 
it and at length becoming ill, he 
was granted a leave of absence and 
came back to Bridgeport and died. 
Such was Elias Howe, a man who 
lived in those great days with men 
whose tread shook the earth. He 
lived and died in Bridgeport and his 
memory is one of the most precious 
treasures the city can possess. A 
monument has been erected to him 
at Seaside Park over the identical 
spot where he slept in bivouac on 
his bed of straw, and the Grand 
Army Post of this city is named in 
his honor — a man who sacrificed 
his fortune and his life for his 
country. 

A picturesque locality in the 
western section of the town is that 
"city of the dead" — Mountain Grove 
Cemetery. It was established in 
1850 and the first interment was the 
little daughter of Dr. Judson in 



1851. Since then 39,000 funeral 
processions have passed under the 
stone arch and memorial gateway 
at the cemetery entrance. This 
beautiful structure was built with 
the proceeds from a concert given 
by the famous singer, Kate Hayes. 
In recent years a memorial gateway 
has been erected, at the entrance 
of the old Stratfield burying ground 
near Mountain Cemetery, by the 
Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion during the term of Mrs. Morris 
B. Beardsley's regency. On tablets, 
in the face of the masonry are the 
names of the soldiers who fought 
in the American Revolution and 
are buried in the old cemetery. 

A picturesque locality is Beards- 
ley Park, on the east bank of the 
Pequonnock River, in North Bridge- 
port. This large area, abounding 
in natural beauty, was presented as 
a free gift to the city of Bridgeport 
by the late James Beardsley. Re- 
cently a movement has been started 
to erect a monument to the donor 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 369 




ByCourteaj of rin- MurlgoMUFwl 1 Pi* 
STATUE OF ELI AS HOWE, JR., AT SEASIDE PARK 



370 BRIDGEPORT— A S T O R Y O F P R O G R E S S 




iJy Courtesy of Bridgeport Standan 
GATEWAY AT ENTRANCE TO MOUNTAIN GROVE CEMETERY 




VIEW IN BEARDSLEY PARK 



By Courtesy of Tl e 
Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORYOFPROGRRSS 



3 7 1 



and the city has subscribed $10,000 
towards the project. 

Seaside Park, stretching- along 
the Sound from Bridgeport harbor 
to Black Rock, and the finest park 
in New England, was originally 
started by subscription, and a de- 
tailed account of the proceedings 
are to be found in the columns of 
the Bridgeport Standard of August 
21, 1865. The principal donors 
were Nathaniel Wheeler, Frederick 
Wood, Francis Ives, Captain John 
Brooks, Captain Burr Knapp, P. T. 
Barnum, George Bailey and Henry 
Wheeler. In addition to these was 
a long list of subscribers and, to- 
gether with funds and gifts of land, 
a large portion of the area skirting 
the shore was secured for the pur- 
pose of a public park and presented 
to the city on condition that the 
city should lay out and maintain 
the same. Seaside Park was there- 
fore opened in 1865, driveways laid 
out, and in 1866 began band con- 
certs by the Wheeler & Wilson Band 
under leadership of Hubbell Blish. 
Since the foundation of the park 
this section has become valuable 
for residential purposes. It has 




By Courtesy of The Iflarlgold-Focter I'm • 
BERGH FOUNTAIN AT ENTR 
SEASIDE PARK 




Bridgeport's pleasure ground — seaside p\kk 

Overlooking Long Island Sound— Occupying 125 acres of land, with magniiuc. ; .»nd nalks. and famous 

seawall along entire front 



372 BRIDGEPO R T—A STORY OF PROGRESS 




THE BRIDGEPORT HOSPITAL 
Erected in 1884 at expense of over $100,000 



By Courtesy of The 
Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 



''■''.."■ t'':t> 






■%&■ 




By Courtesy of The Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 
HOME OF BRIDGEPORT YACHT CLUB, BLACK ROCK HARBOR 



BRIDGEPORT-A STORY OF PROGRE 



373 



been erroneously understood by 
many outside of Bridgeport that 
P. T. Barnutn individually gave Sea- 
side Park to the city. Mr. Barnum's 
actual subscription was $1,500, half 
that of several others, and by 
reason of his large land holdings 
adjoining the park it was a profit- 
able investment for the indefa- 



of the locality is unsur- 
it to-day is nature's great 



beauty 
passed; 
play-ground. 

Financially Bridgeport has gained 
much prestige during the last few 
years. The first bank established 
was the Bridgeport Bank in 1806. 
The second was the Connecticut in 
1831 and the principal incorporators 




FAIRFIELD COUNTY COURT HOUSE 
Golden Hill street— Cost $150,000— Completed and occupied in i?S> 



15\ Courtesy of The 
Marigold 



tigable'showman. After Mr. Bar- 
num's death James A Bailey, sole 
owner of the Barnum & Bailey's 
"Greatest Show on Earth," pre- 
sented to the city of Bridgeport a 
five-ton bronze statue of the dead 
showman, and by private subscrip- 
tion [funds were raised for a stone 
base. The* Barnum statue was 
placed in 'f Seaside Park. The 



and subscribers were Cyrus' II . 
Beardsley (father of Judge Sidney 
B. Beardsley), Enoch Foote ami 
Captain Daniel Sterling. Next fol- 
lowed the Farmers' Bank in tl 
the Pequonnock Bank in 1851, and 
the City Bank in 1852. Th 
now national banks. To day there 
are also five savings banks, and sev- 
eral private banks, all nourishi: 



374 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



Gharitability is also a characteris- 
tic of the city. Numerous institu- 
tions have been established, among 
them the Bridgeport Hospital, the 
Boys' Club, the Free City Library, 
the Orphan Asylum, the Burroughs' 
Home, the Ladies' Charitable So- 
ciety, the Protestant Widows' Home, 
the Sanford Orphanage, the Board 
of Public Charities, social clubs, 
yacht clubs and a well-appointed 
Country Club. 



Board of Trade. By broad and 
liberal treatment this board has in- 
duced a large proportion of the 
manufacturers to locate here, and 
instead of the old rope walk and a 
carriage factory, we now have the 
strongest manufacturing center in 
the state and an increasing population 
that will soon place Bridgeport in the 
ranksof thelargest and most progres- 
sive industrial cities in this 
country. 



If* 




THE ARCADE HOTEL 

This finely appointed hotels conducted by Swan B. Brewster, stands on Main street at the head of Wall street, and 
occupies the site of the famous old hostelry built by Captain Daniel Sterling, about 1836 



Besides the Fire Department the 
city takes pride in its Police De- 
partment; its various boards of 
commissioners, its system of public 
schools and its historical and scien- 
tific societies. 

In summarizing: to arrive at the 
conditions as they exist to-day, first 
came the railroads and then manu- 
factories, but these could not have 
made the city what it is had it not 
been for the wise, careful and ju- 
dicious diplomacy of the Bridgeport 



The transition of Bridgeport from 
an unimportant village to a railroad 
and industrial center was in the 
highest degree attributable to the 
efforts of two men — Alfred Bishop, 
who promoted and built the three 
railroads centering here, and his 
son, William D. Bishop, who, on the 
death of his father, carried on 
the work which he had begun, 
and devoted his life to the suc- 
cessful conduct of those enter- 
prises. 




St 




370 



BRIDGEPORT— A S T R Y O F P R G R E S S 



Alfred Bishop was born in Stam- 
ford, Connecticut, December 21, 
1798, a direct descendant from the 
Rev. John Bishop, the second min- 
ister of the Presbyterian Church 
there. His boyhood gave no indi- 
cation of his future success. He, 
as a great many boys who have 
achieved more than the usual 
amount of success in after life, was 
a teacher in one of the public 
schools. Shortly after his marriage 
to Mary, daughter of Ethan Ferris 
of Greenwich, he left Stamford for 
New Jersey, with the intention of 
becoming a farmer. As an incident 
to his farm work he ascertained the 
cost of handling earth, and this led 
him to eventually become a railroad 
contractor. While in New Jersey 
he built the Morris Canal and the 
bridge over the Raritan at New 
Brunswick. In 1836 he came with 
his family to Bridgeport, where he 
found plans just maturing for the 
construction of what afterwards be- 
came the Housatonic Railroad. He 
at once entered into the work with 
the promoters, and soon took upon 
himself the whole burden of raising 
money for the project, and con- 
structing the railroad when the 
money had been raised. In 1847 
he conceived the idea of connecting 
Bridgeport with the Naugatuck 
Valley by rail. He secured a char- 
ter, raised the necessary funds, and 
eventually constructed the road. In 
1848 he did the same for what is 
now the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford Railroad, and then, 
in the full maturity of his powers, 
he contracted a fatal illness, from 
which he died at the United States 
Hotel in Saratoga, June it, 1849 

No one of Alfred Bishop's con- 
temporaries is to-day living, but 
those who had seen and heard 
him in his public addresses, deliv- 
ered for the purpose of raising 
funds for the various enterprises in 
which he was interested, unite in 
saving that he was forcible and 
eloquent to an extraordinary de- 



gree; that frequently in addressing 
an audience which was composed 
of those most bitterly opposed to 
him and his plans, he would at 
the conclusion win each one of his 
hearers as an earnest advocate and 
well wisher. 

For some time prior to his death 
he realized that he had but a short 
time to live, and he spent time in 
preparing the most careful and ex- 
plicit directions for the conduct of 
the affairs he then had in hand, and 
for the care and distribution of his 
estate, which for those days, was 
very large. 

There is little doubt in the minds 
of those who knew the man that 
had his life been spared he would 
have achieved the greatest heights 
as a railroad man and financier. 
The plans which he was maturing 
at the time of his death were large 
and far reaching, and showed that 
almost prophetic foresight which is 
given to but few. 

After his death the burden of his 
affairs fell upon his son, William D. 
Bishop, who had only just received 
his degree from Yale University. 
His brother, the Rev. Ethan Ferris 
Bishop, shared in this work for a 
time, and then entered the ministry. 

William D. Bishop, although left 
in affluent circumstances, soon 
wearied of a life of idleness, and 
devoted himself to railroad work. 
The Schuyler fraud, which was dis- 
covered about this time, and which 
threatened ruin to all the stock- 
holders of the New York and New 
Haven Railroad, was a strong 
stimulant to young Bishop at the 
inception of his career. He was 
consecutively engaged in various 
capacities on the New York and 
New Haven Railroad and Nauga- 
tuck Railroad until 1857, when he 
was elected to Congress. He was 
the youngest man in the House of 
Representatives while there, and, 
as those who were associated with 
him while there say, one of the 
ablest and most eloquent. His 




/ftr/£^ji 



378 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



speech in favor of the so-called 
McCompton bill was considered one 
of the ablest efforts of the session, 
and so appealed to the leaders or 
the opposite party in the House 
and Senate that every effort was 
made to make him change his 
political creed, which, however, he 
refused to do. On the expiration of 
his term as Congressman he was 
defeated for the second term, and 
was subsequently appointed Commis- 
sioner of Patents under President 
Buchanan. On the expiration of his 
term of office he returned to his 
home and his chosen work, and be- 
came president of the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford Railroad; 
also president of the Naugatuck 
Railroad Company, and director of 
the Housatonic. He held the office 
of president until 1880, when failing 
health, the result of unremitting 
labor, compelled his resignation, 
which was accepted with the deepest 
regret by his associates, and deepest 
sorrow by his subordinates, who 
found that he was always ready to 
listen to any one of them who had 
been a victim of any injustice. 
Shortly after his resignation he be- 
came the president of the so-called 
Eastern Railroad Association, an 
organization formed by the rail- 
roads of the East for mutual protec- 
tion against patent suits. This had 
been a pet project of Mr. Bishop, 
and he filled the office of president 
uninterruptedly until the time of 
his death. He retained his interest 
in the New Haven road and its 
allied lines until the time of his 
death, attending all meetings of the 
board of directors, which it was 
possible for him to reach, and from 
November 11, 1899, until the time 
of his death he acted as vice-presi- 
dent of that organization and a 
member of its standing committee. 
In 1850 Mr. Bishop married Julia 
A. Tomlinson. daughter of the 
Hon. Russell Tomlinson, president 
of the Bridgeport Spring and Axle 
Company. 



For four or five years prior to 
his death, Mr. Bishop had been in 
rapidly failing health, but in spite 
of his physical infirmity he devoted 
himself even more strenuously to 
railroad work, using every effort in 
his power to secure the construc- 
tion of the new depot in Bridgeport 
and the elimination of grade cross- 
ings in the city. This extensive 
labor to his then frail physique 
resulted in his death, which oc- 
curred on the 4th of February, 1904. 
He was survived by his widow and 
five children, Russell T., William 
D, Henry A., Nathaniel W., and 
Mary F. Bishop. 

Mr. Bishop possessed to a marked 
degree many of the characteristics 
of his father, lacking, perhaps, his 
progressive ideas. He, however, 
conducted the properties with 
which he had become identified, and 
which his father had built, with 
splendid ability. 

He possessed to a great degree 
his father's eloquence in argument, 
adding to it a kindly sense of. 
humor, which went in many in- 
stances further towards persuading 
his hearers than the most fierce 
invective. As an after-dinner 
speaker his humor was quaint and 
pungent, but always kindly. He 
was extremely modest and unassum- 
ing in manner and appearance, pre- 
ferring to listen rather than take 
part in discussions until his opinion 
was asked for. In conversation he 
had the rare, if uncomfortable, 
faculty of revealing nothing of his 
own thoughts and absorbing all of 
the thought and idea of the person 
with whom he was conversing. 

He represented in the highest 
degree the old-time type railway 
director and official, whose highest 
ideal is to wisely and economically 
administer the properties intrusted 
to their care. His name remains 
to-day, and ever will remain, a 
synonym of all that is upright 
and straightforward in a business 
life. 



BRIDG EPORT—A STORY OF PROGRESS 



379 




z*\ 






;:£& 






* 



The genius of Allen B. Wilson 

in 1849 made possible one of the 

world's greatest industries, and 

the sound administrative policy 
of Nathaniel Wheeler and his associates is respon- 
sible for the transformation of the industry from 
the modest confines of 1854 in Watertown, Con- 
necticut, shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion, to the plant in Bridgeport as it appears 
to-day, employing about 2,000 hands. 

Mr. Wilson first conceived the idea of a sewing 
machine while engaged in his trade as a jour- 
neyman cabinet maker at Pittsfield, Massachus- 
etts. After months of application he constructed 
the first practical sewing machine and obtained 
a patent November 12, 1850. Other improved 
machines and patents followed, and during one 
of the exhibitions of his invention in New York 
in 1850, Nathaniel Wheeler became interested. 
Mr. Wheeler was then manager of the firm of 
Warren, Wheeler & Woodruff in Watertown, 
Connecticut, and foreseeing a great field for 
these machines, succeeded in forming a co-part- 
nership for their manufacture at Watertown, 
known as Wheeler, Wilson & Company, which 
name was changed October 5, 1853, to The 
Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Company, 
with a capital stock of $160,000. The following 
officers, who were among the incorporators, 
were elected: Alanson Warren, President; 
George P. Woodruff, Secretary and Treasurer 
and Nathaniel Wheeler, General Manager. On 
the resignation of Mr. Warren in 1855, Mr. 
Wheeler succeeded to the presidency, continuing 
as general manager also, both of which 
offices he held until his death, December ; ^k 

3 1 * l8 93- 

In 1856 the company removed from 
Watertown to Bridgeport, occupying the 
old Jerome Clock Company's factory. 

The company's capital stock was increased in 
July, 1859, to $400,000, and June 29, 1864, the 
company was granted a special charter by the 
State of Connecticut, and the capital stock was 
further increased to $1,000,000. After Nathaniel 
Wheeler's death in 1893, his son, Samuel H. 
Wheeler, succeeded to the presidency, which 
office he now holds. His present official asso- 
ciates are George M. Eames, vice-president, 
and Newton H. Hoyt. secretary and treasurer. 

The other general offices of the company were held for many years by 
Isaac Holden as vice-president, William H.Perry as general superintendent, 
secretary and treasurer, and Frederick Hurd as secretarv and treasurer. 



a 



3 8o 



BRI DGEPORT—A S T O R Y O F P RO G R E S S 




FACTORY BUILDINGS OF BIRDSEYE & SOMERS 



The corset industry in Bridgeport 
probably gives employment to a 
greater number of persons than any 
other line of manufacture in the 
city. Appreciating the natural ad- 
vantages of this locality as a manu- 
facturing center, Mr. I.W. Birdseye 
in 1880 established here a branch of 
his corset industry which was then 
located in Derby, Connecticut. 

The Bridgeport enterprise pros- 
pered, and as a concentration of in- 
terests was deemed advisable, in 
1898 the Derby business was re- 
moved to Bridgeport. 

The industry which for over 
twenty-five years has been under 
the direct supervision of Mr. Birds- 
eye, is known under the firm name 
of Birdseye & Somers, and the 
buildings of the extensive plant are 
substantial brick structures, equip- 
ped throughout with approved ma- 
chinery and appliances. The busi- 
ness gives employment to about 800 
skilled operatives and is classed 
among the few most prominent 



corset manufacturing concerns in 
the United States. 

Birdseye & Somers manufacture a 
great variety of corsets, their lead- 
ing brands being the celebrated "F. 
P." and "Armorside," which were 
awarded the grand prize at the 
World's Fair, St. Louis, in 1904. 
Mr. Thomas F. Somers, the partner 
of Mr. Birdseye, is in active charge 
of the company's New York sales- 
rooms at Broadway and Leonard 
street, and he supervises the 
branches in Boston, Chicago, St. 
Louis and San Francisco. The 
founder of the business, Mr. Isaac 
W. Birdseye, is prominent in city 
and state affairs, was former presi- 
dent of the Bridgeport Board of 
Trade, a state commissioner to the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and 
a presidential elector for Roosevelt 
and Fairbanks. He is a director in 
several of Bridgeport's banks and 
institutions, and is keenly inter- 
ested and personally active in the 
progress of the city. 



BRIDGEPORT—A STORY OF PROGRE 







THE THOMAS P. TAYLOR PLANT AT BRIDGEPORT 



The practical application of knowl- 
edge gained while acting in a cleri- 
cal capacity in one of Bridgeport's 
corset factories, and the resulting 
acquaintance with the growing 
market in articles for women's 
wear, induced Thomas P. Taylor 
seventeen years ago to add another 
to the then lengthy list of Bridge- 
port's industrial enterprises. His 
natural inventive genius was a 
great factor in the upbuilding of a 
business which to-day is recognized 
as one of the stable and prosperous 
industries of this great manufactur- 
ing city. Invention after invention 
has been patented, manufactured 
and successfully marketed through- 
out the country. This industry was 
started in a modest way in a small 
factory building, and gave employ- 
ment at its inception to about 
twenty-five hands. Each succeed- 
ing year has been marked by a 
gradual and healthy business in- 
crease until to-day the factory build- 
ings occupy an acre of ground, with 
a floor space of 60,000 square feet 
and Mr. Taylor gives steady em- 
ployment to 800 persons. 

The Taylor plant shown in the 
accompanying illustration covers an 



entire block fronting on Harral 
avenue, where busy hands are en- 
gaged in the manufacture of a large 
line of notions tor women's \\< 
such as hose supporters, dress Bta 
corset wires and clasps, bustles, 
belts and garters, embroidery hooks, 
safety pins and many other women's 
specialties. An important adjunct 
to this industry is a large plant for 
the manufacture of paper boxes 
which not only fulfills the com- 
pany's own requirement but sup- 
plies general consumers. 

A branch factory has recently 
been opened in London, England, 
where many of their specialties are 
made. This concern main: 
branch offices in New York, Chi- 
cago, Boston and London, and em- 
ploys a force of salesmen who 
cover the entire country. 

The factory is under the general 
management of Henry H. Taylor, 
F. M. Hammond and M. B. Ham- 
mond. The proprietor, Thomas P, 
Taylor, has for many years been 
closely identified with the city g 
ernment, was elected Mayor of 
Bridgeport in 1897, and is a factor 
in all that concerns the prosperity 
of this growing city. 



3^2 



BRIDG EPORT—A STORY OF PROGRESS 




PLANT OF THE AMERICAN GRAPHOPHONE COMPANY AT BRIDGEPORT 



As the pioneer and leader in the 
talking machine art, the Columbia 
Phonograph Company, sole sales 
agent for the American Grapho- 
phone Company of Bridgeport, has 
built up a plant which is always 
being extended, in one direction or 
another, and which is to-day the 
largest one of its kind in the world. 
Its facilities for selling goods is 
thorough and far reaching. The 
graphophone has been the means of 
broadening the taste of our people, 
by bringing into their homes the 
music of almost every nation on the 
face of the globe. When we con- 
sider that the art of book-making 
is an ancient one and that the talk- 
ing machine is one of the most 
modern of the important inventions, 
it is bewildering to contemplate the 
hundreds of uses that are still open 
for the latter and the factor that it 
is ultimately destined to become in 
the world's history. 

The East Building, the one edi- 
fice forming a part of the group of 
buildings composing the enormous 



plant of the American Graphophone 
Company, that has remained un- 
changed until recently, has been 
transformed into a much more im- 
posing structure than heretofore. 
This is one of the historic factory 
buildings of Connecticut. It was in 
this that the Graphophone Company 
started its business when, twelve 
years ago, it moved from another 
part of the city to the West End, 
where it has steadily and regularly 
developed from a small beginning 
into one of the best-known manu- 
facturing companies in the world. 
The number of persons employed 
varies from one to two thousand, 
fluctuating as the factory is in opera- 
tion days, or both days and nights. 
The value of the annual output runs 
into the millions, having increased 
in 1904 more than a million dollars 
over the preceding year and the 
amount of capital invested in the 
business in $5,000,000. 

In the early nineties the company 
occupied only a part of the East 
Building, but by 1898 it had in- 






BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



3*3 



duced the other occupants to de- 
part, one by one, and it then came 
into possession of its own. Simul- 
taneously the large building, for- 
merly occupied by the Bridgeport 
Organ Company, now known as the 
West Building, was purchased. So 
that in the one or two years follow- 
ing, it looked as if the business 
would have room in which to grow 
for another ten years without any 
further additions to the plant. 
But very soon changes and addi- 
tions were planned culminating in 
the erection of an entirely new and 
spacious building which was made 
necessary by the great increase in 
the sale of disc records. In the 
meantime, the cylinder record sales 
had assumed such unlooked for 
proportions, and the demand for 
machines was so strong that a part 
of this new building was utilized 
for the executive offices for which 
there was no longer room in the 
West Building, the necessity for 
more floor space for the packing 
and shipping of goods having be- 
come so urgent. 

Many other additions to the build- 
ings have been made, from to time, 
with the result that the whole of 
the first floor of the West Building, 
24,000 square feet, is used for pack- 



ing and shipping purposes; that 
every available foot of space in all 
the buildings is now used for 
some purpose incidental to the 
transaction of the business and that 
everything in the way of machinery 
is compressed into the smallest 
possible space, while the demand 
for more room in which to meet the 
increasing call for Columbia g<> 
has led to the change that has been 
made in the East Building. Two 
new stories have been erected. 
These gave 48,000 added square feet 
of room and admitted a readjust- 
ment of the machinery for transact- 
ing the business that has been full 
of advantages in manufacturing, 
assembling, packing and shipping, 
and which involve many economies. 
The American Graphophone 
Company fortunately possesses a 
whole city square upon which to 
erect other buildings, as they are 
needed, and if the fact that the de- 
mand for Columbia goods is ever 
on the increase is considered, it be- 
comes evident that the present 
plant, great as it is, will have to be 
still further augmented, as the years 
go by, to enable it to supply the 
product for which a constantly 
widening market allords a ready 
and permanent outlet. 



THUS WE SEE THAT THE SUBSTANCE OF THE PAST LIVES ON AND IS 
VITALLY PRESENT WITH US NOW— ALL THAT IS VISIBLE OF A NATION- 
DIES, BUT ITS SOUL SURVIVES; THE TRUTH IT DISCOVERED AND 
ILLUSTRATED IS PRESERVED; ITS ESSENCE PASSES INTO CIVILIZATION, 
IMPROVES SOCIETY, AND BECOMES THE COMMON PROPERTY OP AFTER 
TIMES —Thon: 



DISTINGUISHED MEN OF CONNECTICUT 




From Painting in State Library at Hartford 



JOSEPH ROSWELL HAWLEY 
October 31, 1826 
March 18 1905 



DISTINGUISHED MEN Of CONNECTICUT 







From Painting in Stat,- Library mi Hart/or J 



MORGAN GARDNER BULKELEY 
Successor to Gen. Hawley in United States Senate 



COZY CORNERS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES 




u-> 

oo 



COZY CORNERS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES 



387 











AT BERLIN, CONNECTICUT 

Population of Town 3,448 




AT DURHAM, CONNECTICUT 

Population 884 




PAUL WAYLAND BARTLETT, SCULPTOR 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF A CONNECTICUT SCULPTOR 

PAUL WAYLAND BARTLETT, A MASTER IN THE ART OF TRANS- 
LATING POETRY WITH THE CHISEL AN APPRECIATION 



BY 

HERBERT RANDALL 



IT is not an easy task to convey- 
by means of the pen a clear 
comprehension of the power of 
its more delicate rival — the 
chisel — when, in the hands of such a 
master as Paul Bartlett, it is used 
as a medium for translating his 
poetic imaginations to a bit of 
bronze, a piece of marble, or a 
block of granite. 

Paul Wayland Bartlett, the son 
of Truman H. Bartlett of Boston, 
was born in New Haven, Connecti- 
cut, in 1865, and, although yet a 
young man, his achievements have 
already stamped his personality 
upon the world. 

The busy years of his life since, 
when in 1880, he entered the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts in Paris, have 
given to the world many works 
of distinction. He seems to have 
known from the start what he 
wanted to do and did it. 

Taft says he at once became 
master of the details of his art in all 
its blanches, as few even of the 
French sculptors have done. 

At the age of twenty-four (in '89) 
he was elected to the jury of awards 
of the Universal Exposition of Paris. 
He was here given a medal of 
honor When afterwards this was 
judged to be unconstitutional, on 
account of his being a member of 
the jury, the committee decided to 
decorate him. But at this point 
also complications arose, as he was 
too young. However, this honor 
was reserved for him until 1895, 
when it was legally conferred. 

At this time we find him exhibit- 
ing in the old salon, having, for 
probably good reasons, gone back 
on the Societe des Beaux Arts. 
This salon then made him hors 
concours — above competition. 



This same year he was made 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
His display of small bronzes of 
reptiles, fishes, beetles and the like, 
exhibited at this salon, were so won- 
derfully beautiful that they seemed 
to belong to the realm of precious 
stones; their brilliant and iri- 
descent lights and their richness of 
shadows were as of jasper, beryl, 
and agate. 

It is sometimes thought that an 
artist who is accustomed to deal 
with petty details — with jewel-work 
effects — cannot succeed in modeling 
on a colossal scale; but this 
delicacy of conception and hand- 
ling are no more distinctive of Mr. 
Bartlett than his daring and large- 
ness of ideas as shown in his more 
massive work. Here, too, we find 
independence, unity, grace, and re- 
pose — the emphatic elements of art. 
His Michael Angelo and Christo- 
pher Columbus, executed for the 
Congressional Library in Washing- 
ton, are both examples of these 
characteristics. 

As indicative of the conscien- 
tiousness with which he works it 
may be stated that after his original 
sketches for the above-mentioned 
statues were accepted and started 
full size, Mr. Bartlett, not being 
fully satisfied with them, began 
over again. The conception of the 
Michael Angelo was reconstructed 
three times before he felt willing 
to go on with the figure, and finally 
he changed even his last model. 
The committee in authority, who, 
much to Mr. Bartlett's annoyance, 
seemed over persistent in their 
efforts to hurry him, became some- 
what impatient. But when the 
statues were received they were so 
delighted with them that they lost 



392 ACHIEVEMENTS OF A CONNECTICUT SCULPTOR 




SCULPTOR S MODEL OF TYMPANA FOR STATE CAPITOL 

AT HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 

It comprises four scenes of historical significance, while above six figures are to be erected of men prominent in 
Colonial affairs -John Haynes, John Mason, Edward Hopkins, Theophilus Eaton, Roger Ludlow and Jonathan 
Edwards -Photograph of model taken especially for The Connecticut Magazine by Herbert Randall 



sight of all this, and heartily for- 
gave him for keeping them waiting. 
It has been said of these statues, 
by those who should know, that 
they are the finest stautes in the 
building. 

In case also of the equestrian 
statue of Lafayette for the Court of 
the Louvre, Mr. Bartlett has shown 
the same care; for, although the 
order was placed some years since, 
and the plaster model is now on the 
pedestal, it is to be replaced by a 
bronze, expressive of an entirely 
new scheme which he is now con- 
sidering. 

In 1900 Mr. Bartlett served as a 
member of the jury of awards on 
sculpture at the Paris Exposition, 
again sacrificing his own chances in 
the interest of others. 

At the St. Louis Exposition Mr. 
Bartlett was given the first medal 
of honor, and the superior jury voted 
unanimously that to his diploma 
should be added the statement that 
he receive this medal of honor, not 
only on his past record, but on his 



remarkable and actual exhibit. 
The members of the superior jury 
were the chairmen and vice-chair- 
men of the different art-juries of 
awards. This jury agreed to grant 
Mr. Bartlett the high honor of 
award on his statue of General 
Warren, recently made for the city 
of Boston, notwithstanding that his 
Michael Angelo, generally consid- 
ered his masterpiece, was on exhi- 
bition at the Exposition; thus rec- 
ognizing the growth of the man, for 
many considered the Warren even 
superior to the Michael Angelo. 

The display of small bronzes at 
the fair, comprised some sixty-five 
objects — vases, nude figures, etc. 
These he modeled and cast in 
bronze with his own hands, by the 
"cire-perdue" process, after the old 
Italian method. He also "patined" 
them himself, something very un- 
usual for a sculptor to do. In olden 
times these accomplishments were 
requisites to the master-sculptor; 
to-day, unfortunately, few, even of 
the French, possess them. Thus 




GENERAL WARREN 



394 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF A CONNECTICUT SCULPTOR 



has it been said that Bartlett spends 
his days in his studio not only giving 
life to his conception in the model- 
ing in clay, but after selecting the 
material, cutting and chiseling the 
objects with his own hands. Like 
the ancient artisan, he studies for 
days to discover the most latent 
artistic possibility. This wonderful 
skill in surface handling is of the 
greatest significance to his art, and, 
be the motif majestic, simple, 
sensuous, or passionate, it is mani- 
fest therein. 

That this sculptor possesses versa- 
tility in his conceptions is indicated 
by the great variety of subjects he 
chooses. 

His figure of the Indian — The 
Ghost Dancer — some one declared 
to be infinitely skilful in workman- 
ship, but without inspiration. Let 
it be so, nevertheless, it abounds 
in technical excellence, and the in- 
dividuality of the sculptor is con- 
spicuous. 

By way of remark, I may here say 
that in conversation r ecently with a 
well-known foreign sculptor of note, 
he declared that he considered Paul 
Bartlett the most complete sculptor 
in the whole St. Louis Exposition. 

Mr. Bartlett is at present occu- 
pied on his statue of General 
McClellan for Fairmount Park. 

And now, be it said to the credit 
of the art committee who have the 
matter in charge, this noted sculp- 
tor has been selected to execute 
the several statues, medallions and 
tympana for the ornamentation of 
the north facade of the State 
Capitol of Hartford, the beautiful 
sketch-model of which may now -be 
seen in the corridor of the building. 
The tympana will comprise four 
scenes of historical significance, 
while above the tympana will be 
erected six figures representing 
men prominent in colonial affairs of 
the state — John Haynes, John 
Mason, Edward Hopkins, Theoph- 
ilus Eaton, Roger Ludlow and 
Jonathan Edwards. 



Mr. Richard E. Brooks of Massa- 
chusetts, a sculptor in whom Mr. 
Bartlett places the greatest confi- 
dence, has been in Paris for some 
time assisting somewhat on this 
model. He has now been delegated 
by Mr. Bartlett to deal with the 
committee, and arrange for the exe- 
cution of the work. Mr. Brooks 
has just finished a preliminary 
sketch of the statue of John 
Haynes, first governor of Connecti- 
cut, and also a sculpture for one of 
the tympana to be used in this 
adornment. The work has been 
accepted by the commission in 
charge, and is highly satisfac- 
tory. 

Concerning Mr. Brooks as a sculp- 
tor, it may be said that his work is 
stamped with marked individuality. 
His refined intellectual conception, 
coupled with a sturdy fidelity of 
touch, has already established his 
place among able sculptors. Im- 
portant statues of his are a bronze 
bust of William E. Russell, and a 
marble bust of Colonel Gardiner 
Tufts, both in the State House at 
Boston; a bronze statue of Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton; a statue of 
John Hanson of Maryland, now in 
Statuary Hall at Washington; 
statue of Colonel Thomas Cass, in 
the Public Gardens of Boston; a 
portrait statue of the Revolutionary 
statesman, Robert Treat Paine, re- 
cently unveiled in Taunton, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Mr. Brooks received a first-class 
gold medal at the Paris Salon in 
1899, also a first-class gold medal at 
the Paris Exposition in 1900, first- 
class gold medal at the Pan-Ameri- 
can Exposition at Buffalo, hon- 
orable mention at the Paris Salon in 
1895 for his "Song of the Wave" — 
a nude female figure, charming in 
conception, rythmic in grace of 
lines, full of the poetry of sea. 

Mr. Brooks, although probably 
the youngest member, was chair- 
man of the jury of sculpture at the 
St. Louis Exposition. 



THE HIVE OF THE AVERYS 

HISTORIC OLD HOME OF FAMILY OF DISTINGUISHED 

WARRIORS AT GROTON, CONNECTICUT ANECDOTES 

OF COLONIAL BATTLES AND ENTERTAINING SKETCH 



BY 

MABEL CASSINE HOLMAN 

OF SAYBROOK, CONNECTICUT 



AT the head of Poquonock 
Plain, in what is now the 
town of Groton, Connecticut, 
stood for many years the 
house known as "The Hive of the 
Averys." It was built by Captain 
James Avery in the year 1656. This 
historic house never passed into 
strange hands, being continuously 
inherited from father to son, until 
it was destroyed by fire on the 
night^of July 20, 1894. 



Soon after the burning of this old 
house, "The Avery Memorial Asso- 
ciation" was incorporated by spe- 
cial act of the Connecticut legisla- 
ture, received the old homestead 
site by deed of gift from its owner, 
James Denison Avery, and there 
erected a granite memorial in what 
is now known as the "Averv 
Memorial Park." The inscriptions 
on the monument briefly tell the 
story of "The Hive" and the names 




OLD AVERY HOMESTEAD AT GROTON CONNECTICUT, BUU 1 IN 1 656 

Continuously inherited from father to son for 264 years until destroyed by fire— Bronze tablet, gift of Johu D. 
Rockefeller, one of the descendants, now marks the historic s\te 



• -«.H 




N 




-■*¥ 



4:'WSMI 



CAPT. JAMES AVERY 

Founder of distinguished family 
Colonial hero 



THE HIVE OF THE A V E R Y S 



397 




SILHOUETTE RECENTLY FOUND BY MISS HOLMAN 

An investigation proves it to be the face of Jonas Belton Avery, a descendant of Capt. James Avery, 
the Groton Indian Fighter — It was probably made about the time of his marriage, shortly after the 
Revolution 



of its successive owners. The front 
of the die bears a bronze tablet, 
that gives a good representation of 
the old house. This tablet was the 
gift of John D. Rockefeller, one of 
the descendants. The shaft is sur- 
mounted by a bronze bust of the 
builder of the "Old Hive." It is 
of heroic size, the face shaded by 
the Puritan hat, showing resolution, 
sterness and a mighty will, while 
in the mouth is a suspicion of ten- 
derness and deep feeling, mingled 
with strict regard for the right that 
made Captain James Avery, with 
Captain George Denison, "entreat 
the general court to be more merci- 
ful to the captured Pequots. ' ' 

Captain James Avery, born in 
the year 1620, was the only child of 
Christopher Avery, a weaver, who 



was born in England about 1590. 
Tradition tells us he came from 
Salisbury, Wilts County, in the 
ship "Arbelle," with John Win- 
throp in 1630. His little son, James, 
ten years old, came with him and 
they settled in Gloucester, Mas 
chusetts. On November 10, 1 64^, 
James Avery married, in Boston, 
Joanna Greenslade. We read that in 
the year 1650, on the 19th of October, 
among the grants made by the 
townsmen of New London, James 
Avery received one, said to be the 
land where the "Pequot House" 
now stands. Six years later, James 
Avery, with his wife and three 
children, crossed the Thames River 
and settled permanently .it the r 
of Poquonock Plain, in the town of 
Groton, and there built the "Hive 



39§ 



THE HIVE OF THE A V E R Y S 




DAUGHTER OF AN OLD INDIAN FIGHTER 

Silhouette of Esther Denison Avery, Descendant of Capt. George Denison, of Colonial war fame — 
It is known that her marriage to Jonas Belton Avery occurred July 27, 1791, and the silhouette was 
probably taken about that time 



of the Averys" in 1656. He soon 
became active in military affairs. 
In 1665 the general court confirmed 
Ensign James Avery as "lieutenant 
to ye train-band at New London." 
In June, 1672, the general court 
order that Captain John Winthrop 
should be " chief e" military officer 
for the County of New London and 
Lieutenant James Avery his sec- 
ond." In 1673 New London Coun- 
ty was to add a hundred dragoons 
to her "train-bands," and for such 
forces as shall be called out of that 
county, ''James Avery appoynted 
Captain." In 1675 knowing what 
Massachusetts had suffered, the 
name of King Philip became a 
terror to the Connecticut settlers, 
and in October the general court at 
Hartford put Connecticut under 



martial law. At a meeting of the 
council of the colony in the follow- 
ing February, "There was order to 
Captain James Avery, Captain 
George Denison and Lieutenant Mi- 
nor, to rayse some forces to surprize 
or destroy the enemie." From the 
same letter we read, "The Council 
considering the difficulty of collect- 
ing any considerable body of the 
enlisted soldiers from the several 
townes, for an immediate march 
against the enemy, order that Cap- 
tains, Avery, Denison and Lieut. 
Minor, should forthwith gather as 
many men as possible from the 
three nearest towns, New London, 
Norwich and Stonington and taking 
with them the Mohegan and Pequot 
Indians march against the enemy." 
In the following August, "The 



THE HIVE OF THE A V E R Y S 



399 



Council agreed and ordered that 
the right and division of captives be 
left to the decision and determina- 
tion of Captain John Mason and 
Captain James Avery and Daniel 
Witherell." In 1676 a series of 
forays were commenced against 
the Indians and were led by Captain 
Denison and Captain Avery. There 
were ten of the expeditions which 
contributed in no small degree to 
the favorable results. 

Captain Avery was equally promi- 
nent in the civil matters of the 
town. He was chosen townsman in 
1660 and held that office twenty 
years, and one of his earliest acts 
in this capacity shows a desire to 
preserve the public documents. 
He was twelve times deputy to the 
general court between 1658 and 
1680. Captain James Avery was 
prominent in matters relating to 
the church. "In February 1677-78 
when it was resolved in town meet- 
ing to building a new meeting- 
house, to take the place of the old 
Blinman house in New London, the 
building committee consisted of 
Captain Avery and two others." 
In June, 1684, the old Blinman edi- 
fice, called "the unadorned church 
and watch-tower of the wilderness," 
was sold to Captain Avery for six 
pounds, with the condition that he 
remove it in one month's time. 
The church was taken down and 
carried across the river and added 
to the house Captain Avery had 
already built at Poquonock. The 
church record kept by Rev. Mr. 
Broadstreet, begins October 5, 1670, 
the day of his ordination with the 
following list: Lieutenant James 
Avery and Wife, Thomas Miner and 
Wife, James Morgan, Senior and 
wife, and eighteen others. " 

Christopher Avery spent his last 
years with his son in the old house. 
Captain James Avery died April 
1 8th, 1700. Such was the life of 
James Avery, living as he did dur- 
ing the early history of the country. 
He was a man among men and de- 



served the respect and confidence 
he received. 

Not far from the site where the 
"Hive of the Averys" stood, Ik 
quiet field, far back from the village 
street— the old Avery trarying- 
ground. It was here Christopher 
Avery and his son, Captain James 
Avery, were said to have Leen 
buried. There are many old stones 
with the inscriptions obliterated, 
and theirs are probably among 
them. The oldest stone one can 
read marks the spot where lie the 
second James Avery and his wife, 
Deborah Stallyn. Not far from 
them lies the third James Avery 
and his wife, Mary Griswold, wl 
ancestor settled Lyme, and to whom 
Colonel Fenwick committed his 
affairs when he returned to Eng- 
land and the charge of cutting Lady 
Fenwick's stone and setting it up 
in Saybrook. Mary Griswold was 
the niece of Governor Mathew (xris- 
wold and a relative of Governor 
Roger Wolcott. In the center of 
the yard is a slate stone, bearing 
this inscription: 

In Memory 

of 

Eld'r Park Avery 

who died 

March 24, 1797 

aged 87 years 

* His first wife, Mary Latham, and 
the mother of his children, lies one 
side of him, and the second w 
Grace Denison, on the other side. 
Elder Park, so-called because he 
separated from the "stan, 
order" and preached every Sou 
in the "great room" of the old 
Avery house, where the services 
and seats were all free, and the 
horses well cared for by faithful 
slaves during the hours or worship. 
This separation came about by a 
too rigid enforcement of tythes. 
Everybody went to hear him until 
the other meeting-house was closed 
for a time. The old elder had large 
wealth for those days and WM * 
man of mark. He was a member 



400 



THE HIVE O E THE A V E R Y S 



of the Colonial Legislature at Hart- 
ford in the beginning of the Revo- 
lutionary War, was decidedly in 
favor of fighting, if necessary, for 
independence, and he wrote to his 
four sons from Hartford, "to stand 
by your country, as I am too old to 
fight myself." His four sons, Park, 
Jr., Jasper, Elisha and Ebenezer 
were all in the fort September 6, 
1 781, and it was to the home of the 
last named the wounded were car- 
ried after being rolled down the hill 
in a cart on that dreadful day. The 
oldest son of Elder Park Avery lies 
near his father. 



His son, Thomas, had been killed 
earlier in the day, fighting by his 
father's side, who, taking his dead 
son in his arms, carried him into 
the fort-room and tenderly laying 
him down, said: "I have nothing 
to say. He died in a good cause." 
That night the dead and wounded 
were carried back to the old house. 
Elder Park's sons "had stood by 
their country." Jasper, Elisha and 
his eldest grandson were dead, Lieu- 
tenant Park and Ebenezer severely 
wounded. Lieutenant Park left at 
home on that morning a six months* 
baby boy in his cradle, who had 



In Memory of 

Lieut Park Avery, who died Dec. 20th, 1821 

Aged 80 years 

He served his country in the 

revolutionary war and was 

severely wounded in 

Fort Griswold 



Sacred to the 

Memory of 
Thomas Avery 
fon to Park Avery 
Ju'r Who made 
his Exit in Fort 
Griswold Sept 
6th 1 78 1. Aged 

17 Years. 

•• Life how short 

Eternity how long." 



In Memory of 

Mrs. Hannah Avery 

wife of 

Mr. Park Avery 

who died 

Sopt. 26th, 1798 

Aged 60 yrs. 



Lieutenant Park Avery, who was 
with Washington at White Plains, 
was at home on a furlough Septem- 
ber 6, 1 781, and awakened at four 
o'clock in the morning with the 
news that the British were entering 
the river, at once started for the 
fort, taking with him his eldest 
son, Thomas, who was seventeen 
years old. Late in the afternoon a 
breathless horseman came riding 
up to the old Avery house with the 
news that nine Averys had been 
killed in defense of the Fort and 
many more wounded. Among the 
latter was Lieutenant Park Avery, 
who had a bayonet thrust through 
his eye and was taken up for dead, 
when he surprised his bearers by 
saying, "Keep step, boys." 



been named Silas Deane. When 
his father was brought back, he 
asked that the child's name be 
changed to Thomas, for his dead 
boy, which was done. 

Near the grave of Lieutenant 
Park Avery lies his son Youngs, 
and his wife Eunice Latham, who 
was daughter of Captain William 
Latham, the commander of Fort 
Griswold. Colonel Ledyard being 
a superior officer and home on a 
furlough, took command of the fort 
September 6, 1781. 

Captain Latham lived near the 
fort. The house is still standing in 
front of which a public fountain 
has recently been placed to his 
memory. On the morning of the 
battle, Captain Latham, who slept 



THE HIVE OF THE A V E R Y S 



40 1 



at home, on being aroused, went at 
once to the fort, taking his son 
William, Jr., who was ten years old, 
with him, and sending his wife and 
children to the old Avery house 
(the home of his aunt, who was the 
wife of Elder Park Avery), in the 
care of his slave, Lambo. Lam bo 
saw the family safe in the house 
and turned back, when his mistress 
said: "Your master told you to 
take care of us, Lambo." "I know 
it," Lambo replied, "I have left 
you in a safe place and now I shall 
go to my master. I have never in all 
my life left him and shall not now. ' ' 
Lambo twice saved his master's life 
that day in the fort ; once, by push- 
ing a sword away, and in doing so 
losing the fingers of one hand. The 
second time, receiving the sword in 
his body, he fell dead at the feet of 
his master. 

Little William Latham, who was 
afterward called the "Powder 
Monkey," worked all the morning 
fetching and bringing the powder 
horns from the magazine. Captain 
Latham was severely wounded and 
the little "Powder Monkey" lay 
with his arms around his father's 
neck all the afternoon. After the 
battle, Captain Latham's wife, with 
her daughter and others, came from 
the old house to find her husband 
and child. It was after dark and 
the search was carried on with lan- 
terns and it was well into the night 
before she found her husband, and 
learned her child had been taken 
prisoner by Benedict Arnold. Early 
the next morning Mrs. Latham 
crossed the river to New London, 
and going to Benedict Arnold, 
whom socially she had met many 
times, when he lived in Norwich, 
said: "Benedict Arnold, I come for 
my child, not to ask him, but to 
demand him, of you." "Take 
him," said Benedict Arnold, "but 

don't bring him up to be a d d 

rebel," "I shall take him," she 
replied, "and teach him to despise 
the name of a traitor." The child 



sat on the lap of a neighbor, with a 
crust of bread in his hand, not 
daring to eat it, pale and sick, as he 
had eaten nothing since leaving 
home the day before at three 
o'clock in the morning. The child 
never fully recovered from the 
dreadful scenes of that day, and was 
always sad and thoughtful. Later 
in life, he went on a cruise to the 
West Indies. Going ashore to buy 
gifts for the home friends, be 
seized by a press-gang belonging to 
a British man-of-war, where he 
suffered greatly for two years in 
spite of every effort being used for 
his release. After some time at 
home he again went to sea, never 
to be heard from. Such is the sad 
story of the little "Powder Monkey, ' 
William Latham, Jr. 

Some time before the battle, Col- 
onel Ledyard thought there were 
not enough horses to carry the guns 
to Boston. Captain Latham offered 
his, "Trot," a fine grey horse be- 
longing to his daughter, Mary. 
Colonel Ledyard was afraid the 
horse would not be able to carry 
the mattress gun, and bet Captain 
Latham five pounds he could not 
do it. Captain Latham accepted 
the bet, drove "Trot" himself, took 
his slave Mingo to bring him 1 ack, 
"Trot" and the gun arrived in 
Boston eight hours before the rest 
of the company, and Colonel Led- 
yard paid the bet. 

At one side of the old burying 
ground, in a lot raised above the 
others, is a small monument, 
erected many years ago by John J. 
Avery. At the time c f his birth, 
his father named him John John 
Avery, to "distinguish him from 
the other John Averys," as he put 
it. John j. Averv recei' -eat 

dealof notoriety by putting up his 
monument before his death. At 
that time such a thine had rover 
been heard of, and the storv is * 
of him during the days when wheat 
flour first came into use, he < 
verv careful to use it I 



402 



THE HIVE OF THE AVERYS 



his family and gave orders to that 
effect. At one time he was to be 
away all day, when his children 
asked their mother to make a wheat 
short-cake for dinner, which she 
did, and what was their surprise to 
see Mr. Avery drive into the yard 
just as the cake was placed on the 
table. Mrs. Avery quietly arose 
and, taking the cake, put it under 
the cushion of her chair and sat 
down, much to the disappointment 
of the children. 

Another interesting stone bears 
the following inscription: 

In Memory of ye Rev'd 

& Pious Mr. John Owen 

The Second Ordained 

Minister in Groton who 

died Lords Day Morning 

Jan'y 14 A. D. 1753 i Q y e 

50 year of his Age. 

The first Church of Christ, to 
which the good man ministered on 
Groton Heights, have recently 
erected a fine stone edifice, in which 
a memorial window, costing two 
thousand dollars, has been placed 
to the "founder of the Groton 
Averys. " 

A quaint slate stone near the wall 
is worthy of notice: 



In Memory of Bristera 

blackman who died, aged 74 

his life was a worthy example 

to all acquainted with him. 

Sixteen lie buried in this old yard 
who fought in Fort Griswold. 
Through the efforts of the presi- 
dent of the "Thomas Avery" Chil- 
dren's Society of the C. A. R., who 
is a lineal descendant of Captain 
James Avery, and was born in the 
old house, Revolutionary markers 
have been placed at the graves, 
and a new stone bearing the old 
inscription to the grave of Thomas 
Avery, also a handsome iron gate 
at the entrance. 

It was hard to realize the scenes 
of that dreadful day, the 6th of 
September, 1781, as we stood in the 
old burying ground on a beautiful 
summer afternoon, with the Sabbath 
peace upon the old spot, and the 
warm sunshine and lengthening 
shadows falling among the graves, 
the bees drowsily murmuring in the 
grass and myrtle; where the old 
cinnamon roses bud and blossom 
just as they did when the hands 
that planted them with such loving 
care were wet with falling tears, 
and long since turned to dust. 



"THUS, LIKE A GOD-CREATED, FIRE-BREATHING, SPIRIT-HOST, WE 
EMERGE FROM THE INANE ; HASTE STORMFULLY ACROSS THE ASTON- 
ISHED EARTH; THEN PLUNGE AGAIN INTO THE INANE — 'WE ARE 
SUCH STUFF AS DREAMS ARE MADE OF, AND OUR LITTLE LIFE IS 
ROUNDED WITH A SLEEP'"— Carlyle 



ORDINATION SERVICE OF A CENTURY AGO 

THE CATECHISM OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL COUNCIL 

CONTINUATION OF SERIES OF REMINISCENCES OF 
OLD NEGRO SLAVERY DAYS IN CONNECTICUT 



BY 



JUDGE MARTIN H. SMITH 

OF SUFFIELD, CONNECTICUT 



IN continuing my story of Old 
"Ti," the negro slave in Con- 
necticut in the colonial times, 
I am at this writing going to 
describe especially an ordination 
service of a century or more ago, in 
which Dr. Gay of Suffield, Connec- 
ticut, the master of Old "Ti," was 
one of the chief figures. 

Dr. Gay was called to Greenfield 
to assist in the ordination of their 
new pastor, the Rev. Paul De- 
votion. Now, thought Titus, is the 
time to see Phill. He put on his 
thinking cap and the result we 
shall see further on. 

The Ecclesiastical Council which 
Dr. Gay attended was representa- 
tive and unique. The theory of 
the day was that the minister was 
the Ambassador of the Most High; 
that he stood between God and 
Man; that there was an especial 
call and consecration of God, which 
must be ratified by the church mili- 
tant, or at least recognized by his 
fellow ambassadors. The examina- 
tion of a candidate was then a 
solemn matter, carrying with it the 
gravest responsibility. Such a con- 
versation as follows, which took 
place between four delegates to an 
ordination in 1893, would have been 
simply impossible. 

4 'Well, what does this examina- 
tion amount to, anyhow?" 

"It enables us to see if he has 
learned his lesson well at the sem- 
inary. " 

"It permits us to see of what 
mental caliber the candidate is." 

"It stands for much more, breth- 



ren, it gives us an opportunity to 
air our own theological notions." 

In these days it is hardly admitted 
that any one stands between a man 
and his God. Nor would there be a 
large subscription to the tenet that 
a minister is called to his work in 
any different sense than a teacher 
or doctor or mechanic. The gen- 
eral notion seems to be that the 
minister is a man, the same as any 
other man, and his influence for 
good depends only on his force of 
character. Not so then. It was a 
heavenly calling, and a divinity 
hedged the minister. It was more 
than a royal' office and he was 
higher than an imperial ambassa- 
dor. The pontiff preceded the 
king. 

Mr. Devotion was a remarkable 
young man and his ^brethren built 
much upon his future. He had 
graduated from Harvard at twenty- 
five with the highest honors. He 
was instructor in his Alma Mater 
for five years. His scholarship WSJ 
thorough and extensive. He had 
spent three years in the study of 
theology, and had excelled all his 
classmates in acumen and lo 
He chose to think for himself, and 
astonished and sometimes alarmed 
his instructors by his independence, 
and his original views uoon n 
points the churchmen hoped at 
least were settled. He was a man 
of great earnestness of piirjv 
He was self-sacrificing to a fault. 
His life was simplicity itself. W 
his sincere pietv anil spontane 
love for his fellowmen, ho WSJ 



404 



ORDINATION SERVICE OF A CENTURY AGO 



eloquent as a strong, healthy, mag- 
netic man can be. 

And now at thirty-three he asked 
to be ordained to preach the gospel. 
The most distinguished ministers 
of New England were present. The 
day and night previous to the Coun- 
cil had been in fasting and prayer. 
And when it assembled, before it 
was called to order even, there was 
a season of silent prayer, and then 
all joined with the oldest minister 
present in an invocation for God's 
guidance and blessing and sung the 
Coronation hymn. The Council was 
then read)' for the transaction of 
business. The call was first read, 
and a committee appointed to con- 
duct the examination, though every 
member had the right to ask what- 
ever questions he deemed proper. 

The conversion of the candidate 
was recounted at full length, as was 
his subsequent Christian experience 
and call to the ministry. These 
embraced a very full history of his 
life and pictured clearly the more 
subtile workings of his spirit. There 
was no hitch in these narrations. 
And though many questions were 
asked, all were answered to the sat- 
isfaction of the Council, except per- 
haps the reply when asked if he was 
willing to be damned if it was for 
the glory of God. He said "He had 
never felt so, nor did he believe it 
was for the glory of God to damn 
anybody." 

Now came the examination in 
doctrine, the really important part 
of the Council's work. There was 
no doubt of his Christian character, 
none of his abilities or purpose. 
But was he sound in the faith? 
That was the one overshadowing 
question. To determine this they 
had gathered in solemn conclave. 
For doctrine was more than life. 
The inquisition was severe and 
relentless. Trust a New England 
divine for that. 

"Do you believe in God's sover- 
eignty?" 

"I do." 



"Do you believe in his eternal 
purposes?" 

"No doubt. Yet in the main I 
am ignorant of what they are " 

A mild expression of surprise 
spread over the faces of the brethren. 

"Do you believe man is a sinner." 

"I do." 

"By Adam's fall?" 

"By his own fall?" 

"Do you not believe that all men 
sinned in Adam's fall?" 

"I believe all men are sinners." 

"What was the mission of Christ?" 

"To save sinners." 

"From what?" 

"Sin." 

"How?" 

"By their following his example 
and obeying his precepts." 

Such an answer to such a ques- 
tion! If the angry shade of John 
Calvin had strode into the room it 
would have added little to the sur- 
prise. Yet those good men seemed 
as unexcited as icebergs. 

"Anything else?" 

"What more can a sinful mortal 
do than to follow and obey?" 

"Did not Christ die for sinners?" 

"He lived for them and empha- 
sized his life by the manner of his 
death." 

"Do you not believe him to be 
the second member of the Trinity?" 

"No doubt. Yet the whole doc- 
trine of the Trinity is so involved 
in mystery that I must confess I 
understand it very poorly." 

The idea of a candidate for ordi- 
nation in an orthodox church not 
knowing all about the Trinity! He 
was questioned concerning his views 
as to the "Final Perseverance of 
the Saints," "Falling from Grace," 
the Ordinances, and the many in- 
tricate points in the Puritan system of 
Eschatology, the interest increasing 
at every step. 

"What do you believe concerning 
the day of Judgment?" 

"I beHeve it is an eternal day; 
that it is constantly going: on: that 
God and a man's own conscience 



ORDINATION SERVICE OF A CENTURY AGO 



405 



judge his every completed act; 
that at death his judgment is over 
and the verdict in." 

"Do you not believe in future, 
eternal punishment?" 

"I believe in both present and 
future punishment." 

"Do you believe in a literal hell?" 

"I believe what the Bible 
teaches." 

"What do you believe as touch- 
ing the resurrection of the dead?" 

"I believe that when a man dies 

he is clothed with his spiritual 

body; and this is his resurrection." 

'Do you believe in a perfected 

holiness?" 

*'I do not understand the ques- 
tion." 

"Do you believe that at death a 
man is as holy as he ever will be?" 

"I do not. I believe that as eter- 
nity ages, every function of a man 
approximates more and more to 
perfection; that there is no stopping 
until man is as perfect as God is; 
and as that is impossible therefore 
there is an eternal progress." 

This was the last straw that broke 
the camel's back. The more posi- 
tive and " sound" brethren declared 
such answers to be rank heresy, 
entirely unfit to be listened to, and 
moved the exclusion of the public. 
The examination had now lasted 
more than six hours, most of it 
under a repressed excitement that 
was painful. All but the Council 
withdrew, leaving them to fight the 
battle out with each other and the 
candidate. 

The people could not go home. 
The men gathered in knots on the 
street, while the women stopped at 
the nearest house to talk the matter 
over. And, strange to say, many of 
them knew a more practical the- 
ology than most of the parsons. 
The lawyer and doctor and school- 
master went over the points with 
becoming gravity. But for the 
most part the people were stirred to 
the highest pitch of excitement, 
which rapidly spread over the whole 



village. The general sentiment was 
of indignation at the treatment 
their friend had received at the 
hands of the Council. They 
knew Mr. Devotion to be a good 
man. He had been with them on 
trial for some time and had com- 
pletely won all hearts. And when 
any one does manage to get through 
the cold crust of a New England 
heart he is sure to find just the 
warmest and most loving and most 
loyal soul. 

The Council had a stormy time. 
It was a polemic field day. Dr. 
Gay and a few others, more judic- 
ious and far-seeing than the rest, 
tried to have the decision deferred, 
in the hope of so modifying some 
of the questions and answers as to 
retain and ultimately ordain Mr. 
Devotion. But the extremists pre- 
vailed, as usual. There was no 
ordination then or ever in the ortho- 
dox church for him. Through all 
this he was the calmest man in the 
Council or the town. He did not 
seem to feel that the event signified 
anything to him personally. His 
perception of duty and faith in his 
calling so mastered him that he 
felt sure of the divine approval and 
help. To him the councils were 
only forms. He knew he was born 
to preach, and though excluded 
from his chosen pulpit, none the less 
in no perfunctory sense he broke 
the bread of life. 

Throughout the state he gathered 
around him the choicest spirits, 
men whose highest aim was to lift 
up and dignifv humanity. And in 
no spirit of contention but with the 
greatest love they sowed the seeds 
that have shorn the orthodox church 
of most of its influence in New 1 
land. Moreover, their teachings 
have so modified the tenets of that 
church that even Theodore Parker 
could not say to-day that. "T 
have constructed a God with many 
of the characteristics of the devil, 
andworship their ideal image with all 
the attributes thev have piven if.*' 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF 

FAMILIES 



CONNECTICUT 



MANY OF THE NAMES TYPICALLY ENGLISH FALSITY OF 

CARICATURES REPRESENTING PURITANS AS USING ONLY gUEER 
OLD TESTAMENT OR CANTING RELIGIOUS CHRISTIAN NAMES 



BY 



JOEL N. ENO, M.A. 



AUTHOR "NOMENCLATURE OF CONNECTICUT TOWNS " AND OTHER ARTICLES 
IN RECENT ISSUES OF THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE 



SO much interest seems to have 
been taken in my article en- 
titled "The Nomenclature of 
Connecticut towns," in The 
Connecticut Magazine, that I have 
given considerable time to the study 
of the earliest Connecticut families 
and their names and compile here- 
with a list of all persons holding 
land in Hartford, Connecticut, trans- 
lating each name to its simple 
meaning when fairly deducible from 
the best authorities. I wish to call 
your attention to a few noteworthy 
points. In reading the list it may 
interest you to know that the names 
of these old Connecticut families 
are thoroughly representative of the 
middle class of the English, not 
only of the seventeenth century but 
to-day. As typically English names, 
it is unusual that so few of them 
were duplicated among the early 
settlers. A great proportion of the 
family names are derived from the 
names of English towns or locali- 
ties and perpetuate the original seat 
of the family, the love and memory 
of it, and not the name of a clan or 
tribe. In most of them there is a 
strong individuality and many of 
them bespeak strength of char- 
acter. It is also interesting to re- 
view the Christian names, and here 
I wish to call especial attention to 
the falsity of the caricatures which 
represent the Puritans as using only 



queer Old Testament or canting 
religious Christian names. 

Adams, Jeremy. This means son of Adam. 

The name Adams is Hebrew and means 

man. 
Allen, Matthew. An authority considers 

this a corruption of Hilarie, meaning 

cheerful. I am decided that it is Breton, 

meaning harmony. 
Andrews, Francis. This name is from the 

Norman, but originally from the Greek, 

and designates manliness. 
Arn-old, John. This is taken from the 

Teutons and signifies eagle power. 
Bacon, Andrew, an old English nickname 

which I have no doubt originated from 

the word pig. 
Barden, Nathaniel; Barnard, John. The 

latter is from the Teuton ; meaning bear 

nature. 
Barnes, Thomas. Old English, meaning at 

the barn. It is sometimes corrupted from 

Barner (d) s. 
Bartlett, Robert. This name is from the 

Norman, meaning little Bartholomew. 
Baysee, John; Biddell, John. The latter is 

from the Old English, meaning a beadle. 
Birch-wood, Thomas. This name is from 

the Old English, meaning at the birch 

grove. 
Bliss. Thomas. Senior and junior; this 

name explains itself, like the name Joy 

and Merriman. 
Bloomfield, William. This name is from 

the Norman and is a place name like 

Blundeville. 
Brunson, John. Old English, son of Brown. 
Bull, Thomas. Old English nickname, 

meaning a bull. 
Burr, Benjamin; Bunce, Thomas. The 

latter is from the Norman, meaning bon, 

good; or for Bense, namely Bennet. (Bene- 
dict, blessed). 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF CONNECTICUT FAMILIES 



407 



Butler, Richard and William. This name 
is from the Norman, meaning a butler. 

Chapling, Clement. Is from the Norman, 
meaning chaplain. 

■Chester, Mrs. Dorothe. From Chester. 

England, originally a Roman fortified 

camp, castrum. 
Clark, Nicholas; and Clarke, John. (Oftener 

spelled Clark and Clarke) ; is Old English, 

meaning clergyman or learned man. 

Church, Richard. Meaning originally one 
living nearest a church. 

Cole, James. Meaning a shortening of 
Nicholas. 

Cornwell, (William). From Cornwall. 
Cullet, John. From Colet, a diminutive 
of Nicholas. 

Crow, John. Derived probably from a nick- 
name from the' bird, like Finch and 
Sparrow. 

Disbrow, Nicholas. The second part shows 
it to be a place name, ending originally 
in borough. 

Day, Robert. Meaning the Old English 
daie or a dairy hand, though usually a 
woman. 

Ely, Nathaniel. This name is from the 
Norman Elie (Elijah or Elias). 

Elmer, Edward. This name is from the 

Norman, meaning Aylmer. 
Eason, Joseph, (for Easton), meaning east 

village. 
Ensine, James. From Ensign, a colorbearer. 
Field, Zach. A place-name of residence. 

Goodman, Richard. Meaning a title of a 
little lower rank than Mr., which was not 
lightly given in the older days, but indica- 
ted a person of some importance. 

Goodwin, (g) William and Ozias. Meaning 

in Anglo-Saxon, a good friend. 
Gennings, John. Meaning a child of John. 
Garrad, Daniel. This name is from the 

Teutons, for Gerrard, meaning spear 

power. 
Gibbons, William. A variation of Gilbert, 

Gislebert, from the Teutons, meaning 

bright pledge. 
Grant, Seth. Norman, variation of grand, 

great. 
Graves, George. From Old English of the 

grove. 
Gridley, Thomas. Taken from Old Eng- 
lish meaning grass or herb pasture. 
Hayes, John. This name is taken from 

Norman de la Haya, of the hedge. 
Hart, Stephen. Taken from Old English, 

meaning hart, a kind of deer. 
Heaton, William. This name interchanging 

with Eaton, being Old English, meaning 

probably water village. 



Hide, William. From Old English, mean- 
ing hid (120 acres) of land. 

Hills, William. From the Old En;/ 

meaning hill. 
Holton, William. From the Old English, 

meaning grove village. 

Hooker, Thomas. From the Old English, 

meaning maker of hooks. 

Hubbard, George. From the Teu- 
meaning bright of mind. 

Hopkins, John and Edward. Old English, 
son of Robert. 

Judd, Thomas. From Hebrew Judah, mean- 
ing praise. 

Keeler, Ralph. Old English, meaning keel 
or boat builder. 

Kellogg, Nathaniel. Probably Celtic Kalloch, 
meaning a fighter. 

Kelsey, William. Old English, meaning 

ship island. 
Lay, Edward. From the Old English, 

meaning grassy field. 
Lewis, William. From the Norman, r. 

ing famous in war. 

Lord Richard and Thomas. From the Old 
English, meaning a lord. 

Lyman, Richard. Old English, meaning 
layman or lover. 

Marvin, Benjamin. This name is taken 
from the Welsh, meaning sea hill, prom- 
ontory. 

Mainard, John. From the Norman, mean- 
ing powerful nature. 

Maggott, Joseph. From the Norman, 

meaning son of Margaret. 
Moodie, John. From the Old English. 

meaning resolute, spirited. 
Morris, John. From Norman Mar 

Moorish, or Welsh, meaning great 

strength. 
Munn, Benjamin. Taken from the Old 

English, meaning Edmund, successful 

defender. 
Olmstead, James, John, Nicholas and Rich- 
ard. From the Old English, meaning 

island settlement. 
Osmer, Thomas. Old English, me. I 

horse moor. 
Parker, William. Old English. 

park keeper. 
Pantry, William. Norman, meaning keeper 

of the pantry. 

Peck, Paul. Old English meanii 

peak. 

Phillips. William. From ihe Greek, mean- 
ing a lover of horses; thro; v tn. 

Pierce, John. Norman, son of IV. 

Post, Stephen. Taken : 
lish. meaning postman. 



4 o8 THE NOMENCLATURE OF CONNECTICUT FAMILIES 



Pratt, John and William. From the Old 
English, meaning shrewd man ; or from 
Norman "Perrot," little Peter. 

Purchas, John. Norman pursuivant, mean- 
ing courier. 

Rusco, William. Taken from the Norman, 
meaning rescue. 

Richards, Nathaniel (and the widow). This 
name is from the Teutons, meaning rich 
or liberal nature. 

Risley, Richard. Old English, meaning, I 
think, clearing in young timber. 

Root, Thomas. Old English, meaning root. 

Scott, Thomas. This is from the Old Eng- 
lish, meaning Scotchman. 

Seamor, Richard, (later Seymour). From 
the Norman, and is a place-name, St. 
Maur. 

Selden, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
hall valley. 

Skinner, John. Old English, meaning 
dealer in skins. 

Smith, Arthur and Giles. Old English, 
meaning worker in metal. 

Spencer, Thomas and William. This name 
is from the Norman, meaning dispenser, 
house steward. 

Standley, Timothy and Thomas. Old Eng- 
lish, meaning stony field. 

Stanton, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
stony village. 

Stebbins, Edward. From the Norman, 
Stephen, or the Greek, Stephanos, mean- 
ing a crown. It may also be a place-name. 

Steele, George. Old English, meaning 
steel or dealer in steel. 

Stockin, George. Old English, meaning 
stock, body of a tree. 

Stone, John. This name is from Old Eng- 
lish, meaning stone. 

Taylcoatt, (Talcott). Old English, mean- 
ing tall cottage. 

Upson, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
Hopson, son of Robert. 

Wade, Robert. Old English, meaning a 
place at the ford. 

Wakeley, James. Old English, meaning 
field of watching. 

Wadsworth, William. Meaning Wade's 
farm. 

Ward, Nathaniel. This name is from the 
Old English, meaning a guard. 

Watts, Richard. From the English-Nor- 
man, son of Walter, or else Teutonic, 
ruler of the army. 

Wakeman, Samuel. Old English, meaning 
watchman. 

Webster, John. This is from the Old Eng- 
lish, meaning a weaver. 

Welles, Thomas. Old English, meaning at 
the wells, or of Wales. 



Warner, John and Andrew. Norman, mean- 
ing keeper of a warren (park for small 
game). 

Webb, Richard. Old English, meaning 
weaver. 

Westley, William. Old English, meaning 
west field. 

Westwood, William. Old English, mean- 
ing west forest. 

White, John. Old English, meaning blonde 
man. 

Whytynge, William, (Whiting). Old Eng- 
lish, meaning son of White. 

Willcock, John, (Wilcox). Old English, 
meaning little William. 

Witterton, Gregory. Old English, meaning 
village of the Witters. 

Woodford, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
wooded ford. 

Willes, George. Old English, son of William. 

The above record includes one 
hundred and twenty-seven land own- 
ers, representing over one hundred 
family names of the first settlers in 
Hartford. 

In the historic town of Windsor, I 

find on the town records of 1640 these 

typical surnames which throw still 

greater light on this study of nomen- 
clature : 

Allen, Matthew, of Hartford, Barber, 
Thomas. The latter name is from the 
Norman, meaning barber. 

Bas-comb, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
valley. 

Bissell, John ; Buckland, Thomas. The latter 
is Old English, meaning book or registered 
land (or deer glade). 

Clark, Daniel. This name is Old English, 
meaning learned man. 

Ccok, Aaron. Old English, meaning cook. 

Dibble, Thomas. From the Norman Theo- 
bald, meaning people's prince. 

Denslow, Nicholas. Old English, meaning 
dean's or the dean's hill. 

Dewey, Thomas. This name is from Welsh, 
meaning David, Hebrew, beloved. 

Egles-ton, Bigot. Norse-English, meaning 
village of Egil. 

Filer, Walter. Old English, meaning file- 
maker. 

Ford, Thomas. Old English, meaning at 
the ford. 

Gillet, Nathan. Norman, meaning son of 
William. 

Gaylord, William. Norman, meaning gay 
man. 

Grant, Matthew, (ancestor of U. S.) Nor- 
man, meaning great. 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF CONNECTICUT FAMILIES 



409 



Hayden, William. Old English, meaning 

hay hill (or hay valley). 
Hill, William. Old English, meaning at 

the hill. 
Hillyer, John. Old English, meaning roof 

maker. 
Holcomb, Thomas. Old English, meaning 

wooded valley. 
Hosford, William. Old English, meaning 

horse ford. 
Hurlburt, William. Old English, meaning 

hurl-bat, champion at hurling. 
Loomis, John and Joseph. Old English, 

place-name Lomas. 
Ludlow, Roger, Esq, Old English, mean- 
ing the people's hill. 
Marshall, James. Norman, meaning 

marshal farrier. 
Mason, Captain John. Norman, meaning 

stone mason. 
Moore, Dea. John. Old English, meaning 

at the moor. 
Newberry. Old English meaning new town. 
Oldage, Richard. Old English, meaning 

Holditch, hollow ditch. 
Palmer, Nicholas. This name is from the 

Norman, meaning pilgrim bearing palm 

from the Holy land. 
Parkman, Elias. Old English, meaning 

park keeper. 
Phelps, George, Samuel and William ; and 

Phillips, George, meaning son of Philip. 
Pinney, Humphrey. Old English, probably 

from Welsh pen, a peak. 
Pomeroy, Eltwed. Norman, meaning apple 

orchard. 
Porter John. Norman, meaning door or 

gate keeper or carrier. 
Randall, Abraham. Norman for Randolph , 

counsel wolf. 
Rossler, Bray; Stiles, Henry. Latter name 

Old English, meaning at the stile. 
Stoughton, Thomas. Old English, a place- 
name, stock or stump town. 
Sheldon, Isaac. Old English, meaning shell 

hill. 
Strong, Return. Old English, meaning 

strong man. 
Terry, Stephen. Norman, meaning people's 

ruler (Theodoric). 
Taylor, John. Norman, meaning a tailor. 
Tilton, Peter. Old English. 
Tudor, Owen. This name is from Welsh 

for Theodore, or the Greek God's gift. 
Thornton, Thomas. Old English, mean- 
ing thorny village. 
Vore, Richard ; Watson, Robert. Latter name 

Old English, meaning son of Walter. 
Williams, Roger. This name is from Anglo- 
Welsh, meaning son of William. 



Whitfield, John. Old English, mea: 
white field. 

Wolcott, Henry. Old English, meaning 

cottage at or with a wall. 
Eno, James. (1646; ; French Hnguei 

Enault, Henault, meaning forest on the 

Hain river. 

Another of the ancient towns is 
Wethersfield, the earliest English 
settlement in Connecticut colony, 
which received settlers from Water- 
town, Massachusetts, in 1634. From 
its records I find these names: 

William Barsham (Bassum). John CI 

Sergeant John Strickland, Andrew \V 

William Swayne, with Robert AL 

Roger Betts, Robert Sealey and Rev. John 

Sherman, who settled elsewhere later. 

Chester, Leonard, Esq. Finch, Abraham. 
Latter name Old English, meaning finch. 
Robert and Daniel Rose, (of Rose, or of 

the rose) of 1634 remained in the settlement 

and on the records from 1635 to 1645 appear 

the family names: 

Adams, Thomas; Bates. Robert. The lat- 
ter name is old English, meaning son of 
Bartholomew. 

Belden, Richard. Old English, meaning 
bell valley. 

Bell, Francis. Norman, meaning the beauti- 
ful. 

Boardman, Samuel. Old English, meaning 
cottager. 

Bradfield, James Bosey-Leslie (Broadfield). 
The latter from Old English, meaning 
broad field. 

Brundish, John. Old English. 

Burrows, Robert, (Burroughs). Old Eng- 
lish, meaning of the borough. 

Benjamin, Caleb. Hebrew, meaning son of 
the right hand, coming through Norman. 

Cattell, or Catlin, John. Old Knglish. 
meaning Kettell or son of Catherine. 

Carrington, John. Old English, meaning 
Carr's town. 

Chaplin, Clement. Norman, meaning chap- 
lain. 

Chappell, George. Norman, meaning of 
the chapel. 

Churchill, Tosiah. Old English, meaning 
church hill or Norman Council. 

Cole, James, 2d; Coleman, Thomas. The 
latter name is Old Knglish. meaning coal 
man; or possibly Columbauus. 

Clark. Samuel; Coe. Robert. C 
William. The last named 
meaning valley town. 

Cross William. Old English, km 
the cross. 



4io THE NOMENCLATURE OF CONNECTICUT FAMILIES 



Curtis, John and Thomas. Norman, mean- 
ing courteous. 

Deming, John; Dickinson, Nathaniel and 
John. Old English, meaning son of 
Dickin, Richard. 

Denton, Rev. Richard. Old English, mean- 
ing valley town. 

Dix, Leonard. Old English, meaning son 
of Richard. 

Doety, Daniel ; Edwards, John and Thomas. 
Old English, meaning son of Edward. 

Elsen, Abraham and John. Old English, 

meaning Elias' son. 
Evans, John, Gent. Welsh, meaning John. 
Fletcher, John. Norman, meaning arrow 

maker. 
Ferris, Jeffrey. Norman, meaning Frederic 

or English ferry. 
Gardner, Samuel. Old English, meaning 

gardener. 
Gibbs, John and Gregory. Old English, 

meaning son of Gilbert. 

Graves, Isaac, John and Nathaniel ; Gilder- 
sleeve, Richard. Latter is Old English, 
meaning one having sleeve braided with 
gold. 

Goodrich, John and William. Old English, 
meaning good ruler. 

Hals, Samuel. Old English, meaning at 
the hall. 

Hollister, St. John. Anglo-Saxon, meaning 
heolster, dark place, cave. 

Hoyt, Walter. Norman, meaning little Hugh. 

Hubbard, George and Samuel; Hurlbut, 
Thomas; Ireland, Samuel. Latter is Old 
English, meaning of Ireland. 

Jagger, Jeremy, (or Gager). Old English, 
meaning teamster. 

Jessup, John. Norman, meaning Joseph. 

Jordan. Norman, meaning from river Jor- 
dan. 

Jennings, Joshua; Jones, Lewis. Latter is 
Welsh, meaning Johns. 

Kilbourne, John and Thomas. Old English, 
meaning keel or boat brook. 

Latimer, John. Old English, meaning 
Latimer or Latin scholar. 

Law, Richard. Old English, meaning hill. 

Lilley, John. Old English, meaning lily. 

Langdon, Andrew. Old English, meaning 
long hill. 

Livermore, John. Old English, meaning 
rush lake (mere). 

Miller, John. Old English, meaning a miller. 

Miles, Richard, or Mills. Old English, 
meaning at the mill. 

Mitchell, Matthew. Norman, from Hebrew 
Michael, "who is like God"; Mason, 
Edward; Morecock, Nicholas. Old Eng- 
lish, meaning little Maurice. 



Morehouse, Thomas. This name is taken 
from Old English, meaning house on the 
moor. 

Nonth-end, John. Old English, meaning 
at the north end of a street or village. 

Norton, Francis. Old English, meaning 
north village. 

Nott, Sergeant John; Parks, Robert and 
Thomas. Latter is taken from Old Eng- 
lish, meaning at the Park. 

Palmer, Henry; Pierce, (?) Edward and 

John ; Prudden, Rev. Richard. Latter is 

Norman, meaning Prudhomme, shrewd 

man. 
Richard, Roger. Welsh, meaning ap- 

Richard, son of Richard. 
Rawlins, (Rollins), Jasper. Norman, mean- 
ing son of Ralph. 
Richells, Sigesmund. From the Norman, 

meaning from Richard. 
Raynor, Thurston. Norman, meaning 

judgment power. 
Reynolds, John and Robert. Norman, 

meaning judgment power. 
Sherman, Edmund. Old English, meaning 

cloth shearer. 
Robbins, John, Gent. Old English, mean- 
ing son of Robert. 
Rogers, William. Norman, meaning famous 

with the spear. 
Root, John; Saddler, John. The latter 

name is Old English, meaning saddle 

maker. 
Scott, Edward; Seaman, John. The latter 

is Old English, meaning sailor. 
St. John, (Sension), Matthias; Sherwood, 

Thomas. Latter is Old English, meaning 

shire forest. 
Smith, Samuel and Rev. Henry ; Stoddard, 

John. Latter is Old English, meaning 

Stud-herd, keeper of horses. 
Taintor, Charles. Norman, meaning a dyer. 
Talcott, Captain Samuel ; Taylor, William ; 

Tinker, Captain John. The latter is Old 

English, meaning a tinker. 
Tracy, Lt. Thomas. Norman, and is a place- 
name. 
Thomson, John. Old English, meaning 

Thomas' son. 
Topping, (Tappan), Captain Thomas. Old 

English, meaning Turpin. 
Treat, Richard; Ufford, Thomas. The 

latter is Old English, meaning Offa's ford. 
Vere, Edward. Norman, meaning from 

Vere in La Manche. 
Ward, John; Wade, Jonas; Waterhouse, 

Jacob. Latter is Old English. 
Westall, (Wastoll), John. Old English, 

meaning west hall. 
Wescott, Richard. Old English, meaning 

west cottage. 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF CONNECTICUT FAMILIES 



4i 



Whitmore, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
white moor. 

Whitway, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
white road. 

Welles, Ensign Hugh; Weeks, Thomas 

Wicksor. Latter meaning at the wyke 

or dwelling. 
Williams, Matthew. 
Wolcott, George ; Wood, Edward and Jonas. 

Latter is Old English, meaning of the 

wood. 

Wright, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
skilled workman. 

Yates, Thomas. Old English, meaning at 
the gate. 



In the New Haven Colony I find 
the following list of Planters in 1643: 

Allen, Roger; Andrews, William; Atkinson, 
Luke. Latter is Old English, meaning 
son of Arthur. 

Atwater, David and Joshua. Old English, 
meaning at the water. 

Axtell, Nathaniel. From Norse "Axel?" 

Baldwin, Widow. Norman, meaning bold 
friend. 

Bayley, Samuel. Norman, meaning bailiff. 

Beach, Richard. Old English, meaning at 
the beach tree. 

Banister, Edward. Norman, meaning cross- 
bowman. 

Beckley, Richard. Old English, meaning 
brook field. 

Bell, Abraham. " Norman, meaning the 
beautiful. 

Benham, John. Old English, meaning 
Bennet village. 

Boykin, Jarvis. Old English, meaning 
Baldwin's son. 

Brewster, Francis. Old English, meaning 
a brewer. 

Brockett, John. Old English, meaning 
young deer. 

Browne, Peter. Norman, meaning brown. 

Browning, Henry, Old English, meaning 
son of Brown. 

Buckingham, Thomas. Old English, mean- 
ing village of the Buck family. 

Budd, John. Old English for Baldwin. 

Caffinch, or Coffins, John. Old English, 
meaning chaffinch, or Norman " Carwin," 
bald man. 

Chittenden, William. Old English, mean- 
ing valley. 

Constable, Mrs. Norman, meaning con- 
stable. 

Charles, John. Norman-Teuton, meaning 
earl, a man, male. 



Chapman, John. Old English, meaning 

retail merchant. 
Cheevers, Ezekiel ; Coggswell. Robert 

letter is Old English, meaning Coggas 

Clark, James and John; Cooper, John. 
Latter is Norman, meaning a 

Crane Jasper. Old English, meaning crane 
(bird). 

Davenport, John. Old English, meaning 

port in Cheshire. 
Dearner, Mr. ; Desborough, Samu 

Jeremiah. The latter if Old English, 

meaning son of Richard. 
Eaton, Samuel and Theophiius, Two el 
Elsey, Nicholas; Eldred. Mrs. Latfc 
Old English, meaning battle (or old) coun- 
sel. 

Evance, John. Welsh, meaning Evans. 
Ferm, Benjamin. Old English, meaning 

at the fen. 

Fowle, or Fowler, William. Old English, 
meaning fowl or fowler. 

Ford, Timothy. Old English, meaning at 
the ford. s 

Fugill, Thomas. Old English, meaning 
fowl. 

Goodyear, Stephen. Norse, meaning Gud- 
hir. 

Gilbert, Matthew. From the Teuton, mean- 
ing bright pledge. 

Greene, Widow. Old English, meaning at 

the green. 
Gregson, Thomas. Old English, meaning 

son of Gregory (Greek a watchman). 

Hall, Francis and Richard. Old Engii>h. 
meaning at the hall. 

Halbige, or Holbride, Arthur. Old Eng- 
lish, meaning hall bridge? 

Hill, Robert. Old English, meaning at the 

hill. 
Hickock, Matthias. Old English, meaning 

son of Richard. 
Higinson, (Mrs.) Old English, meaning son 

of Richard. 
Hawkins, William. Old English, meaning 

son of Hal., namely, Henry. 

Hurskins, William. Old English, del 

from Hodgkins, meaning son of Roger. 

Ives, William. From the Norman "Wo" 
or " Ive." 

James, Thomas. Norman, or from Hebron 
Jacob, a supplanter. 

Jeanes, William. Norman, meanr 

Jeffrey, Thomas. Norman, mean:: 
frey, or Teuton, God's peace. 

Johnson, John. Old English, meaning 
of John. 

Kimberly, Thomas. An Old English place- 
name. 



4 i2 THE NOMENCLA TURE OF CONNECTICUT FAMILIES 



Kitchell. Robert; Lamberton. George. Lat- 
ter is Old English, from Lambert's village. 

Ling, Benjamin. Old English, meaning at 
the heath. 

Leete, William. Esq., meaning son of 
Lettice. 

Livermore, John, meaning moor. 

Low, Andrew. Old English, meaning ahill. 

Lucas, William, meaning son of Luke. 

Mansfield, Mr. Old English, meaning- 
Mann's field. 

Marshall, William. Norman, meaning far- 
rier marshal. 

Mayers, Mr. Norman, meaning mayor. 

Miles, Richard. Norman, meaning soldier. 

Mosse, John. Old English, meaning at the 
moss. 

Moulthrop, Matthew. Old English, mean- 
ing mill village. 

Melbon, Richard. Old English, mill-burn (?) 
or mill brook. 

Nash, Thomas. Old English, meaning at 
the ash tree. 

Newman, Francis and Robert. Old Eng- 
lish, meaning new resident. 

Os-borne, Richard and Thomas. Old Eng- 
lish, meaning divine bear. 

Patteson, Edward. Old English, meaning 
Patrick's son. 

Pearce, Mark. Old English, meaning son 
of Peter. 

Paule, Daniel. From the Norman Lat 
Paulus, meaning little. 

Perry, Richard. Old English, meaning at 
the pear tree. 

Peck, William ; Piatt, Richard. The latter 
name is Old English, meaning at the plot 
of ground. 

Powell, Thomas. Welsh, meaning ap-Hoel, 
son of Hoel, lordly, sometimes corruption 
of Paul (?) 

Potter, John William and Widow. Old 
English, meaning a potter. 

Preston, William. Old English, meaning 
priest village. 

Preden, (Pruden), James and Peter; Reeder, 
John. Latter is Old English, meaning 
reader. 

Ro(w)e. English, meaning at the row of 
houses. 

Rutherford, (Rudderford), Henry. Old 
English, meaning cattle ford. 

Russell, James. Norman, meaning little 
Roux (Rouse) or reddish man. 

Seeley, Robert. Old English, meaning 
simple man. 

Sherman, Widow. Old English, meaning 
cloth shearer. 

Smyth, George; Stonell, Henry. The latter 
name is Old English, meaning stonehill 
or hall. 



Tapp. Edmund. Old English. 
Tench, Edward. Old English, meaning fish. 
Thompson, Arthur. Old English, meaning 
Thomas' son. 

Thorpe, William. From Old English village. 

Tuttle, William. Old English, meaning 
tote-hill or watch hill. 

Trowbridge, Thomas. Old English, mean- 
ing trough bridge. 

Turner, Captain Nathaniel. Old English, 
meaning wood turner. 

Welch, Thomas. Old English, meaning a 
Welshman. 

Ward, George and Lawrence; Wiggles- 
worth. Latter is Old English, meaning 
farm. 

Wilks, William. Old English, meaning son 
of William. 

Whitfield, Henry. Old English, meaning 
white field. 

Whitman, Zach. Old English, meaning 
white man. 

Whitehead, Samuel. Old English, meaning 

"towhead." 
Wheeler, Moses. Old English, meaning 

wheelwright. 
Williams, Widow ; Whitnell, Jeremiah. The 

latter name is Old English, meaning 

White-town-hall or hill. 
Yale, David and Thomas. Welsh. 

In the records of Saybrook's 
earliest settlers are : 

Fenwick, Colonel George. Old English, 

meaning fen village. 
Gardiner, George. Old English, meaning 

a gardener. 
Mason, John; Leffingwell, Thomas. The 

last name is Old English, meaning Leof's 

or desirable well. 
Backus, Thomas Tracy. The last name is 

Old English, meaning bake-house, 
Huntington, Baldwin. The last name is 

Old English, meaning village of the hunts. 
Dudley, Hyde. The last name is Old Eng- 
lish, meaning Dodd's or people's field. 
Whittlesy, Old English, meaning Whittle's 

Island. 

Rev. Thomas Peters Was the first pastor, 
The later settlers were mainly from Hart- 
ford and Windsor. 

These lists may serve to give at least 
a general idea of the nomenclature 
of early Connecticut families, many 
descendants of whom are still honor- 
ing their surnames today as distin- 
guished men and women in the 
world's work. 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT 
Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 



This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries should be as 
precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his personal attention to questions 
free of charge. Extended investigations will be made by him for a reasonable compensation. Persons having old 
family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are requested to communicate with him with 
reference to printing them. Readers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the editor in answering queries, many 
of which can only be answered by recourse to original records. Querists are requested to write clearly all names of 
persons and places so that they cannot be misunderstood. Queries will be inserted in the order in which they are 
received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked 
Genealogical Department. Give full name and post office address— Editor 



112. (a) Root. Joseph Root of Wood- 
bury, in which place he was 
born 1698, and lived there till 
her death in 1761, married 

Susanna , whose maiden 

name is desired. An examina- 
tion of the records of Woodbury 
and Stratford disclose a Susanna 
Titherton, born 1700, who 
could have been his wife. 
Names of children new in Root 
family, born to them, were 
Gideon, Olive, Mabel, Justus, 
which may afford a clue. 

(b) Root. John Root of Wood- 
bury, where he died 1723. na d 
wife named Dorcas, and her 
parentage is desired. It is 
found that a Robert Rose of 
same town had a daughter 
Dorcas, of contemporary age, 
who is not named in division of 
property by her father. 

(c) Huthwit. Who were the par- 
ents of Judith , wife of John 

Huthwit of Woodbury? She 
died in 1704 and presumably 
was born about 1670. 

(d) Terrill. Who were the par- 
ents of Sarah , wife of 

Roger Terrill of Woodbury. 
She died in 1728 and from dates 
of births of children should 
place her birth about 1660. 



(e) Burr. Who were the parents 

of Deborah , wife of Colonel 

John Burr of Fairfield? She 
must have been born about 1675. 

(f) Hull. Who were the parents 
of Rebecca Hull, wife of 
Thomas Nash of Fairfield? He 
was born 1708 and married in 
1731. She died 1791. 

(g) Nash. Who were the parents 

of Sarah , wife of Captain 

Thomas Nash of Fairfield? He 
was born in 1680 and married 
about 1705. She died 1760. 

C. E. B. 
113. (a) Bushndl — Pratt — Cone. 

I enclose copy of an old docu- 
ment in my possession which 
may help to answer Query 100 b. 

"The marriage and children 
of Ephraim Bushnell and Mary 
Long (Lay?) 

"Ephraim Bushnell and Mary 
Long were married each to 
other the oth of November, 
1697. Their daughter Mary 
Bushnell was born the 8th Pay 
of November, 1699. 

"Their daughter Martha 
Bushnell was born ye 27th day 
of September, \- t oi. 

"Their son Ephraim Htishnell 
was born ye 27th day of S 
tember, T702. 



4 i4 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



"Their daughter Sarah Bush- 
nell was boin ye 21st Day of 
April, 1704. 

"Their son Jedidiah Bushnell 
was born ye 5th day of March, 
1705-6. 

"The above was taken from 
the town Records of Saybrookin 
Conn. Lib. 2, Page 2d, and is a 
true copyexaminedand attested. 

"Sam'l Tully, Town Clerk." 
Also: 

"Wm. Bushnell 3 (Wm. 2 
Francis 1 ) m. 1st wife Rebecca, 
who died May 14, 1703; m. 2nd 
June 9, 1705, Widow Sarah 
Bull. Children by 1st wife. 

"Ephraim b. Feb. 14, 1675-6 
of Saybrook, m. 1st Nov. 9, 
1697, Mary Lay or Long; m. 
2d Oct. 16, 1 7 12, Sarah Hill." 

Children by first wife were the 
same as given in the previous 
copy and it would seem that if 
the above Ephraim had a son 
James, Sarah Hill must have 
been his mother, as the name 
and date of birth is not given 
with the list of other children. 

(b) What was the date when 
Sam'l Tully was Town Clerk? 

Mary Bushnell, granddaugh- 
ter of Ephraim and Mary 

(Long) married Pratt. 

They had children: Charity, 
Edward, Jeremiah, Temperance 
and Hannah. Can any one 
give me his given name? 

The question asked by J.C. is 
not answered in the Cone gen- 
ealogy by William Whitney 
Cone, and correspondence with 
him has failed to elicit the de- 
sired information. 

(c) John Pratt, Jr. (John 2 Lieut. 
Wm. 1 ), married Hannah Wil- 
liams November 20, 1697. They 
lived in the part of Saybrook 
called Pautaupaug. I would 
like the ancestors of Hannah 
Williams. 

Asa Pratt 5 (Lieut. John 4 , 
John, Jr. 3 , John 2 , Lieut. Wm. 1 ) 
married Abigail Denison Octo- 



ber 7, 1759. Can any one give 
me her ancestors? F. M. C. 

114 (a) Pond. Was Lieutenant Sam- 
uel Pond's fifth child, Lois, 
baptized 1690, Branford, the 
Lois Pond who married, June 
24, 1730, Joseph Lee of Guil- 
ford, born August 26, 1690 

(b) Bennett. Wanted, the parent- 
age of Abigal Bennett, married 
December 11, 1695, James Bish- 
op of New Haven. 

(c) Clinton. Wanted, parentage 
of Elizabeth Clinton, who mar- 
ried, June 20, 1725, James 
Bishop, son of the above. 

(d) Tuttle. Wanted, the parent- 
age of Phebe Tuttle, born 1731, 
North Haven, who married 
Amos Bishop prior to 1758. 

(e) Hayes. Wanted, the maiden 
name of Hannah, who married 
George Hayes, born 1727, Sims- 
bury, and who had children, 
Seth, Eli, George, Plinn, Han- 
nah and possibly others. 

Mrs. E. D. K. 

115. Clarke. 

"In Memory of (Elder. (?) 

George Clarke He Died 

August 21. A.D. 1762 

Aged. 82 years. 
Blessed are ye Dead 
,That Die in ye Lord" 
The above is from an old 
tombstone in the North West 
Cemetery, Woodbridge, Conn. 
Is this George Clark, who died 
August 21, 1762, the son or 
grandson of George and Deb- 
orah (Gold) Clark? Wanted, 
his wife's name and date of 
marriage. 

116. Wheelock. Wanted, the names 
of the children of Eleazer Whee- 
lock, born 1759; married, first, 
Tryphena Young- of Lisbon 
Conn. ; second, Thankful Pen- 
nock, died December 7, 181 1, 
Boat Run, Ohio. Eleazer 
Wheelock was born in Connec- 
ticut, possibry in Lebanon. 

M. F. W. 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



117. Seymour. It is stated in the 
"New History of Wethersfield, ' ' 
by Stiles, that Richard Sey- 
mour, Hartford, 1639, came 
from Chelmsford in Essex. Is 
there any authority for the 
statement? J. T. A. 

This being in substance iden- 
tical with several queries re- 
ceived during the past month, it 
was thought best to interview 
Miss Talcott, whose name ap- 
pears at the head of the article 
in question. There is no au- 
thority. Miss Talcott asserts, 
that the statement was not in 
the manuscript she sent to the 
compiler and was inserted after 
it left her hands without her 
knowledge or consent. 

If it is the custom to thus 
alter and amend the. contribu- 
tions of distinguished genealo- 
gists in such histories, of course 
the reliability of the whole 
work is seriously affected, and 
no accurate person can accept 
any statement without the per- 
sonal endorsement of the com- 
piler whose name is used as 
authority. 

118. Bailey. John Bailey. Wanted, 
name of wife, parents and an- 
cestors. He was a. constable in 
Hartford in 1656-7, and one 
of the twenty-eight original 
purchasers and settlers of Had- 
dam,Conn., 1662. T. O. B. 

119. Miller. Wanted, information 
concerning Jonathan Miller, 
born Northampton, Mass., Feb- 
ruary 13, 1729, died Hartland, 
Conn., July 29, 1810; lived in 
Farmington, Conn., Northing- 
ton Parish (now Avon) between 
1745 and 1800. 

Supposed private in regiment 
of light infantry, Major Wyllys, 
Hartford; Captain Heart's com- 
pany, Farmington. 

Drafted from First Connecti- 
cut Infantry under command 



415 

of General Lafayette ; made 
private in the First Connecticut 
Line, Colonel Dur",. tain 

Heart; pensioned Jan : . . 1, 
1781, to December 1, 17 

Also concerning his father, 
Captain Jonathan Miller, who 
moved from Northampton , 
Mass., to Northington Pa 
about 1745; died Northin. 
Parish November 14, 1787. 

Mrs. E. C. H. 

120. (a) Hoit-Doolittie. Abraham 
Doolittle, son of Abraham and 
Joanna (Ailing) Doolittle, 
February 12, 1649; married, 
November 9, 1680, Mary, uau-h- 
ter of William Holt. Who 
. William Holt? Is the name of 
his wife known? 

(b) Chidsey- Ailing. Samuel Ailing, 
son of Riger and Mary (Nash) 
Ailing, born November 4, 1645 ; 
married October 26,1683, Sarah, 
daughter of John Chidsey. Who 
was John Chidsey and what 
was the name of his v 
mother of Sarah? 

(c) Coe, John Ailing, baptized Oc- 
tober 2, 1647; first Treasurer of 
Yale College; married, January 
16, 1672, Susanna, daughter of 
Robert Coe of Stratford. Who 
were Robert and his wife? 

(d) Sacket. Who were the par- 
ents of Sarah Sackett, who mar- 
ried Jonathan Ailing, born Oc- 
tober 13, 1683? 

(e) Edwards. Was Mary Ed- 
wards, who married in E 
land, 1636, Francis Brow: 
same family as William Ed- 
wards, father of Richard, who 
married Elizabeth Tattle? The 
second husband of Ann, wife of 
Rev. Richard and mother of 
William Edwards, was James 
Coles. Could he have been an- 
cestor of Joseph Coles of W. 
lingford, who married Abigail 
Royce and had Abigail, 
married Beniamin Moss' 



416 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



(f) Graves. Who was Deacon 
George Graves of Hartford, 
whose daughter, Sarah, married 
Jonathan Deming; and is the 
family name of his wife, Sarah, 
known? 

(g) Bnnce. Who was Thomas 
Bunce of Hartford and what 
place did he fill in the early 
history of the town? 

(h) D ic kins on-Mee kins. What are 
the dates of Thomas Dickinson 
of Hartford and his wife, Me- 
hitable Meekins? 

Watson-Smith. Who were 
John Watson of Hartford and 
his wife, Margaret Smith? 

(i) Ke Hogg-Terry. I should also 
like dates of birth and marriage 
of Lieutenant Joseph Kellogg 
and his wife, Abigail Terry, 
and their parentage. C. I. I. 

121. (a) Shepardson-Church. Jared 
Shepardson, born 1763, died at 
Halifax, Vt., 1809, married 
Ruth Church, who was born 
1770 and died at Gerry, N. Y., in 
1850. Who were the parents of 
Jared Shepardson? Who were 
the parents of Ruth Church? 

Colonel Timothy Church, 
born at Hadley, Mass., 1736, 
died at Brattleboro, Vt, 1823, 
married Abigail Church. Who 
were her parents? Who were 
their children? 

(b) Eaton-Sloan. Jonathan Eaton 4 
(Jonathan 3 , John 2 , John of Ded- 
ham 1 ) of Adams, Mass., born 
1 72 1, died 1775, married Sarah 
. Who were her parents? 

(c) Stevens-Page. Henry Stevens, 
a Revolutionary soldier, born at 
Wallingford, Conn., in 1764, 
died at Plymouth, Conn., 185 1. 
His father was Eliakim Stevens. 
Who was his grandfather? 

Ruth Page, born in Durham, 
Conn., 1 77 1, married the above 
Henry Stevens, and died in 
1829. Who were her parents? 

(d) Guernsey - Disbrow - Merchant. 
Joseph Guernsey 3 (Joseph 2 , 



John 1 ) of Milford, Conn., born 
1674, and died 1754. He mar- 
ried, first, Elizabeth Disbrow of 
Horseneck, and second, Eleanor 
Disbrow, her sister. Who were 
the parents of Elizabeth and 
Eleanor Disbrow? 

Joseph Guernsey 4 (son of the 
above Joseph 3 ) of Westbury or 
Waterbury, Conn, born 1700, 
married Rachel Merchant. Who 
were her parents? 

(e) Bronson - Smith. Hinman's 
"Puritan Settlers of Connecti- 
cut," states that Samuel Bron- 
son (son of Isaac) of Kensing- 
ton, Conn., born about 1676, 
died 1724, married Ruth Smith. 
Who were her parents? 

(f) Prindle. Eleazer Prindle of 
Milford, Conn., was one of a 
company "who had a desire to 
purchase land at New Milford, 
Conn., in 1701." Who did he 
marry and who were his par- 
ents? J. E. S. 

122. (a) Humes. Wanted, ancestry 
of Nicholas Humes, married in 
Boston February 13 or 14, to 
Joanna Everton; second, mar- 
ried about 1 7 19, Margaret , 

whose family name is desired. 
After second marriage he lived 
in Mendon Uxbridge and 
Douglass, Mass. He married, 
third, about 1742, Dorcas (Cur- 
tis) Williams, relict of John 
Williams of Dedham. Her 
daughter, Sarah Williams, mar- 
ried, about 1750, Richard 
Humes, son of Nicholas and 
Margaret (?) Humes. 

(b) Williams- Lyon. John Wil- 
liams, weaver, of Dedham, 
Mass., married, before 1730, 
Dorcas Curtis, daughter of 
Jonathan and Sarah (Lyon) 
Curtis. He died about 1741. 
Want his ancestry, and Sarah 
Lyon's, also. 

(c) Witter. Sarah Witter (or 
Winter?), born December 12, 
1757, married, 1777, Elishi 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



4i7 



Stewart, son of William Stew- 
art, Jr., of Stonington, Conn., 
and wife, Elizabeth Stevens. 
Want Witter line in full. 

(d) Stewart-Church. Sarah Church 
married at Stonington, Conn., 
May 5, 17 13, William Stewart 
(or Steward?). She died 1745. 
Want full Church and Stewart 
ancestry. 

(e) Gallop-Lake. Was it Captain 
John Gallup, married to Hannah 
Lake, who was killed in Swamp 
fight December 19, 1676, or 
was it his father? Would like 
full information on Gallups and 
Lakes. 

(f) Fellows-Cross. Ephraim Fel- 
lows married, before 1685, 
Anne, daughter of Robert Cross 
of Salem, Mass. Would like 
dates and facts in Cross and 
Fellows lineage. Ephraim Fel- 
lows was later at Plainfield, 
where his daughter married 
Henry Stevens, Jr., and they 
were parents of Elizabeth (Stev- 
ens) Stewart. 

(g) Smith-Baker. Andrew Smith, 
a weaver, married before 1775, 
at Norwich or New London, 
probably Alice Baker (or 
Backus?), and about 1809 
moved to Berkshire County, 
Mass. Want both lines of an- 
cestry in full. Their daughter, 
Ruth Smith, married Stephen 
Payne of Hinsdale, Mass., 
moved to New Lebanon, N. Y. 
She lived once at Franklin, 
Conn. They named one son, 
Noah Smith Payne; Andrew 
Smith's youngest son was 
Backus Smith. 

(h) Payne- Kinne- Cogswell. The 
parents of Stephen Payne were 
Ebenezer Leach and Kezia 
(Kinne) Payne, married in 1738 
at Hinsdale, Mass. She is said 
to be the daughter of Daniel (?) 
Kinney of New Milford, Conn., 
and Peru, Mass. Deacon Kin- 
ney's wife was either Kezia or 
Huldah Cogswell, daughter of 



Nathaniel and Huldah ( f) 

Cogswell. Would like fuii Kin- 
ne and Cogswell lines and their 
intermarriages. 

(i) Payn - Leach - Bushnell. Wai 
Stephen Payne or Paine, who 
married at Coventry, Conn., in 
1756-60, Annie or Rebecca 
Bushnell, the son of Stephen 
and Sarah (Leach), married at 
Pomfret, Conn., in 1727? His 
oldest son is named Ebenezer 
Leach, indicating relationship. 
A grandson is called Bushnell 
Payn. Want ancestry of Payn, 
Leach and Bushnells. 

(3) Lord. Richard Lord, one of 
the founders of Hartford, mar- 
ried Sarah, daughter of Deacon 
George Graves, another found- 
er. Can correct date of her 
birth, marriage and death be 
had? Also birth of her daugh- 
ter, Sarah, who married Rev. 
Joseph Haynes, son of Gov- 
ernor Haynes? Is her mother's 
name known? or lineage of 
Richard's mother, Dorothy 
(Bulkley?) Lord? 

(k) Terrdl-Burwcll. Deacon Job 
Terrell married Sarah Burwell, 
daughter of Ephraim Burwell 

and . Was Elizabeth 

Terrill born 1727, married 
Thomas Beecher and died 1802. 
buried at Woodbridge, Conn. 
A sister or daughter? Would 
like full Burwell and Terrill 
data. 

(1) Talmadgt-Yale. Were Enos 
Talmadge and Hannah Y 
married 1689, the parents of 
Sarah Talmadge who, in 171;,. 
married Abraham Heming 
of East Haven, Conn? They 
have orandson named El 

(m) Sanford-Gibbard-Tapp. Full 
date desired of ancestors oi An- 
drew Sand ford, who married 
Sarah Gibbard, daughter of 
William Gibbard ind- 

daughter oi Edmund T 
Would like to know what off 
positions these held, and when 



4i8 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



Gibbard and Sanfords came to 
America. 

(n) Wakefield-Dibble. Wakefield 
Dibble of Windsor, Conn., mar- 
ried, for second wife, Jane Tyler 
(or Filer?). Her ancestry wanted. 
Also that of Mary Wakefield, 
his mother. Is his father's 
mother's name known, the wife 
of Thomas Dibble in Windsor, 
Conn., in 1635. His second 
wife was Elizabeth Hayden. 

(o) Walker - Alexander. Joseph 
Walker, born about 1742, lived 
at Lancaster, Penn., and mar- 
ried a widow for his second 
wife before 1792, Jane Alexan- 
der, who had first husband, 

Morrow; second, Service; 

third, Joseph Walker. Both 
died in Washington County, 
Penn. Want ancestors of both. 
Where is the best place to pro- 
cure data on Pennsylvania 
births, marriages, etc.? 

Ross. Would like information 
on John, James, Hugh and 
Moses Ross, in Chester County, 
Penn., about 1723. One is said 
to have had a son Robert, a 
Presbyterian minister in Con- 
necticut. Can any one give in- 
formation about him or his.de- 
scendants? 

123. Robertson. I would like to 
learn through the genealogical 
columns of the next Magazine, 
if possible where and when Dan- 
iel Robertson, Jr. (who was 
born in Coventry, Conn., De- 
cember 21, 1721, and married 
Susannah Robertson of New- 
bury, Mass.), died. A. B. G. 

124, (a) Camp-Clark. Who were 
the parents of Riverius Camp 
(1751-1824) and Huldah Clark, 
his wife (1755-1782), of New 
Milford, Conn.? Their son was 
Israel Camp, who married Cor- 
nelia Canfield, daughter of Col- 
onel Samuel Canfield of Sharon. 

(b) Stedman. Who were the 
parents of Elizabeth Stedman, 



wife of Ichabod Smith, whose 
daughter,Jerusha, married Paul 
Smith of Sharon, Conn., the 
brother of Rev. Cotton Mather 
Smith? 
(c) Richards. Who were the 
parents of Elizabeth Richards, 
who married Abijah Browne, 
son of Deacon Deliverance 
Browne of Canterbury, Conn.? 
Abijah Brown was born in 17 18, 
died 1770; he was the father of 
Captain Shubael Browne of 
Brooklyn, Conn. G. 1. B. 

125. (a) Covell. What was the 
maiden name of Abigail, the 
wife of Stephen Covell? They 
had son Stephen, born 1729, at 
Killingly, Conn. The Covells 
came from Charlestown, Mass. 

(b) Givens. All information pos- 
sible on the Givens family of 
Eastern Conn. John Givens 
was called "trader" at Killing- 
ly, Conn., about 1734. What 
was the maiden name of his 
wife, Mary? Were they from 
Stonington? Elizabeth Givens 
married Stephen Covell of Kill- 
ingly about 1753. 

(c) Peck. What was the maiden 
name of Hannah, wife of Joseph 
Peck? He was born in Hing- 
ham, England, about 1623. 

(d) Thurber. What was the 
maiden name of Priscilla, wife 
of James Thurber, who came 
to Rehoboth about 167 1? 

(e) Peters. What authority, other 
than Rev. Samuel Peters' state- 
ment, is there for the statement 
that Mary Marks, who married 
about 1 71 7 John Peters of 
Hebron, Conn., was grand- 
daughter of General Thomas 
Harrison, the regicide? 

(f) Phelps. Who were the parents 
of William Phelps (1st) of Wind- 
sor, Conn. ? 

(g) Thrall. What was the name 
of the wife of William Thrall 
and mother of Philura (Thrall) 
Horsford? 



STUDIES IN ANCESTR 



419 



(h) Holcomb. What was the 
maiden name of Elizabeth, wife 
of Thomas Holcomb, early of 
Windsor? Did she marry, sec- 
ond, James Eno? G. A .T. 

126. (a) Knight- Co ffley. Rebecca 
Knight, born March 7, 1643, 
married Abiel Somerby, No- 
vember 13, 1661. She was the 
daughter of Deacon Richard 
Knight, born 1602 in England, 
died August 4, 1683, in New- 
bury, Mass., married Agnes 
Coffley, who died 1679. Would 
like ancestry of Agnes Coffley, 
also Richard's English ancestry. 

(b) Brockleband- Somerby. Jane 
Brockleband married Abiel 
Somerby January 26, 1693. 
They were the parents of the 
above Abiel. Wanted Jane 
Brockleband's ancestry. 

(c) Somerby. Anthony Somerby, 
born August, 1610, died July, 

1686, married Abigail , who 

died June 3, 1643. What was 
her maiden name and ancestry? 
Anthony was the son of Rich- 
ard and grandson of Henry of 
England. Would like to ascer- 
tain more about the family. 

(d) Withatn. Joshua Pillsbury, 
son of Joshua and Mary (Som- 
erby) Pillsbury, was born, 
March 23, 1738, died April 6, 
1798, married Rebecca Witham. 
Wanted, her ancestry. 

(e) Allen. Daniel Pillsbury, son 
of Job and Mary (Gavet) Pills- 
bury, was born September 20, 
1678, married Sarah Allen Jan- 
uary 18, 1703. Wanted, her an- 
cestry. I have the Pillsbury 
genealogy by Miss Getchell of 
Newburvport, Mass. 

E. A. A. 



ANSWERS 

To No. 113 (b). Williams-Pratt. 
It is possible that Hannah 
Williams, who married John 



Pratt, Jr., November 20, 1697, 
was daughter of Thomas of 
Wethersfield and wife, Rebecca, 
born August 28, 1677. Her 
brother Thomas is said to have 
removed to Saybrook. 

To No. 114 (a). Pond. Lois Pond, 
daughter of Samuel and Mir- 
iam (Blatchley) Pond, baptized 
1690, married Joseph Lee. 

To No. 114 (b). Bennet. Accord- 
ing to Orcutt, 44 History of Strat- 
ford, " page 1 148, Abigail Ben- 
net, wife of James Bishop, was 
daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth 
(Rose) Bennet. 

To No. 115. Clark. George Clark, 
son of George and Deborah 
(Gold) Clark, born April 3, 
1682, married (no date) Marv 
Coley. 

To No. 124 (a). Camp. Riverius 
Camp was the son of Israel and 
Anna (Hine) Camp, and Huldah 
Clark, wife of Riverius, was 
probably daughter of Jonathan 
and Eunice (Bostwick) Camp, 
born September 15, 1754. 

Hinsdale. 44 The Hinsdale Genealo- 
gy, a record of the family in 
France, England and America, 
147 1 to 1905, is now ready for 
press. It is the compilation of 
Herbert C. Andrews, 419 
Blanchard Building, Los Ange- 
los, California, and embraces 
the descendants on male and 
female lines of Deacon Robert 
Hinsdale of Dedham, Mass. 
The name is common in New 
England, New York, and the 
Middle States. Several thous- 
and descendants are included in 
the book, which will contain 
five hundred pages and will 
sell for $10. Subscriptions re- 
ceived before May 1, at half- 
price offer of $5. AH des^ ; 
ants are requested to send their 
family records and subscrip- 
tions to the book at the a 
address." 



420 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



THE LINES FAMILY 

By Donald Lines Jacobus of 
New Haven, Connecticut 

Note 

I have endeavored to give below 
a fairly complete genealogy of the 
Lines Family of New Haven through 
the first five generations, and on a 
few lines of descent to* the present 
day, hoping that these notes may 
be made the foundation of a more 
complete genealogy of the family. 
I shall be glad to receive any addi- 
tions or corrections. I take this 
opportunity to express my indebt- 
edness to all who have aided me in 
my researches, but more particu- 
larly to Mrs. Betsey Morgan of 
Woodbridge, Conn. ; Mr. Calvin C. 
Lines of Peoria, 111., and Mr. H. 
Wales Lines of Meriden, Conn. 

Henry and Ralph Lines, usually 
supposed to be brothers, settled in 
New Haven about 1642. Henry 
states in the birth-record of his 
son, Samuel, that he is "second 
sonne of John Line (as he saith) of 
Badby two miles from Dantry 
[Daventry] in Northamptonshire." 
I have obtained the will of a John 
Lyne of Badby, who died in 1620. 
This John was probably father of 
John and grandfather of Henry, 
the emigrant. Further search 
might prove the connection of 
Henry and Ralph with this John 
Lyue. 

1. John Lyne of Badby, North- 
amptonshire, England, was left the 
estate of his mother, Elizabeth Lyne 
in 1600. He married Agnes. In 
his will be names his sons John and 
Henry, daughter Elizabeth, and son 
Joseph. "I give unto my wife 
Agnis X pound of currant monye. " 
The will was proved February 27, 
1620. 

Children: 
2. i. John. 

ii. Henry, executor of his 



father's will in 1620. 
He was, therefore, born 
before 1600, and was too 
old to be Henry of New 
Haven. 

iii. Elizabeth. 

iv. Joseph. 

2. John Lyne, Jr., was probably 
the man called father by Henry 
Lines. He had, then, for his second 
son: 

3. i. Henry 1 , settled in New 
Haven. 

3. Henry 1 Lines (John) settled in 
New Haven, Conn., and died Jan- 
uary 13-14, 1663. "An inventory of 
the estate of Henry Lines late of 
Newhaven deceased taken & ap- 
prised May 30, 1663." Elizabeth 
Lines, doubtless his widow, mar- 
ried, second, November 6, 1663, 
Thomas Lampson; married, third, 
March 29, 1666, Mr. John Morris. 

Children: 

i. John 2 , b. Aug. 7, 1656, 

d. Dec. 14, 1656. 
ii. Joanna, b. Oct. 20, bapt. 

24, 1658. 
iii. Samuel, b Jan. 16, bapt. 

Mar. 24, d. Apr., 1660. 
iv. Hopestill, b. Nov. 6, 
bapt. 9, 1661. 

4. Ralph 1 Lines, Sr., probably 
brother of Henry, lived in that part 
of New Haven later designated the 
parish of Amity, and now the town 
of Woodbridge. He died Septem- 
ber 7, 1689, and his estate showed 
an inventory of over ^242. In his 
will, dated December 4, 1687, he 
mentions sons Samuel, Ralph, 
Joseph and Benjamin, wife "Alis," 
and daughter Hannah. A codicil, 
dated February 1, 1689, says that as 
his life has been prolonged, and his 
daughter Hannah since died, he 
leaves her portion to his wife, 
Alice. An additional codicil, made 
during his last sickness, states as 
his son Benjamin has since died, 
but his widow being with child, to 
that child, if it lives, he bequeaths 
its father's portion. He also speaks 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



421 



of his deceased daughter Merriman. 
The will was proved November 13, 
1689 (New Haven Probate, Vol. II, 
p. 17). 
Children: 

5. i. Samuel 2 , b. Apr., 1649. 

6. ii. Ralph, b. July 18, 1652. 
iii. John, b. Nov., 1655, 

probably died young. 

7. iv. Joseph, b. Jan., 1658. 

8. v. Benjamin, b. Dec, 1659. 
vi. Hannah, b. Nov. 21, 

1665, m. Mar. 28, 1682, 
Capt. John Merriman of 
Wallingford. 

5. Samuel 2 Lines (Ralph 1 ) mar- 
ried, November, 1674, Mary, daugh- 
ter of John and Ellen (Harrison) 
Thompson, who was born April 24, 
1652. Samuel's inventory, taken 
June 8, 1692, shows estate of ^400 
(New Haven Probate, Vol. II, p. 
115). His widow re-married, sec- 
ond, John Hitchcock of Walling- 
ford; and third, Samuel Clark. In 
Wallingford land-deeds, her sons, 
John and Daniel Lines, call John 
Hitchcock their father-in-law [step- 
father], and John Hitchcock had a 
second wife, Mary (see " Hitchcock 
Genealogy"). Samuel Lines was 
baptized, when an adult, August 
28, 1687, and his children, John, 
Samuel, Mary, Ebenezer and Daniel 
Lines were baptized September 25, 
1687. 
Children : 

9. i. John 3 , b. Apr. 18, 1676. 
ii. Samuel, b. 1677, d. Oct. 
2 3> I 7°9« His estate 
went to his brothers 
and sister, 
iii. Mary, b. Jan. 29, 1679, 
m. June 27, i7°5» 
Thomas Wilmot. 
iv. Lydia, b. Feb. 17, 1681, 
d. May 28, 1683 
10. v. Ebenezer, b. Aug. 18, 
1684. 
vi. Daniel, b. Dec. 24, 
1686, removed to Wal- 
lingford, Conn., d. 
1709-10. 



vii. Ruth, b. Feb. 27, 1690, 
bapt. Jan. 12, 1691, 
probably died before 
June, 1692 

6. Ralph 2 Lines (Ralph 1 ) lived 
in " Amity," Conn., and married, 
April 27, 1681, Abiah, daughter of 
William Bassett, baptized February 
7, 1658. He was baptized May 27, 
1694, with his children, Hannah, 
Joseph, Phebe and Benjamin. In 
his will of January 9, 17 12, proved 
February 5, 1712, Ralph names his 
wife, Abia, sons Joseph, and Benja- 
min, and several daughters, includ- 
ing Hannah and Phebe. His estate 
was inventoried at over ^364. 
"Abia Lines of New Haven, widdow, 
is allowed guardian to Benjamin, 
Abia, and Rebeckah Lines and ap- 
pointed guardian to Alis Lines, 
being four minor children of Ralph 
Lines, late of New Haven, dec'd." 
(New Haven Probate, Vol. Ill, pp. 
347-8, 35 6 : Vol. IV, pp. 26, 106). 
"Abiah and Joseph Lines, Adm" 
of the estate of Ralph Lines pro- 
duced in court an amo' charged 
upon Nathan Clark in way of por- 
tion in right of his wife Phebe." 
Hannah Thomas, Abiah Lines and 
Benjamin Lines were also men- 
tioned as legatees of the estate Sep- 
tember 3, 1 7 16 (New Haven Pro- 
bate, Vol. IV., p. 420). 

Children: 

i. Ralph 3 , d. May S, 16S8. 

ii. Hannah, b. July 18, 
1684, m. between June, 
17 1 2, and June, 171,;. 
John Thomas. 3rd, son 
of John and I.' 
(Parker) Thouias. He 
was born Mar. 4, 1676, 
and married, for his 
first wife, Mary Ford. 
who died June 30, 171a. 
He had three children 
by each wife, and died 
June 13. 1747- 
11. iii. Toseph, b. Feb. 20, 1686, 

iv. Phebe, b. Tune 18,1 

m. (^ Mav 2-j, 1700. 



422 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



Nathan Clark; (2) 

Joshua Tuttle (see 

"Tuttle Genealogy"). 

v. Alice, b. Feb. 27, 1689, 

d. Nov. 18, 1689. 
vi. Ralph, b. Sept. 23, 1690, 
d. Dec. 7, 1693. 

12. vii. Benjamin, b. Jan. 1, 
1694. 
viii. Abiah, b. Feb. 7, 1696, 
m. between 1733 and 
1736, Sylvanus Clark, 
son of Ebenezer and 
Sarah (Peck) Clark, 
who was born Feb. 1, 
1692. In 1736, John 
and Hannah Thomas, 
Nathaniel and Rebecca 
Mix, Joseph Lines and 
Benjamin Lines, all of 
New Haven, and Sil- 
vanus and Abiah Clark 
of Wallingford, grant 
Aaron Tuttle nearly 
eighteen acres of land, 
laid out to their father, 
Ralph Lines, deceased 
(New Haven Land, 
Vol. X, p. 183). Sil- 
vanus Clark had mar- 
ried, previously, Apr. 
22, 1717, Damaris 
Hitchcock, by whom 
he had: Jonah, b. Jan. 
31, 1718; Thankful, b. 
Dec, 21, 1719; William, 
b. before 1727, and 
probably Damaris. Per- 
haps Abiah was his 
daughter by his second 
wife, Abiah (Lines) 
Clark, 
ix. Rebecca, b Feb., 1698, 
m. Aug. 31, 1732, Na- 
thaniel Mix. 
x. Alice, b. March 1, 1702. 
"Administration of the 
estate of Alias Lines, 
late of New Haven dec d 
was granted to Joseph 
and Benjamin Lines, 
brothers of the decV 
February 7, 1726 (New 



Haven Probate, Vol.V, 
pp. 277, 280). 

7. Joseph 2 Lines (Ralph 1 ) mar- 
ried, March 30-1, 1692, Abigail, 
daughter of William and Sarah 
(Hall) Johnson. In his will, dated 
April 29, 1729, proved September 6, 
1736, he mentions his wife, Abigail, 
and his daughters, Abigail Pease, 
Sarah Dorman, Elizabeth Terrell, 
Hannah and Thankful Lines. He 
makes his wife, Abigail, and daugh- 
ter Hannah executors, and in 1736 
the will is presented by Abigail 
Lines and Hannah, wife of Joseph 
Chatterton (New Haven Probate, 
Vol. VI, pp. 194-6). 

Children : 

i. Abigail 3 , b. Jan. 14, 
1693, m. June n, 1713, 
John Pease. 
13. ii. Sarah, b. Oct. 3, 1694, 
m. Feb. 24, 1720, 
Joseph Dorman. 
iii. Lydia, b. Dec. 14, 1696, 

d. young, 
iv. Elizabeth, b. June 16, 
1703, probably m. 
Ephraim Terrell. In 
1736, Ephraim Terrell 
of Milford, with his 
wife, Elizabeth, deeded 
land at Chestnut Hill 
to Joseph Chatterton 
(New Haven Land, Vol. 
X, p. 247). 

v. Hannah, b. May 8, 1706, 
m. (1) Oct. 6, 1731, 
Joseph Chatterton; m. 
(2) Oct. 17, 1743, Israel 
Baldwin. Hannah 
Chatterton was ap- 
pointed administratrix 
on the estate of her 
first husband, Joseph. 
Chatterton, Jan. 3, 1743. 
In 1 745 , ' * Israel Baldwin 
in behalf of his wife 
Hannah, administratrix 
on the estate of Joseph 
Chatterton, late of New 
Haven dec d exhibited 
debts due to said es- 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



423 



tate" (New Haven Pro- 
bate, Vol. VI, pp. 468, 
480-2, 655). 
vi. Thankful, b. May 8, 
1706. 

8. Benjamin 2 Lines (Ralph 1 ) mar- 
ried Anna, daughter of William and 
Sarah (Thomas) Wilmot. He died 
July 26, 1689, and soon after Anna 
married, second, Dr. Peter Car- 
rington. In 1702, Peter Carrington 
is called husband to Anna, admin- 
istratrix on the estate of her late 
husband, Benjamin Lines, deceased 
(County Court Records, New Haven, 
Vol. II, p. 83). Peter Carrington 
certified, November 12, 1695, that he 
had received from his mother, 
Sarah Wilmot, his portion of his 
father William Wilmot's estate 
(New Haven Probate, Vol. IV, p. 
64). Peter Carrington and his wife, 
Anna, afterwards have numerous 
land-dealings with Anna's brothers 
and sisters. 

Child: 

14. i. "Benjamin 3 , a post- 
hume child of Benja- 
min Lines deced borne 
ye 8th of Nov r , 1689." 

9. John 3 Lines (Samuel 2 , Ralph 1 ) 
lived in "Amity," Conn., and mar- 
ried, Dec. 27, 1700, Hannah Cooper, 
daughter of John Cooper, Jr., and 
his wife, Mary, daughter of John 
Thompson of East Haven. "Ad- 
ministration of the estate of John 
Lines late of Newhaven deceased 
was granted to Hannah Lines 
widdow and relict of the deceased," 
February 3, 1718 (New Haven Pro- 
bate, Vol. IV, pp. 492 and 514). 
His estate was inventoried at £186. 
His widow, Hannah, died Novem- 
ber 11, 1772, aged ninety-six; she 
mentions in her will, her children, 
Mary Hine, Daniel Lines, Kezia 
Ailing, Ruth Lounsbury and El- 
eanor Wheeler (New Haven Pro- 
bate, Vol. XI, p. 297). 

Children : 

i. Ruth 4 , b. Oct. 27, 1 701, 
d. Apr. 3, 1788; m. May 



7. 1724, Josiah Louns- 
bury. 

15. ii. Mary, b. about 1703, c. 

Oct. 25, 1790; m. May 
2i, 1724, Alexander 
Kine. 
iii. Helena, b. Mar. 3, 1706, 
in. Dec. 22, 1742, Caleb 
Wheeler of Stratford. 
Conn. 

16. iv. Samuel, b. Jan. 17, 

1708. 

17. v. Daniel, b. May 6, 171 2. 
vi. Keziah, b. Apr. 5, 

1715, m. about 1737, 
Samuel Ailing (see 
"Ailing Genealogy"). 

10. Ebenezer 3 Lines (Samuel 2 , 
Ralph 1 ) of Amity, Conn., married, 
July 30, 17 13, Rebecca, daughter of 
Nathaniel and Sarah (Dickerman) 
Sperry, who was born March 28, 
1690. Their children, Sarah, Ralph, 
Ebenezer and John Lines, were bap- 
tized December 25, 1726. In his 
will of December 8, 1740, proTed 
January 5, 1741, Ebenezer mentions 
his wife, Rebecca, and his sons 
Ebenezer, Ralph and John Lines 
(New Haven Probate, Vol. VI, p. 
323)- 

Children: 

i. Sarah 4 , b. Apr. 18, 
1 7 14, m. Feb. 13, 1735. 
Ezra Johnscn. 

18. ii. Ralph, b. May 23. 17 16. 

19. iii. Ebenezer, b. Apr. 26, 

171S. 

20. iv. John, b. Mar. 13, 1720. 

v. Titus, b. Aug. 6, bapt. 
Sept. 27, 1731. 

11. Joseph 11 Lines ( Ralph 1 , 
Ralph* 1 ) called Junior, married, 
February 3, 1700, Hannah Bradl 

In 1749, Joseph Lines ment 

his will his daughters Bather, wife 

of lohn Potter; Lydia, wife ol 
Timothy Peck; Rachel, wife of 
Benjamin Wooden, and Mary, t 

of Eliphalet Johnson: and bis 
grand-children * Timothy P 

Moses and Elizabeth Gilbert, chil- 



424 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



dren of Stephen Gilbert and his de- 
ceased daughter, Hannah. 
Children : 

i. Esther 4 , bapt. May 3, 
1719, m. Feb. 4, 1731, 
John Potter. 

21. ii. Lydia, bapt. May 3, 

1719, m. Sept. 23, 1736, 
Timothy Peck. 

iii. Hannah, bapt. May 3, 
1719, m. Stephen Gil- 
bert. 

iv. Rachel, bapt. May 3, 

1 719, m. Benjamin 
Wooden. 

v. Joseph, bapt. Dec, 

1720, d. young. 

vi. Mary, bapt. June, 1723, 
d. 1769, m. July 7,1743, 
Eliphalet Johnson. 

12. Benjamin 3 Lines (Ralph 2 -, 
Ralph 1 ) of Amity, Conn., was a 
husbandman, and was called junior 
to distinguish him from his cousin 
of the same name. He married, 
February 2, 1720, Dorcas, daughter 
of Joseph and Abigail (Preston) 
Thomas. 

Children : 

22. i. Benjamin 4 , b. Sept. 1, 

1720, 

23. ii. James, 
iii. Dorcas, 
iv. Alice. 

v. Mabel, m. Dec.31,1747, 
John Clark of Milford, 
Conn. 

24. vi. Joseph, b. about 1732. 

13. Sarah 3 Lines ( Joseph 2 , 
Ralph 1 ) married, February 24, 1720, 
Joseph Dorman, son of Joseph and 
Mary (Wilmot) Dorman. 

Children: 

i. Mabel Dorman, b. Oct. 
26,1720, m. (1) Nov. 10, 
z 743. J oe l Perkins; m. 
(2) Gershom Thomas, 
ii. Joseph Dorman, b. May 
25, 1723, m. Nov. 23, 
1749, Phebe Dorman. 
iii. Sarah Dorman, b. Sept. 
14, 1726, m. William 
Dursley. 



iv. Israel Dorman, b. Jan. 
19, 1729. 

14. Benjamin 3 Lines (Benjamin 2 , 
Ralph 1 ) of Chestnut Hill, in Amity, 
Conn. He was a "taylor" by trade. 
In 1 7 16 he granted his "father 
Peter Carrington" (his step-father) 
a dwelling-house and orchard at 
Chestnut Hill (New Haven Land, 
Vol. IV, p. 571). In 1722, Benja- 
min Lines, formerly of New Haven, 
but now of Norwalk, Fairfield 
County, Conn., granted land to 
Josiah Thomas that was laid out to 
Ralph Lines, Sr., deceased (New 
Haven Land, Vol. VI, p. 125). In 
1733, he granted all his land in 
New Haven to his sister Hannah 
Carrington (New Haven Land, 
Vol. IX, p. 259). I have not 
traced this Benjamin further, nor 
his descendants. 

15. Mary 4 Lines (John 3 , Sam- 
uel 2 , Ralph 1 ) married, May 21, 
1724, Alexander Hine of Milford, 
Conn. He was born at Milford, 
February 10, 1699, and died March 
6, 1767. 

Children : 

i. Alexander Hine, b. 

Mai*. 23, 1725. 
ii. Amos Hine, b. July 10, 

1727. 
iii. Mary Hine, b. Dec. 19, 

1729, m. July 4, 1750, 

Timothy Ball, 
iv. Dan Hine, b. May 7, 

1734, m. Feb. 18, 1751, 

Ruth Allen, 
v. Elizabeth Hine, b. 

Sept. 14, 1737, m. 

Joseph Smith, 
vi. Eunice Hine, bapt. 

Nov. 1, 1747. 

16. Samuel 4 Lines (John 3 , Sam- 
uel 2 , Ralph 1 ) married, August 17, 
1733, Dorcas, daughter of Richard 
and Elizabeth (Wilmot) Sperry. 
"Administration on ye estate of 
Sam 11 Lines late of New Haven 
dec'd was granted to Dorcas Lines 
widow & relict of sd dec'd," De- 
cember 24, 1735. His widow, Dor- 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



425 



cas, married, second, March 28, 
x 745* John Sherman. In Septem- 
ber, 1748, John Sherman was "al- 
lowed guardian to Sam 11 Lines minor 
Son of Sam 11 Lines dec'd" (New- 
Haven Probate, Vol. VI, pp. 176 
and 340). Dorcas (Lines) Sherman 
died December 28, 1817. 
Child: 

25. i. Samuel 5 , b. Sept. 20, 
1733. 

17. Daniel 4 Lines (John 3 , Sam- 
uel 2 , Ralph 1 ) resided in Wood- 
bridge, Conn. He married, No- 
vember 11, 1736, Mary, daughter of 
John and Susanna (Heaton) Alcock. 
Administration on Daniel's estate 
was granted, August 5, 1793 to his 
widow, Mary Lines, and to his son- 
in-law, Samuel Sperry. His estate 
was divided between his widow and 
his daughters, Susanna Carrington, 
Mary Johnson, Kezia Parsons and 
Hannah Sperry. 
Children : 

i. Hannah 5 , bapt. Mar. 

5, 1738, d. young, 
ii. Susanna, b. Jan. 2, 
bapt. Feb. 24, 1740, m. 
(1) Oct. 5, 1763, Amos 
Sperry; m. (2) Samuel 
Carrington, son of 
Noahdiah and Sarah 
(Moulthrop) Carring- 
ton. He was b. Nov. 
7, 1732, and d. Feb. 17, 
1815. Susanna d. Nov. 
25, 1817. 
iii. Mary, b. May 8, bapt. 

June 13, 1742, m. 

Johnson, 
iv. Sarah, b. Apr. 29, bapt. 

June 3, 1744. 
v. Kezia, b.Nov. 30, 1747, 
bapt. Jan. 24, 1748, m. 
July 2, 1766, Abraham 
Pierson of Derby, 
Conn, 
vi. Daniel, bapt. May 20, 

1750, d. young, 
vii. Hannah, bapt. July 26, 
1752, m. Nov. 11, 1773. 
Samuel Sperry. 



18. Ralph 4 Lines (Ebenezer*, 
Samuel 2 , Ralph 1 ) lived in N 
Haven, North Haven, Wallingf- 
and Cheshire, Conn. His estate 
was divided, May 5, 1781, between 
his widow, Dinah the eldest daugh- 
ter, Abraham, Joseph and Rufus 
(the second, third and fourth sons), 
and Sarah, his youngest daughter. 
His estate was inventoried at ^182 
(Wallingford Probate, Vol. II. p. 
395). Ralph Lines deeded land to 
his son Erastus, November 24, 1777 
(Wallingford Land, Vol. XXI. p. 
108). His wife in 1753 was called 
Beersheba. 

Children : 

i. Titus 5 , b. Mar. 19,1741, 

at New Haven, 
ii. Dinah, b. Jan. 16, 1747, 

at New Haven, 
iii. Sarah, m. Theophilus 
Merriman, removed to 
Susquehanna, L a w 1 
Vale. Luzerne County, 
Penn. 

26. iv. Erastus, b. about 1751. 

v. Abraham, b. Sept. 25, 
1753, a t Wallingford, 

m. Sarah , and 

dwelt in Southbury, 
Conn, 
vi. Joseph, m.Ruth Sperry. 
vii. Rufus. 

19. Ebenezer 4 Lines (Ebenezer*, 
Samuel 2 , Ralph 1 ) of Woodbridge 
Conn. His will of April 21, 1798, 
proved October 23, 179S, mentions 
his son Major Lines and his daugh- 
ter Clark (New Haven Probate, 
Vol. XIX, p. 272). 

Children: 

i. Sarah 5 , bapt. May 2$, 

*743- 
ii. Rebecca, bapt. May 2 \, 

1743- 

iii. Laban, bapt. Oct. 14. 

1744. d. young. 
iv. Rufus, bapt. Mar. 16, 
1746. 

27. v. Major, b. Oct. 14, fa 

Nov. 29, 1747. 



426 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



vi. Laban, bapt. June 11, 
1749. 

20. John 4 Lines (Ebenezer 3 , Sam- 
uel 2 , Ralph 1 ), called "Captain John 
Lines," lived at Woodbridge,Conn., 
and married, March 29, 1743, 
Deborah, daughter of Abraham and 
Deborah (Thomas) Hotchkiss. 

Children: 

i. Zenas 5 , bapt. Aug. 14, 

J743- 

ii. Lucas, bapt. July 28, 
1745, had a son, Mar- 
cus 6 , and three daugh- 
ters, who married, re- 
spectively, Captain 
Jesse Beecher, Chilim 
Sperry and Clerk 
Hotchkiss. 

iii. Hannah, b. Apr. 15, 
bapt. June 5, 1748, m. 
David French. 

iv. John, bapt. May 6, 1750. 
v. Deborah, bapt. Apr. 1, 

1753. 
28. vi. Eber, b. about 1755. 

vii. Abel, m. Arma , 

and had: i, Abel 6 , Jr., 
who m. Apr. 16, 181 2, 
Fenta Ford; ii, Mrs. 
Philo Hotchkiss; iii. 
Mrs. Fannie Dingee. 
and iv, Laura, wife of 
Sheldon Church, 
viii. Ebenezer, m. Mercy 

. It is said that 

through his son Isaac, 
he was grandfather of 
the late Commodore P. 
Lines of New Haven, 

21. Lydia 4 . Lines (Joseph 3 , 
Ralph 2 , 'Ralph 1 ) married, Septem- 
ber 23, 1736, Timothy Peck of 
Woodbridge, Conn. The will of 
Deacon Timothy Peck, in 1775, 
mentioned his wife, and children 
Timothy, Titus, Roger, Samuel, 
Caleb, Lydia, Penina, and Martha; 
and Isaac White, only son of his 
daughter Mary, deceased (New 
Haven Probate, Vol. XIV, p. 204). 
Timothy died in 1784, out-living 



his sons Timothy and Titus. In 
1777 he deeded land to his grand- 
children Mary, Titus and Rebecca 
Peck, children of his son Titus 
Peck, deceased (New Haven Land, 
Vol. XXXVI, p. 388). 
Children : 

i. Timothy Peck, b. July 

5, 1737. 
ii. Lydia Peck, b. Mar. 13, 

1739- 

iii. Penina Peck, b. Aug. 5, 
1740, m. Aug. 16, 1764, 
Charles Todd. 

iv. Titus Peck, b. Apr. 7, 

1742. 
v. Mary Peck, m. (Timo- 
thy?) White. 

vi. Roger Peck, m. May 
*9. 1773, Philena, 
daughter of Stephen 
and Elizabeth (Car- 
ington) Hine. 
vii. Samuel Peck, 
viii. Martha Peck. 

ix. Caleb Peck. 

22. Benjamin 4 Lines (Benjamin 3 , 
Ralph 2 , Ralph 1 ) lived in Wood- 
bridge, Conn., and married, March 
3, 1746, Sarah Carrington. 
Children : 

i. Dorcas 5 , bapt. Dec. 7, 
1746, m. Jan. 25, 1779, 
Martin Ford, 
ii. Rachel, bapt. May 15, 

1748. 
iii. **Allis," bapt. July 13, 

1749. 
iv. Sarah, bapt. Aug. 11, 

I75 1 - 
v. Cleopatra, bapt. Sept., 
1753, m. Aug. 25, 1773. 
Francis Martin, 
vi. Peter was probably son 
of Benjamin. Francis 
Martin was appointed 
administrator on the 
estate of Peter Lines, 
December 30, 1784 
(New Haven Probate, 
Vol. XIV, p. 347). 



[To be continue d.~\ 



H 



R 



D 



BY 



LOVELL HALL 



IN reference to my article on 
"Heredity" in Number Four, 
Volume Eight, of The Connect- 
icut Magazine, I wish to call 
attention to my recent investiga- 
tions in which I have been much 
impressed by a great English 
instance in the genealogy of Wil- 
liam Harvey, discoverer of the 
blood's circulation. 

To see what heredity in families, 
stable upon the land, can do, we 
have only to look to England. In 
England the character-quality of all 
is improved by permanent connec- 
tion with the land, but not of all 
equally, for equality is not in Eng- 
land as it should be here in Amer- 
ica. A single instance mentioned 
in Galton on "Hereditary Genius," 
but with the particulars from other 
sources, is all I will now mention. 
It is that of the three Heneage 
Finches, father, son and grandson, 
with the son's cousin, William 
Harvey, discoverer of the circula- 
tion of the blood. 

The first Heneage Finch became 
Recorder of London, the leading 
judicial officer of the foremost city 
of the world. From 1626 to his 
death in 1631 he was Speaker of the 
House of Commons. This position, 
as well as the first-named, implied 
a calm, judicial, well-balanced 
mind. By Galton, this first 
Heneage Finch is stated to have 
married a daughter of William 
Harvey, for whom was named his 
nephew — that is, his brother's son, 
William Harvey, who discovered 
the circulation of the blood. 
(Others make this daughter to have 
married the second Heneage Finch ; 



but the discoverer, Harvey, calls 
the second Heneage Finch his 
cousin, and leaves him a legacv in 
his will which this Finch drew' 
him.) 

For his talents, the second 
Heneage Finch, son of the first, 
was made Earl of Nottingham, and 
Lord High Chancellor, then the 
highest subject in the kingdom, 
from 1674 until his death in 1682. 

The third Heneage Finch, son of 
the second, became Solicitor Gen- 
eral and Earl of Aylesford. 

The times required from all these 
Finch officials, a calm, judicial 
temper, which was most remarkably 
repeated in William Harvey, the 
discoverer and expounder of the 
circulation of the blood. Picture 
the anatomist now who should hold 
that waves, and not streams, made 
the pulsations of the blood! But 
no physician, it is said, of over fifty 
years, when it came, ever accepted 
Harvey's discovery. 

Harvey well recognized that he 
had as much against which to con- 
tend, as ever had Copernicus. Fcr 
twelve years Harvey left his dis- 
covery unpublished, while teac'. 
it to his college classes, and carry- 
ing on dissections and vivisections 
of eighty species of animals. At 
length, in 162S. in Frankfort, Har- 
vey published his book, and io< 
testably demonstrated his theory. 
The book was filled with plato 
''exhibits." Given Harvey's tacts; 
his method and plan for presenting 
them was worth v of ar.\ 
lawyer that ever lived; even of the 
great Finches to whom his tar 
had furnished blood. 



428 



H 



R 



E 



D 



This judicial - mindedness of 
Harvey was fully recognized by his 
age. He was assigned to direct 
the examination of four alleged 
witches. He did not adopt the 
test — ' ' Swim — witch ; sink — wo- 
man. " He shrewdly had a jury of 
seven surgeons and ten mid-wives 
detailed to examine the poor 
women, and the jury reported that 
they found no witch marks upon 
them, and they were let go. The 
women's presence stopped the 
gossip of women, the only thing 
that can prevail against science. 

On the 16th of November, 1635, 
having been selected for the pur- 
pose, Harvey made and recorded 
the post-mortem of Thomas Parr, 
who died at the age of 152. 

Like the Finches, incapable of 
narrow partisanship, Harvey, as 
surgeon to the king, had to be 
around the battle of Edge Hill, to 
keep up the circulation of the blood 
in the Prince of Wales and the Duke 



of York (afterward Charles II and 
James II), in case any round head 
should interfere with it. Having 
probably had his spare moments 
taken up by the megrims of the 
royal family, Harvey now employed 
the time, while the battle claimed 
their attention, to read some of his 
favorite (doubtless scientific) books! 
Harvey's legal mind was as much 
bent upon science as was Lord 
Bacon's. Making careful observa- 
tions, he published a monograph on 
the development of the chicken in 
the egg. Had the inventor of the 
microscope been his age-mate, in- 
stead of born later, there is little 
doubt that Harvey, with his com- 
patriots, would have uncovered the 
substantial part of the theory of 
evolution, and that, from his judi- 
cial-mindedness, the age of that 
discovery would have been spared 
the ostentations, the denunciations, 
the proclamations, the tergiversa- 
tions, and the retractations of this! 



End of Number 2, Volume IX 



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preparing or printing genealogies. 12 mo, cloth, gilt top. . 75 cents net (postage 5 cer 

The Hills Family in America.— By Wm. S. and Thomas Hills. This work includes all of 1 
descendants of William Hills, Joseph Hills and Robert Hills, and is brought out under 
auspices of the Hills Family Association, of Boston. 8 vo. cloth, 500 pages, 

Price before publication $6 net (carriage ext 

Derby Genealogy.— The Descendants of Thomas Derby of Stow, Massachusetts. By Mrs. Viola 
Derby Bromley. A few of the related families which appear in this genealogy are Bro\ 
Carter, Colburn, Damon, Day, Davis, Divoll, Goodale, Houghton, Hull, King, Lawren 
Lovering, Nourse, Ordway, Ormsby, Pierce, Prescott, Sawtel, Smith, Whitney, Whittemc 
Wilson, Wood and Woods. The arrangement of this genealogy will interest all who wish 
consult a model arrangement. Edition limited to two hundred and fifty numbered and sigi 
copies. Octavo, cloth, . . . . . . . . . Price $3 (carriage extr 

; 

The Ancestry of Leander Howard Crall. — By Frank Allaben. Monographs on the families 
Crall, Haff, Beatty, Asfordby, Meet, Van Ysselsteyn, Middagh, Bergen, de Rapalje and 
Mandeville. Each monograph is introduced by a pedigree, and is accompanied by a do> 
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The Journal of Tryphena ElyWhite. — Edited by Fanny Kellogg during the year 1805. 16 e 
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copies, $1 net (postage 10 cen' 

History of Ancient Wethersfield, Connecticut. — By Henfy R. Stiles, M.D. This work de 
with the history of the present towns of Wethersfield, Rocky Hill, Newington, and Glasfc 
bury, from date of earliest settlement until the present time, with genealogies and notes 
more than 200 families originally settled in these towns. Only 500 copies, 2 volumes, cle! 
8 vo, illustrated, $25 net (carriage exti 

The Twentieth Century Chronology of the World.— By C. H. Horwttz. A digest of universal I 
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engaged in historical and genealogical studies as it gives the different dynasties of the anci 
and modern times, and all leading historical facts, and also explains the different changes 
the calendars of the nations. 8 vo, cloth, illustrated, . . $3 net (carriage 50 cent 

A History of Amherst College, during the administrations of its first five presidents, from 1821 
1891. By William S. Tyler, D.D., LL.D. This is an entirely new edition of Dr. Tyle 
original work, and is the standard history of this institution. It has an interesting introduce 
note by Richard Salter Storrs, D.D..LL.D. 12 mo, cloth, illustrated, $1.50 net (postage 15 ceni 
8 vo, cloth, handmade paper, and signed by the author, only 100 printed, . . $10 n 



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